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APR  0  ;  1533 




PART   ONE  bt^_r"H     foJo 

by  P*^^y 

John   W.    Brinsfield    ,    Jr. 

WASHINGTON    ,    D.C.     1997 

7        ^     (.V,.      V.V7  :         ^.,>-. 



Dedicated  to  all  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  and  civilian 

staff  members  who  served  God  and  Country  during  the  Golden  Age  of 

the  Army  Chaplaincy  :  they  performed  missions  of  grace  and 

encouragement  for  soldiers  throughout  the  world  with  great 


And  those  who   lead   the  many  to  righteousness   will   shine   like    the 
stars   forever  and  ever. . .Daniel    12:3 

The  story  of  the  United  States  Army  Chaplaincy  is  one  of 
spiritual  dedication  and  selfless  service  by  chaplains,  chaplain 
assistants,  and  civilian  staff  members  of  all  denominations  and  faith  groups. 

It  is  a  privilege  for  me  to  commend  to  you  this  history  of  one  of 
the  oldest  branches  of  the  Army  and  of  the  men  and  women  who  served  in  it 
from  the  end  of  the  Vietnam  Conflict  to  the  end  of  the  Cold  War. 


Chaplain  (Major  General)  USA 

Chief  of  Chaplains 


A  trained  historian  and  active  duty  chaplain,  John  Brinsfield  has  written  a  volume 
that  will  engage  any  reader  interested  in  the  United  States  Army's  epic  journey  from  Vietnam 
to  Force  XXI.  In  this  creative  process,  he  has  splendidly  chronicled  the  defining  events 
which  precipitated  major  changes  within  the  Army  from  1970  to  1993.  Within  this  tableau, 
he  has  embedded  the  human  issues  with  which  the  Army  and  the  Chaplain  Corps  contended. 
The  reader  will  gain  a  greater  perspective  of  how  the  Army  confronted  the  issues. 

Only  within  this  detailed  Army  setting  can  Chaplain  Corps  history,  responses  and 
initiatives  be  understood  and  appreciated.  As  one  who  thought  he  knew  somewhat  of 
Chaplain  Corps  policy,  I  found  that  John  had  much  to  teach  me.  Even  when  specific  events 
and  initiatives  are  not  new  to  the  reader,  they  are  placed  in  a  new,  insightful  perspective. 

Many  other  areas  of  this  volume  provide  an  important,  yet  easily  forgotten  reminder 
of  how  the  Chaplain  Corps  has  continually  responded  to  Army  needs.  For  example,  in 
response  to  racial  unrest  and  drug  abuse  in  the  early  1970s,  chaplains  established  the  first 
Human  Relations  Council  in  U.  S.  Army  Europe  to  address  these  problems.  Or  how  in  that 
same  period,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  designed  and  directed  the  implementation  of  48 
programs  to  address  the  religious,  moral  and  morale  needs  of  the  Army.  Various  of  these 
initiatives  became  pilot  programs  for  the  Army  as  a  whole.  The  many  other  significant 
accomplishments  of  the  past  twenty-five  years  you  should  read  for  yourself 

This  volume  will  inform  even  the  historically  minded  reader  about  the  human,  policy, 
doctrinal,  and  constitutional  challenges  the  Army  faced  from  1970  to  1995. 


Chaplain  (Colonel)  USA 


Plans,  Policy  Development,  and  Training  Directorate 

Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 


This  is  the  seventh  volume  in  the  History  of  the  United  States  Army  Chaplaincy  series. 
The  guidelines  for  these  serial  histories,  originally  conceived  by  Chaplain  (Major  General) 
Gerhardt  W.  Hyatt  in  1973,  were  described  in  the  Preface  to  Parker  C.  Thompson's  The 
United  States  Army  Chaplaincy  from  Its  European  Antecedents  to  1 791.  which  was  the  first 
volume  in  the  series.  The  specific  areas  to  be  included  in  the  histories  were: 

a.  Major  national  or  Army  eras  in  chronological  order. 

b.  Anecdotal  material,  somewhat  in  the  "war  story"  tradition  of  Chaplain  (Major 
General)  William  R.  Arnold's  Soldiers  of  God,  published  in  1945. 

c.  The  religious  and  political  climate  peculiar  to  each  period. 

d.  Specifics  of  chaplains  in  their  work  and  organization. 

e.  Uniforms,  pay,  and  the  place  of  chaplains  in  the  military. 

f.  Attitudes  and  behavior  influenced  by  theology. 

g.  And,  above  all,  primary  source  material  for  study  and  use  by  active  duty 
chaplains  stationed  away  from  "the  great  wealth  of  libraries." 

Needless  to  say,  this  was  a  tall  order  even  by  Chaplain  Hyatt's  exacting  standards. 
With  respect  to  this  current  effort,  inclusion  of  all  of  these  items  was  made  even  more 
complicated  by  the  fact  that  there  was  no  comprehensive  history  of  the  U.S.  Army  from  1975 
to  1 995  available.  There  were  a  few  organizational  and  campaign  histories  in  print,  but  in  the 
main  a  history  of  the  Army  during  this  period  had  to  be  constructed  so  that  the  Chaplain 
Corps  history  could  be  related  to  it. 

In  order  to  attempt  to  meet  these  goals,  and  to  give  some  coverage  not  only  to  senior 
chaplains  but  also  to  those  at  the  battalion  and  brigade  levels,  a  "top  down"  and  "bottom  up" 
approach  was  selected.  The  first  part  of  the  history  would  deal  with  plans,  policies,  doctrinal 
and  organizational  issues  from  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  perspective.  The  second 
part  would  deal  with  religious  support  for  soldiers  at  the  unit  level  with  particular  emphasis  on 
deployment  missions.  There  was  some  overlap,  but  primarily  each  part  stuck  to  its  theme. 

Since  reports  on  the  history  of  the  Chaplain  Corps  itself  were  mostly  episodic,  much 
of  the  material  had  to  be  reconstructed  from  oral  interviews  supplemented  by  annual  reports, 
newsletters,  and  other  primary  source  documents.  The  result  was  one  of  the  first  histories  of 
the  Amiy  and  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy  since  Vietnam. 


In  addition  to  the  guidelines  for  the  serial  histories,there  were  special  themes  which 
were  incorporated  into  this  volume  which  helps  account  for  its  length.  Among  these  were  the 
Chief  of  Chaplains'  Total  Chaplaincy  Goals,  the  history  of  special  chaplain  programs  which 
became  pilot  programs  for  the  Army,  the  history  of  diversity  in  the  Chaplaincy,  the  history  of 
the  Constitutionality  Case  of  1979-1986,  the  history  of  the  Chaplaincy  in  Reserve 
Components  and  the  growth  toward  a  fully  integrated  Total  Army,  and  the  contributions  of 
the  Chaplaincy  during  combat,  peacekeeping,  and  humanitarian  operations. 

The  single  major  impression  or  thesis  which  emerged  from  four  years  of  research  and 
reflection  was  that  the  Army  Chaplaincy  performed  singular  and  even  heroic  work  during  this 
twenty  year  period  in  helping  the  Army  with  the  dramatic  transformation  in  the  military  which 
occurred  after  Vietnam.  As  long  as  the  courage,  morale,  ethical  conduct,  and  spiritual 
strength  of  the  American  soldier  remain  important  elements  for  readiness,  the  Army 
Chaplaincy  can  never  be  regarded  as  marginal.  Seven  Chiefs  of  Chaplains,  supported  by  the 
finest  Chaplain  Corps  in  the  world,  anticipated  and  met  challenges  for  the  finest  soldiers  in  the 
world,  serving  in  the  finest  Anny  in  the  world.  That  is  what  this  story  is  about. 



To  say  that  this  history  of  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplaincy  since  the  end  of  the 
Vietnam  War  reflects  the  product  of  many  contributors  is  an  understatement.  Eleven 
different  authors  ,  ten  of  them  chaplains,  provided  written  materials  for  incorporation 
into  this  interpretive  study.  More  than  200  individuals  gave  taped  ,  written,  or 
telephone  interviews  ;  18  staff  members  and  volunteers  assisted  with  administrative 
details,  and  six  word  processing  experts  helped  produce  the  first  draft  manuscript  of 
approximately  1,100  pages  for  staffing.  Of  these  235  individuals,  only  two  had 
official  taskings  .  All  the  rest  responded  voluntarily  to  help  reconstruct  and  preserve 
the  record  of  religious  ministry  to  soldiers  and  family  members  since  1975  by 
chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  from  more  than  100  faith  groups.  Each  contribution, 
great  and  small,  was  essential;  all  were  deeply  appreciated. 

At  the  risk  of  unintentional  omission  ,  some  individuals  must  be  acknowledged 
for  their  extraordinary  support.    Chaplain  (Major  General)  Matthew  A.  Zimmerman 
and  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Donald  W.  Shea  ,  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  from  1990  to 
the  present,  were  the  fathers  of  the  project  .  Four  former  Chiefs  gave  generously  of 
their  time  to  read  and  correct  various  parts  of  the  history  :  Orris  Kelly  ,  Kermit 
Johnson  ,  Patrick  J.  Hessian  ,  and  Norris  Einertson  .  Additional  readers  included  a 
number  of  retired  chaplains  who  reviewed  short  sections  of  the  manuscript. 
Chaplains  Charles  Kriete,  Harold  Lamm,  Edward  O'Shea,  Richard  Tupy  and  Joseph 
Beasley  were  in  this  number.  Special  appreciation  is  due  to  General  H.  Norman 
Schwarzkopf  for  reading  a  portion  of  the  Desert  Storm  Chaptenand  to  Lieutenant 
General  John  Yeosock  for  granting  a  lengthy  interview  which  illuminated  many  of 
the  strategic  and  ethical  issues  in  the  Gulf  War. 

Most  of  the  staff  members  in  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  were  asked 
to  help  with  interviews,  administrative  resourcing  and  advice.  In  addition  to  the  senior 
chaplains  who  supported  the  project,  Chaplain  (Brigadier  General)  G.T. 
Gunhus,Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain  (Colonel)  Timothy  C.  Tatum,  Chaplain 
(Colonel)  Wayne  E.  Kuehne,  Chaplain  (Colonel)  Charles  D.  Camp,  Chaplain 
(Colonel)  John  J.  Kaising,  Chaplain  (Colonel)  Henry  E.  Wake,  and  Chaplain 
(Colonel)  George  Pejakovich  among  them,  the  civilian  staff  enabled   communication 
and  resourcing  requirements  to  meet  the  demanding  two  year  milestone  schedule.  Ms. 
Bess  E.  Ballard,  Ms.  Patricia  M.  Jennings,  Ms.  Jody  A.  Dunning,  Ms.  Betty  P.  Smith, 


Ms.  Charlotte  M.  Able,  Mr.  Roger  W.  Able.    Ms.  Marie  S.  Walker  .  Mr.  Kelvin  D. 
Davis.  Ms.  Barbara  Breyfogle  and  Mr.  Robert  L.  Parlette  worked  hard  to  meet  every 
request.  Their  assistance  was  invaluable. 

Among  the  contributors.  Chaplain  (Colonel)  John  C.  Scott  .  USA  (Ret.).gave 
generously  of  his  time  and  e.xpertise.  His  historical  recollections,  critiques.and 
wisdom  were  irreplacable.  Other  contributors,  advisors  and  researchers  included  Dr. 
William  Hourihan,  Chaplain  (Captain)  Barbara  Sherer,  Master  Sergeant  Michael 
Swingler,  Chaplain  (Captain)  Kristi  Pappas,  Chaplain  (Major)  Mary  Pitts. Chaplain 
(Major)  Marvin  Mills,  USAR.  Chaplain  (Lieutenant  Colonel)  O.Wayne  Smith, 
Chaplain  (Major)  Jere  Kimmell,  Chaplain  (Colonel)  Robert  Vickers,  Chaplain 
(Colonel)  Gary  Councell,  Chaplain  (Colonel)  Robert  Hutcherson,  Chaplain  (Colonel) 
Calvin  Sydnor  III,  and  Ms.  Kim  Casey. 

The  administrative  support  staff ,  largely  from  the  Fort  Belvoir  Chapel 
Community  ,  contributed  the  resources  and  the  personal  assistance  necessary  to 
operate  the  central  Chaplain  History  Project  Office  at  that  installation.  Chaplain 
(Colonel)  Gary  Sanford,  Chaplain  (Lieutenant  Colonel)  Cecil  Ryland,  Chaplain 
(Major)  Kirby  Weimer,  Chaplain  (Major)  Martin  Applebaum,  Chaplain  (Captain) 
Robert  Loring,  Mr.  Mike  Brown,  Mrs.  Liz  Brown,  Sergeant  First  Class  Dean 
Wakefield,  Sergeant  First  Class  Marion  Lemon,  Sergeant  First  Class  Sarah  Tillman, 
Staff  Sergeant  Rosanna  Noel,  Sergeant  Randy  Schwantes, Specialist  Valerie  Ofoma, 
PFC  Jerry  Peebles,  PFC  Adam  Dowlen,  and  PFC  Mike  Levesque  helped  do 
everything  from  requisition  funds  to  move  furniture.  Others  who  helped  with  different 
xeroxing,  proofreading,  correcting,  indexing  and  research  support  missions  included 
Ms.  Kim  Gromniak,  Ms.  Anet  Springthorpe,  Mrs.  Marietta  Branson,  Miss  Cindee 
Brinsfield  ,  Ms.  Christine  Rainwater,  and  Mrs.  Beth  Wilson. 

The  four  individuals  who  had  most  to  do  with  the  tlnal  form  of  the  book 
included  Chaplain  (Colonel)  William  Hutliam,  Deputy  Director  of  the  Chaplaincy 
Services  Support  Agency,  and   Chaplain  (Colonel)  Gilbert  H.  Pingel, succeeding 
Deputy  Director  in  1995,  who  read  ,  staffed,  corrected  and  approved  each  chapter. 
Mrs.  Linda  Holmes,  Executive  Assistant,  Customer  Service  Supervisor  for  the  Church 
Growth  Institute,  Forest,  Virginia,  worked  for  1 8  months  to  input  and  edit  1 5  of  the 
16  original  chapters  and  to  prepare  index  entries.  Mr.Michael  Hobson,  Writer-Editor, 

Directorate  of  Combat  Developments,  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School, 
performed  much  of  the  final  editing  based  on   staffing  comments.  They  were  all 
indispensable  in  achieving  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  historical  goals  and  in  being  key 
contributors  to  the  book. 

Chaplain  (Colonel)  John  W.  Brinstleld,  Jr. 

Principal  Author  and  Special  Project  Officer 

U.S.  Army  War  College 






Title  Page  i 

Dedication  ii 

Letter  from  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  iii 

Foreword  by  Chaplain  Wayne  E.  Kuehne               v 

Preface  vii 

Acknowledgments  ix 

Table  of  Contents  xiii 

List  of  Illustrations  xv 

PART  ONE  :  Meeting  Challenges  to  the  Army 

and  to  the  Chaplaincy  xvii 

Chapter  I     The  Reformation  and  Modernization 

of  the  Army  after  Vietnam,  1970-1984     1 

Chapter  II    The  Hyatt  Years:  Expanding  the 
Chaplaincy's  Vision,  Competence  and  Influence, 

1971-1975  23 

Chapter  III   The  Kelly  Years:  Religious  Leadership 
and  Support  during  Modernization,  1975-1979        61 

Chapter  IV    The  Johnson  Years:  Reaffirming 
the  Identity  of  the  Chaplaincy,  1979-1982  113 

Chapter  V   The  Hessian  Years:  Bringing 
the  Chaplaincy  on  Line,  1982-1986  159 

Chapter  VI    The  Einertson  Years:  Addressing  Needs 
and  Managing  Resources,  1986-1990  229 

Chapter  VII   The  Zimmerman  Years:  Supporting  and  Sustaining 
Soldiers  on  Rapid  Deployment  Missions,  1990-1994    301 

Chapter  VIII  The  Shea  Years:  Dedicated  Service 

in  a  New  World,  1994-1995  357 

Appendix  A  :  History  of  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Center 
and  School  by  Dr.  William  Hourihan 

and  Mr.  Michael  W.  Hobson  393 

Appendix  B  :  Historical  Milestones  in  the  Army  Chaplaincy 

by  Chaplain  Marvin  Mills,  USAR  427 

Appendix  C  :  Chaplains  and  Chaplain  Assistants 

at  Work  443 

Glossary  473 

Bibliography  475 

Index  487 




Chaplain  R.R.  Stevens  and  82nd  Airborne  Soldier     Frontispiece 

Chaplain  (Maj .  Gen.)  Donald  W.  Shea  ill 
Chaplains  of  the  IV  Corps--Vietnam           xviii 
Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Gerhardt  Hyatt  22 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Orris  E.  Kelly  60 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Kermit  D.  Johnson  112 
President  Jimmy  Carter,  Chaplain  Kermit 

Johnson,  and  Chaplain  Robert  Bendick  116 
Chaplain  Professors  at  West  Point  (1971-1984)   135 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Patrick  Hessian  158 

Sergeant  Major  Charles  J.  Durr,  III  178 
President  Reagan:  Unknown  Soldier  Dedication    192 

Sergeant  Major  Joseph  A.  Pino  194 

Sergeant  Major  James  Schonefeld  227 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson  228 

Establishment  of  Chaplain  Corps  Regiment  232-235 

Sergeant  Major  Douglas  Carpenter  240 

Total  Army  Liaison  Teams  298-299 

Chaplain  (maj.  Gen.)  Matthew  A.  Zimmerman  300 
Chaplains  John  C.  Scott  and  Timothy  C.  Tatum    310 

Sergeant  Major  Oliver  "Irish"  Corbett  314 

Sergeant  Major  Thomas  J.  Prost  315 
President  Bill  Clinton  and  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  334 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Zimmerman  and  Staff  335 

Presentation  of  UMT  of  the  Year  Award  335 

Chaplains  Raising,  Lieving,  and  Zimmerman  344 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Donald  W.  Shea  356 
Chaplain  Albertson  and  Specialist  Moore:Haiti   366 
Chaplains  Kuhlbars,  Madden,  and  Lloyd:  Haiti    367 

Honors,  Awards,  and  Retirements  1995  379 

Chaplains  Shea,  Kuehne,  and  Gunhus  380 
Sergeant  Major  Elmer  Castro  and  Chaplain  Shea 

at  Arlington  National  Cemetery  384 



Chaplain  School  Buildings  at  Forts  Hamilton  and 

Wadsworth  392 

Chaplain  Center  and  School  Commandants  396 

Chaplain  Officer  Advanced  Course,  1980  399 

Chaplain  School  at  Ft.  Monmouth  and  Commandants  404 

Chaplains  Sirotko,  Cook,  and  NCO  Academy  406 

Division  Chaplain  Course,  1989  406 

Chaplains  James  Robnolt  and  Bernard  Lieving  407 

Ms.  Nella  Hobson  and  Chaplain  John  Patrick  409 

Command  Sergeant  Major  Aaron  Gibson  410 

Command  Sergeant  Major  Oscar  L.  Crumity  411 

Ground  Breaking  at  Ft.  Jackson  for  a  new  School  414 
Advanced  Course  List  of  Duties  of  Chaplains 

Compiled  by  Chaplain  Peter  Christy  415 

Chaplains  Telencio,  Quinn,  Gunhus,  and  Pejakovich  421 

Chaplains  and  Assistants  at  Work  443-472 

Photo  credits:  Ms.  Nella  Hobson  and  PAO  Staff  at  Ft.  Jackson; 
Sergeant  Major  Elmer  Castro,  Master  Sergeant  Michael  Swingler, 
Chaplain  Barbara  Sherer, Chaplain  Rick  Kuhlbars,  Ms.  Jody  Dunning, 
and  Ms.  Charlotte  Able  and  staff  at  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains;  U.S.  Army  War  College  Library  and  Photo  Lab;  Military 
History  Institute  Photographic  Collection,  Carlisle  Barracks;  and 
donations  from  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Corps  members  around  the 
world. . . 




"And  I  heard  the  voice  of  the  Lord  saying,  'Whom  shall  I 
send,  and  who  will  go  for  us?'  Then  I  said,  'Here  am  I!  Send 
me.'"  Isaiah  6 

Chaplains    of   the   IV  Corps 

with    Chaplain    (Major  General)    Francis   L.    Sampson,    Chief  of 

Chaplains,    in   Vietnam,    February,    1969. 

Fourth    from   left    in    the   front   row    (kneeling)    is   Chaplain   Gerry 

Gerfell,    the    IV  Corps    Chaplain. 

Fourth   from    the   left    in    the  middle  row  is   Chaplain   Sampson.    To 

his   right    is    Chaplain   Morris   Einertson,    future    17th    Chief  of 

Chaplains .    Fifth   from    the   left    on    the    top   row  is   Chaplain  Matthew 

A.    Zimmerman,    future    18th    Chief  of  Chaplains .    To  his   left,    in    the 

center   of   the    top  row,    is   Chaplain   Donald  W.    Shea,    19th    Chief  of 

Chaplains .       These   chaplains    ,    with    other   Chiefs,    became    the 
architects    of  religious    support   for   the  Army  during   the   quarter 

century  following  Vietnam. 





"The  soldier's  heart,  the  soldier's  spirit,  the  soldier's  soul  are  everything. " 

General  George  Marshall 

"At  the  time  of  greatest  institutional  crisis  immediately  after  Vietnam,  the  Army  was  obliged  to 
fundamentally  change  its  character. ..Army  reform  centered  primarily  on  ideas  and  people  rather 
than  on  machines.... " 
Brigadier  General  Robert  Scales 

Long  before  the  Vietnam  War  was  over,  it  was  apparent  that  the  Army  was  suffering  from 
a  loss  of  spirit  and  purpose.  From  Vietnam  to  Germany  morale  in  the  Armed  Forces  dropped  to  a 
point  which  posed  a  danger  for  even  the  minimal  completion  of  most  military  combat  and  training 
missions.  Desertion,  drug  abuse,  racial  unrest  and  a  loss  of  trust  in  the  national  leadership 
contributed  to  what  some  observers  called  "the  disarray  and  disintegration  of  the  American 

The  loss  of  support  for  the  Vietnam  War  was  rooted  in  the  nature  of  the  conflict  itself  A 
high  tech  American  intervention,  without  clear  strategic  goals,  attempted  to  defeat  a  successful  rural- 
based  peoples'  revolution.  The  introduction  of  conventionally  equipped  expeditionary  forces  and 
the  application  of  massive  fire  power  could  not  destroy  popular  support  for  the  insurgents  and  only 
increased  anti-Americanism  both  in  Southeast  Asia  and  in  other  places  around  the  world.  An  old 
military  maxim  states,  "The  longer  a  war  continues  the  more  barbaric  it  becomes."  As  the  Vietnam 
War  dragged  on  from  five  to  ten  years,  it  degenerated  from  an  effort  to  protect  an  enclave  of 
democracy  to  a  orgy  of  destruction.  Young  service  men  sent  to  protect  America  from  the 
Communist  menace  found  not  John  Wayne  heroics  but  free  fire  zones,  body  counts,  a  massacre  at 
My  Lai,  and  the  bombing  of  population  centers  —  the  long,  dismal  array  of  atrocities  that  many  felt 
were  the  result  of  an  inept  American  strategy  in  Vietnam.  The  immersion  of  credulous  G.I.s  in  this 
dehumanizing  experience  was  one  of  the  fundamental  causes  of  the  upheaval  within  the  Armed 

In  such  a  demanding  combat  environment,  the  soldiers  needed  a  just  cause  to  support.  It  was 
clear  that  the  administration  of  President  Lyndon  Johnson  had  failed  to  provide  a  convincing 
explanation  and  justification  of  the  American  involvement.  Simplistic  rhetoric  like  "fighting  for 
democracy  in  Vietnam"  or  "halting  communist  aggression,"  though  not  without  some  element  of 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


truth,  was  inappropriate  to  the  complex  situation  faced  in  Southeast  Asia.^  The  Johnson 
administration  had  never  expected  to  become  engaged  in  a  protracted  ground  war  in  Asia  on  such 
a  scale.  Even  when  the  involvement  deepened,  it  attempted  to  keep  the  war  limited,  a  war  without 
full  mobilization  of  the  home  front  and  without  a  hated  enemy.  But  in  such  a  situation  the  continued 
killing  and  continued  criticism  had  a  profound  impact  on  the  spirit  and  morale  of  both  the  nation  and 
those  serving  in  its  armed  forces. 

In  December  1967  General  William  Westmoreland  reported  to  President  Lyndon  Johnson 
that  the  war  in  Vietnam  was  being  won:  "Expect  increased  success  in  1968,"  he  told  the  President. 
However,  in  February  of  1968  during  the  Tet  holidays,  the  Viet  Cong  launched  a  21 -day  offensive 
throughout  Vietnam  to  include  attacks  on  34  provincial  towns  in  64  districts,  on  all  major  cities  in 
the  south,  as  well  as  attacks  on  the  American  Embassy  and  MACV  Headquarters  in  Saigon,  which 
contradicted  General  Westmoreland's  estimate,  to  put  it  mildly.  Even  though  American  and  South 
Vietnamese  forces  destroyed  80%  of  the  Viet  Cong  military  during  Tet,  the  magnitude  of  the  attacks 
fed  the  anti-war  sentiment  in  America  and  seriously  eroded  General  Westmoreland's  credibility.  The 
Tet  offensive,  moreover,  resulted  in  33,000  civilian  casualties  (killed  and  wounded)  and  more  than 
one  million  new  refugees.  In  Saigon  alone  9,580  dwellings  were  destroyed.  To  many  in  America 
it  seemed  that  the  policy  in  Vietnam  was  simplistic,  blind  and  bloody. 

With  little  prospect  of  winning  a  speedy  victory,  the  question  of  the  morality  of  the  war  in 
Vietnam  increasingly  engaged  the  attention  of  the  American  people.  In  1969  Professor  Richard  Falk 
of  Princeton  said  that  "the  use  of  high-tech  weapons  in  Vietnam  was  a  crime."  Professor  Adam 
Bedau  of  Tufts  wrote  that  "the  Vietnam  War  amounted  to  genocide."  Dr.  Michael  Waltzer  of 
Harvard  wrote  that  the  whole  Vietnam  experience  was  a  war  crime.  Others  saw  a  fundamental 
erosion  of  integrity  throughout  senior  American  civil  and  military  bureaucracies. 

Even  the  civilian  churches  in  America  questioned  whether  chaplains  should  be  supporting 
the  war  and  whether  they  were  being  prophetic  in  their  ministries.  The  Presbyterian  Church  report 
put  it  this  way:  "The  Church  and  its  Chaplains  must  be  keenly  sensitive  to  the  erosion,  exploitation, 
or  softening  of  its  witness."  The  report  of  the  Episcopal  Church  was  more  to  the  point: 

Our  commission  strongly  endorses  the  necessity  for  a  ministry  to  the  military 
community,  but  a  ministry  for  which  both  priestly  and  prophetic  roles  are  stressed. 
The  Chaplain  ministers  to  people  wherever  they  are  found,  but  the  Chaplain  is  also 
the  public  voice  of  conscience  who  introduces  a  self-critical  dimension  within  all 
institutions.  His  responsibility  therefore  is  to  ask  the  difficult  moral  question, 
whether  this  particular  kind  of  participation  is  allowable  from  a  Christian  moral 
prospective.  The  dilemma  is  whether  the  Military  Chaplaincy  can  ask  these 
questions,  given  its  dependence  on  the  military  structure. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  a  United  Methodist,  was  the  Fourth  Infantry  Division  Chaplain  in 
Vietnam  from  July  1969  to  July  1970.  Chaplain  Kelly  felt  that  one  of  his  most  important  functions 
as  a  chaplain  was  to  help  his  men  deal  with  problems  of  conscience  such  as:  "How  can  I  kill  in  a  war 
I  don't  believe  in,  to  destroy  a  person  I  do  not  have  any  understanding  of?"  Kelly  wrote,  "I  do  not 
believe  that  the  Chaplain's  position  is  to  uphold  or  disprove  the  administration's  position  on  war  or 
politics.  I  consider  myself  a  spiritual  advisor  to  the  soldier  to  help  him  with  questions  of  conscience. 
The  soldier  must  make  up  his  own  mind  as  a  free  agent.  The  Chaplain  becomes  a  facilitator  by 
helping  the  soldier  clarify  the  issues  and  make  his  own  decisions."'* 

In  June  of  1 969  President  Richard  Nixon  announced  the  beginning  of  the  withdrawal  of 
American  forces  from  Vietnam.  In  that  same  year  Chaplain  Major  General  Francis  Sampson,  the 
Army  Chief  of  Chaplains,  visited  Vietnam.  Chaplain  Sampson  noted  problems  with  drug  and 
alcohol  abuse  among  American  soldiers.  A  number  of  initiatives  then  followed  in  the  Chaplain 
Corps  to  respond  to  the  drug  and  human  relation  problems  in  the  Army,  because  at  heart  they  were 
spiritual  problems. 

From  1969,  when  the  withdrawal  began,  to  1973  when  the  final  cease  fire  was  signed  in 
Paris,  the  number  of  incidents  involving  crime,  rebellion  and  drug  abuse  mushroomed  among 
military  personnel  worldwide.  For  example,  from  1966  to  1971,  the  five  peak  years  of  Vietnam 
involvement,  the  Army  desertion  rate  increased  nearly  400%.  During  the  same  period  the  desertion 
rate  for  the  Armed  Forces  as  a  whole  jumped  300%  from  8.4  to  33.9  per  thousand.  The  Army's  1971 
rate  of  73.5  per  thousand  was  three  times  as  great  as  the  highest  Korean  War  levels  and  even 
surpassed  the  World  War  II  maximum  of  63  per  thousand  during  1944.  In  making  such  comparisons 
it  is  important  to  keep  in  mind  that,  unlike  those  of  World  War  II,  most  Vietnam  Era  desertions  did 
not  take  place  under  fire  ~  indicating  that  service  men  took  off  not  because  of  danger  but  because 
of  disgust  with  American  policy  and  leadership.  Annual  Army  desertion  and  AWOL  rates  in  1971 
were  the  highest  in  modem  history:  17  AWOL's  and  7  desertions  for  every  one-hundred  soldiers.^ 

Drug  abuse  levels  in  Vietnam  were  higher  than  in  any  other  location  in  the  world.  Over  half 
the  soldiers  in  Vietnam  tried  marijuana  at  least  once  and  nearly  14%)  smoked  it  every  day.  In  a 
survey  of  more  than  4,600  men  in  the  25th  Infantry  Division,  the  4th  Infantry  Division,  and  the  173d 
Airborne  Brigade,  nearly  10%  of  the  soldiers  claimed  to  have  used  either  heroin  or  opium  on  a  daily 
basis.  Forty-four  percent  of  the  men  contacted  said  they  had  tried  at  least  some  type  of  narcotic  while 
in  Vietnam,  35%o  reported  trying  heroin,  and  20%  said  they  had  become  addicted  while  in  Vietnam.* 

Another  major  factor  contributing  to  soldier  unrest  was  the  nature  of  military  service  itself 
in  Vietnam.  The  oppressive  conditions  of  enlisted  duty  repeatedly  sparked  defiance  and  internal 
opposition.  Racial  discrimination,  the  most  pervasive  and  damaging  of  these  grievances,  caused 
particularly  widespread  unrest  among  black  servicemen.  Given  the  large  and  steadily  mounting 
percentage  of  non-whites  within  the  ranks,  discriminatory  conditions  inevitably  led  to  frequent  black 
rebellion.    Maintenance  of  officer  privilege  and  of  a  repressive  punishment  code  were  constant 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


irritants  to  enlisted  people  and  led  to  resistance. 

Perhaps  one  of  the  most  severe  incidents  occurred  at  Camp  Baxter  near  the  demilitarized 
zone  in  Vietnam  in  1971 .  After  a  period  of  "intermittent  demonstrations,  a  couple  of  killings,  secret 
meetings  and  threats,"  the  camp  was  virtually  in  a  stage  of  siege.  A  major  racial  clash  occurred  at 
the  base  which  left  at  least  one  black  soldier  dead.  When  the  military  police  were  called  in  after  the 
riot  they  discovered  that  many  soldiers  were  carrying  illegal  arms  and  that  both  blacks  and  whites 
had  assembled  secret  arms  caches  of  ammunition,  grenades,  and  machine  guns  to  defend  themselves 
fi-om  fiirther  attack.  At  the  March  1971  funeral  for  the  black  riot  victim,  200  black  soldiers  staged 
a  black  power  demonstration.  In  a  very  real  sense  the  American  Army  was  fighting  on  two  fronts, 
one  against  the  Vietnamese  guerrillas  in  the  jungles  and  the  other  against  embittered  militants  within 
its  own  ranks.  The  strain  of  black  resistance,  influenced  no  doubt  by  reports  of  similar  unrest  back 
home  in  America,  was  nevertheless  a  key  factor  in  crippling  U.S.  military  capabilities  in  Vietnam.' 

Unfortunately  many  of  these  clashes  led  to  the  deaths  of  service  members  by  the  practice  of 
"fi-agging,"  as  in  placing  a  grenade  in  or  near  a  soldier's  cot  at  night  to  kill  him.  By  July  of  1972,  as 
the  last  American  troops  were  leaving  Vietnam,  the  total  number  of  such  incidents  had  reached  551, 
with  86  soldiers  dead  and  over  700  injured.  In  effect  these  were  the  casualty  figures  for  the  Army's 
"other  war"  in  Vietnam,  its  battle  with  the  insurgents  in  its  own  ranks. 

United  States  Army  -  Europe 

By  1970,  when  Congress  repealed  the  Gulf  of  Tonkin  Resolution,  the  U.S.  7th  Army  in 
Europe  ,  even  with  its  distinguished  World  War  II  history,  had  been  depleted  for  the  purpose  of 
supplying  officers,  experienced  non-commissioned  officers,  materiel  and  money  for  the  U.S.  war 
machine  in  Southeast  Asia.  In  some  respects  the  300,000-man  American  force  in  Germany  was  less 
an  Army  than  an  armed,  savage  mob  of  New  World  Visigoths.^  Standards  had  collapsed,  morale  was 
a  farce,  and  discipline  in  many  of  the  units  resembled  something  very  close  to  anarchy. 

The  crime  statistics  involving  U.S.  soldiers  in  Germany  at  this  time  were  staggering.  In  1971 
an  average  of  5,100  American  service  members  were  charged  with  a  crime  each  month.  In  1970-71, 
3,000  black  soldiers  were  charged  with  crimes  against  other  service  members  or  against  German 
civilians.  A  number  of  gang  rapes  were  reported  throughout  Germany.  In  July  of  1971  in  the  town 
of  New  Ulm,  eight  soldiers  kidnaped  a  16-year-old  German  girl  and  gang  raped  her.  The  following 
weekend  American  soldiers  committed  eight  additional  assaults.  Firemen  in  the  town  refused  to 
respond  to  a  blaze  in  the  barracks  for  fear  of  being  beaten.  A  month  later  15  soldiers  raped  two  girls 
camping  beside  the  Danube.  In  Stuttgart,  100  soldiers  armed  with  knives  and  stones  fought  German 
police  for  5  hours  in  what  was  described  as  the  city's  bloodiest  fighting  since  World  War  II.  In 
Wiesbaden,  15  teenagers-all  children  of  American  soldiers-first  beat  up  a  German  man  tending  his 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


garden,  then  battered  two  local  utility  workers.  When  the  police  arrived,  only  by  drawing  their  guns 
could  they  drive  away  200  counter-attacking  American  high  school  students.' 

Part  of  the  Vietnam  bequest  was  an  increase  in  drug  addiction.  As  the  epidemic  spread  to 
Europe,  hashish  became  as  common  in  many  units  as  cigarettes  or  chewing  gum.  An  enterprising 
soldier  could  earn  $100,000  a  year  by  driving  to  Munich  once  a  month  and  buying  wholesale  a  load 
of  hashish  which  merchants  sold  in  planks  3  inches  wide  and  a  quarter  inch  thick.  After  returning 
to  his  unit  and  carving  the  planks  into  grams,  the  entrepreneur  could  peddle  each  gram  for  $1  to  $2. 
Some  soldiers  smoked  more  than  100  grams  per  month,  "lighting  up  with  a  compulsive  frequency 
of  a  Marlboro  Man."'"  Rarely,  if  ever,  had  a  modem  fighting  force  been  as  consistently  high  on 
drugs  as  the  American  Seventh  Army.  In  one  artillery  unit  at  New  Ulm,  for  example,  authorities 
estimated  that  50%  to  80%  of  the  1 ,600  enlisted  men  were  stoned  on  duty,  and  half  of  them  also  used 
hard  drugs. 

Another  cancer  eating  at  the  Army's  vitals  was  racial  hatred.  Many  black  soldiers  felt  like 
second  class  citizens.  Although  14%  of  the  Army's  enlisted  troops  were  black  in  1971,  the  officer 
corps  remained  97%  white.  Blacks  and  whites  often  segregated  themselves  in  the  barracks  which 
became  tinder  boxes  of  tension.  Graffiti  were  as  ubiquitous  on  Army  posts  as  on  New  York  subway 
walls:  "kill  whitey;  black  is  beautiful;  KKK,  get  the  niggers." 

In  the  summer  of  1 97 1  Chaplain  Matthew  Zimmerman  was  assigned  to  Hanau,  Germany,  as 
the  Division  Artillery  Chaplain  for  the  3rd  Armored  Division.  Chaplain  Zimmerman  recalled  that 
Hanau  was  known  to  the  soldiers  as  the  "arm-pit  of  race  relations."  Fights  between  white  and  black 
soldiers  in  the  barracks  were  almost  hourly  occurrences.  When  a  black  soldier  was  killed  in  Hanau, 
Chaplain  Zimmermann  recalled,  several  of  the  soldier's  friends  grabbed  a  white  soldier  and  held  him 
out  of  a  top  story  window  by  his  ankles.  When  they  dropped  him  on  his  head  he  was  killed. 

The  military  police,  in  Hanau,  referred  to  two  armies  in  the  town:  a  day  army  and  a  night 
army.  During  the  night  there  were  constant  fights  between  armed  military  policeman  and  soldiers 
as  well  as  a  war  between  black  soldiers  and  the  German  police.  In  1971  and  1972  there  were  more 
Army  memorial  services  in  Germany  than  there  were  in  Vietnam,  a  condition  which  reflected  the 
high  crime  rate  and  the  tensions  between  black  and  white  service  members. 

Much  of  the  hostility  which  existed  between  the  black  and  white  soldiers  was  due  to  a  lack 
of  knowledge  and  appreciation  of  black  culture.  White  soldiers  frequently  made  fun  of  Afro  hair- 
styles and  the  combs  that  black  soldiers  carried.  Black  music  likewise  seemed  to  irritate  the  white 
soldiers.  Segregation  was  by  choice  in  most  of  the  barracks.  Indeed,  the  condition  of  the  soldiers 
in  the  barracks  was  not  unlike  the  atmosphere  of  gang  warfare  in  many  of  America's  larger  cities. 

Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson,  who  was  assigned  to  Germany  in  the  same  period  of  time,  recalled 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


that  many  commanders  desperately  sought  black  chaplains  to  help  with  the  racial  problems  just  as 
they  sought  chaplains  in  general  to  help  with  drug  and  alcohol  abuse  problems.  Many  of  the  soldiers 
in  Germany  had  served  in  combat  units  in  Vietnam.  It  has  been  estimated  that  many  of  those  soldiers 
in  Germany  who  had  served  previously  in  Vietnam  were  undergoing  symptoms  of  Post  Traumatic 
Stress  Disorder.  Tragically,  alcohol  abuse  frequently  complicated  the  symptoms  of  PTSD. 
Chaplains,  therefore,  frequently  had  to  deal  with  soldiers  who  had  complex  symptoms  not  only  of 
depression  but  also  of  substance  abuse. 

Many  chaplains  and  assistants  responded  with  "new"  programs  to  help  their  commanders 
with  a  variety  of  problems.  In  Germany,  Drug  Abuse  Treatment  Centers  were  set  up  in  most  major 
units.  The  chaplains  in  Hanau  set  up  a  human  relations  council  in  1971,  the  first  council  of  its  type 
to  be  established  in  Europe.  Chaplain  Matthew  Zimmermann  was  elected  the  first  President.  In 
addition  to  their  work  in  drug  and  alcohol  abuse  prevention  and  on  human  relations  councils,  which 
were  designed  to  help  diffuse  racial  tensions  and  to  promote  the  education  and  appreciation  of 
diverse  minority  cultures  in  the  Army,  chaplains  also  began  coffee  house  ministries  to  give  soldiers 
a  less  stressful  place  to  spend  their  leisure  time.  Likewise,  in  Heidelberg  ,  Chaplain  Al  Ledebuhr, 
the  U.S.  Army  Europe  Chaplain,  promoted  a  series  of  Racial  Harmony  Workshops  for  chaplains  in 
order  to  help  them  train  for  their  important  ministries  of  counseling  across  racial  lines." 

The  Continental  United  States:  Fort  Hood 

As  was  the  case  in  many  military  communities  in  Germany,  units  training  in  the  United  States 
had  similar  problems  in  morale,  racism,  and  alcohol  and  drug  abuse.  As  an  example.  Fort  Hood, 
Texas,  had  so  many  difficulties  with  drugs  that  the  soldiers  renamed  the  post  "Fort  Head."  After  the 
1968  Democrafic  National  Convention,  an  organization  of  Black  Panthers  began  to  demonstrate  at 
Fort  Hood  for  increased  representation  in  the  command.  Black  power  symbols  were  seen  in  many 
of  the  barracks.  Since  the  Army's  Equal  Opportunity  Program  was  just  beginning,  chaplains  and 
chaplains  assistants  were  the  de-facto  Equal  Opportunity  representatives  in  their  units. 

In  a  sense  there  was  real  racial  warfare  at  Fort  Hood.  Buildings  were  burned  down  at  night; 
shotgun  battles  took  place  in  the  streets;  anyone  shouting  a  racial  slur  stood  in  jeopardy  of  his  life. 
On  the  entire  post  there  were  very  few  black  chaplains.  Chaplain  Joel  Miles,  a  Christian  Methodist 
Episcopal  Chaplain,  worked  hard  to  help  resolve  some  of  the  racial  problems,  as  did  his  colleagues. 

Many  of  the  complaints  that  black  soldiers  made  were  rooted  in  the  fact  that  the  Army  was 
simply  not  integrated.  In  the  post  exchange  there  was  an  absence  of  products  used  by  black  soldiers 
and  family  members,  items  such  as  combs  suitable  for  Afro  hairdos  for  example.  There  were  few, 
if  any,  visible  black  leaders  and  little  attention  to  black  culture.  One  early  innovation  came  with  a 
gospel  music  service  instituted  by  the  chaplains  and  facilitated  by  a  chaplain  assistant.  Sergeant  Bob 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Bonner,  who  was  an  accomplished  musician.  As  was  the  case  in  many  military  environments  music 
seemed  to  help  bridge  the  gap  between  hostile  groups. 

By  1972  at  Fort  Hood,  the  commanders  of  the  1st  Calvary  Division  and  the  2nd  Armored 
Division  had  encouraged  the  formation  of  a  Black  Officers  Association  for  discussion  of  problems 
that  black  officers  faced  on  the  post.  Likewise  various  black  officers  would  mentor  each  other  to 
bring  issues  of  discontent  to  the  attention  of  the  Army.  As  a  further  gesture  of  affirmation  for  the 
black  community,  several  experiments  in  black  music  and  worship  were  conducted  at  Fort  Hood. 
Chaplain  Tom  McMinn,  the  III  Corps  Chaplain,  had  become  aware  of  a  black  gospel  service 
movement  sponsored  by  Chaplain  John  Paul  Monk  at  Fort  Carson,  Chaplain  Roy  Plummer  at  Fort 
Lewis,  Washington,  and  an  even  earlier  one  sponsored  by  Chaplain  Leroy  Johnson  in  Germany. 
Chaplain  McMinn  wanted  to  attempt  the  same  type  worship  experience  at  Fort  Hood.  Two  of  his 
black  chaplains.  Chaplain  Elvemice  Davis  and  Chaplain  Irving  Jennings,  both  began  services  in  their 
divisions  with  intentional  appeal  to  black  soldiers.  Chaplain  Davis  began  a  service  of  gospel  music 
to  invite  soldiers  to  sing  the  familiar  hymns  they  were  accustomed  to  sing  at  home.  Chaplain 
Jennings  began  what  was  known  first  as  a  "Black  Service"  in  the  2nd  Armored  Division  in 
September  of  1974  with  an  intentional  appeal  to  black  soldiers.  Eventually  Chaplain  Davis'  Black 
Gospel  Choir  joined  Chaplain  Jennings'  Black  Service.  This  effort  was  an  attempt  to  help  black 
soldiers  cope  with  an  Army  not  yet  integrated  and,  in  many  respects,  still  hostile  to  black  culture  by 
focusing  their  energies  and  attention  on  a  common  bond  of  worship  and  fellowship.  By 
strengthening  one  another  morally  and  spiritually,  the  black  soldiers  were  better  able  to  serve  in  a 
still  maturing  multi-cultural  environment.  Before  the  year  was  out.  Chaplain  James  Russell  was 
leading  yet  another  black  gospel  service  at  Fort  Bliss,  Texas. 

By  1974,  even  though  the  Army  as  a  whole  had  experienced  severe  problems  in  morale,  a 
loss  of  purpose,  and  problems  of  racism,  sexism  and  open  rebellion,  the  Chaplain  Corps  had 
contributed  Human  Relations  Counsels  in  Vietnam,  Europe,  and  in  the  Continental  United  States. 
From  1970-71  there  was  a  major  push  in  race  relations  by  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 
Black  chaplains  were  intentionally  recruited  and  affirmative  action  plans  were  set  in  place  so  that 
a  representative  number  could  be  selected  for  advanced  schooling  and  appropriate  assignments. 
Within  two  years  there  were  65  black  Army  chaplains  on  duty,  about  three  percent  of  the  Corps. 
This  was  an  increase  but  still  short  of  the  Chiefs  15  percent  goal.  Throughout  the  continental 
United  States  38  installations  opened  Drug  Rehabilitation  Programs  and  by  June  of  1971  the  Office 
of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  had  assigned  82  chaplains  and  81  chaplain  assistants  to  be  trained  in  the 
Army  Drug  Dependency  Program  as  counselors  for  soldiers.'" 

In  July  1973,  four  months  after  the  last  U.S.  Army  chaplain  left  the  Republic  of  Vietnam, 
Chaplain  Gerhardt  Hyatt,  the  Chief  of  Army  Chaplains,  wrote: 

Commanders  are  requesting  Chaplains  to  develop,  in  their  units  and  on  their  post  a 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


more  rewarding  quality  of  life.  This  demand  is  testimony  to  the  magnificent  effort 
we  had  made  in  meeting  the  challenges  of  past  years.  A  successful  religious  program 
throughout  the  Army  can  only  be  achieved  to  the  degree  that  we  are  able  to  establish 
and  maintain  open  communication,  shared  input  to  the  decision  making  process, 
quality  pastoral  performance,  and  personal  responsibility.  Such  a  climate  is 
necessary  if  we  are  to  meet  the  pastoral  needs  of  the  modem  soldier.  I  am  confident 
we  will  accomplish  the  mission.'^ 

Chaplain  Leonard  Stegman,  formerly  the  USARV  Staff  Chaplain,  wrote  as  well: 

The  survival  of  the  Army,  and  also  of  our  nation  as  a  whole,  is  becoming  more  and 
more  dependant  on  highly  visible  and  morally  motivated  leaders.  The  problems 
faced  by  our  commanders,  now  and  in  the  months  to  come,  will  test  their  patience, 
ingenuity  and  ability  to  the  limit.  Deeply  involved  in  these  problems  are  the 
activities,  aspirations,  and  desperation  of  the  men  under  their  care.  From 
conversation  with  countless  commanders  I  know  they  are  desperately  seeking  help 
to  fulfill  their  responsibilities.  I  know  they  are  looking  to  us,  their  Chaplains,  as 
never  before  to  be  their  support  in  the  difficult  area  of  human  relations  and  for 
spiritual  and  moral  leadership.  In  this  crisis  we,  as  Chaplains,  can  be  real  performers 
or  duds.  We  can  gain  all  or  lose  all  for  the  image  of  the  Chaplaincy  for  the  next 

Even  in  an  Army  in  disarray  and  with  some  units  at  the  point  of  disintegration,  the  Chaplain 
Corps  sought  largely  on  its  own  initiative  to  develop  programs  and  a  ministry  of  counseling  and 
presence  to  reestablish  a  sense  of  purpose,  morale  and  public  esteem  in  the  rank  and  file  of  the  Army. 
The  Chaplain  Corps  was  the  first  to  respond  to  many  of  the  drug  and  human  relations  problems.  As 
the  Army  entered  its  formal  reformation  and  modernization  process  in  the  decade  of  the  70s,  the  U.S. 
Army  Chaplaincy  followed  suit  to  help  meet  the  Army's  spiritual  needs. 

Reduction  In  Force,  1972-1976 

One  of  the  catalysts  which  led  to  the  reform  and  modernization  of  the  Army  in  the  decade 
of  the  1970s  was  the  reduction  in  size  of  American  military  forces  at  the  same  time  that  the  Soviet 
Union  was  increasing  its  total  military  strength.  In  1972,  wearied  by  a  ten-year  war  that  produced 
more  than  360,000  American  casualties  (57,000  of  whom  were  fatalities)  the  United  States  Congress 
directed  a  reduction  in  military  forces.  Coupled  with  a  withdrawal  from  Vietnam,  a  re-deployment 
of  troops,  and  a  redistribution  of  war  materiel,  the  demobilization  of  the  Army  proceeded  to  a  point 
below  pre-Vietnam  war  levels  a  decade  before.  The  total  strength  of  the  Army  declined  from 
1,124,000  in  1969  to  81 1,000  in  1973.  In  organization,  it  declined  to  thirteen  divisions,  six  in  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


United  States  and  the  remaining  seven  scattered  from  Europe  to  Korea  with  separate  brigades  in 
Alaska,  Panama  and  BerHn. 

In  order  to  reduce  the  total  force  by  300,000,  the  Army  instituted  early  release  programs  and 
general  discharges  for  the  convenience  of  the  government.  These  "reductions-in-force"  or  "RIF's," 
produce  immediate  morale  problems,  skill  imbalances  in  many  critical  military  specialties,  unit 
shortages  and  a  decline  in  trained  strength  and  readiness.  For  example.  Chaplain  Kirby  Weimer, 
serving  at  Fort  Hood,  Texas,  during  the  reduction,  recalled  that  many  field  grade  officers  would 
receive  a  RIF  notice  on  one  day  and  return  48  hours  later  with  an  enlisted  rank.  Particularly  hard  hit 
were  Army  helicopter  pilots,  thousands  of  whom  who  had  been  trained  at  Fort  Rucker,  Alabama,  and 
Fort  Wolters,  Texas,  during  the  Vietnam  War,  deployed  to  a  combat  zone,  and  returned  to  the  United 
States  to  face  an  early  retirement.  Although  many  military  leaders  conceded  that  the  reduction  of 
Army  strength  was  not  unexpected  and  saved  the  national  defense  budget  more  than  5  billion  dollars 
from  1968  to  1973,  they  wondered  what  such  a  reduction  would  ultimately  cost  in  training  and 

At  the  same  time  the  United  States  defense  establishment  was  reducing  its  strength,  the 
Soviet  Union  had  increased  its  combined  military  forces  to  4.6  million  or  double  that  of  the  United 
States.  In  1972  the  Soviet  Union  produced  and  deployed  1,527  intercontinental  ballistic  missiles 
(ICBMs)  as  opposed  to  1 ,054  in  the  United  States  inventory.  Likewise  the  Soviet  Union  produced 
and  deployed  935  long-range  bombers  capable  of  carrying  nuclear  weapons  as  opposed  to  430  long- 
range  bombers  in  the  United  States  Air  Force.  It  was  apparent  to  the  leaders  at  the  highest  echelons 
in  the  Pentagon  that  the  commitment  of  United  States  forces  in  Europe,  Panama  and  Korea  required 
planning  for  multiple  contingencies. 

Recruitment  for  the  military  service,  in  the  aftermath  of  Vietnam,  was  a  fiustrating  task.  The 
draft  had  ended  in  1972,  and  few  high  school  graduates  were  willing  to  join  the  new  "volunteer 
Army."  As  a  result,  the  military  forces  reluctantly  accepted  markedly  lower  quality  soldiers.  Forty 
percent  had  no  high  school  diploma  and  41%  in  the  early  70s  were  category  FV,  a  mental  aptitude 
grouping  of  the  lowest  order.  The  lower  standards  for  induction  forced  the  Army  to  lower  its 
standards  for  discipline  and  training.  Even  so  the  ranks  of  the  young  men  willing  to  wear  the 
uniform  continued  to  thin. 

By  1974  the  Army  was  20,000  soldiers  below  authorization  and  missed  its  re-enlistment 
target  by  1 1%."'  In  the  period  from  1972-1974  the  combat  arms  units  were  14%  short.  Manning  and 
training  shortfalls  combined  to  make  only  4  of  13  active  component  Army  divisions  ready  for 
combat.  The  All  Volunteer  Army  had  yet  to  take  a  recognizable  and  professional  form,  for  the  job 
of  the  soldier  in  the  early  70's  was  thankless  as  well  as  frustrating.  By  1973  a  Harris  Poll  revealed 
that  the  American  public  ranked  the  military  only  above  sanitation  workers  in  relative  order  of 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Visions  of  Resurgence:  The  Reformation  of  the  Army's  Spirit 

On  June  30,  1972,  General  Creighton  W.  Abrams  replaced  General  William  C. 
Westmoreland  as  the  Army  Chief  of  Staff.  General  Abrams  was  determined  to  prepare  the  Army 
of  the  70s  to  meet  its  world-wide  military  mission:  "You  have  got  to  know  what  influences  me.  We 
have  paid,  and  paid,  and  paid  again  in  blood  and  sacrifice  for  our  unpreparedness.  I  don't  want  war, 
but  1  am  appalled  at  the  human  cost  we  have  paid  because  we  wouldn't  prepare  to  fight,"  General 
Abrams  told  his  subordinates."  Abrams  recognized  that  one  of  the  key  elements  in  any  initial  reform 
of  the  Army  would  be  to  restore  a  sense  of  patriotism,  integrity,  honesty  and  devotion  to  duty  to  the 
dispirited  leaders  of  the  post  Vietnam  period.  He  stressed  the  values  and  the  discipline  that  would 
have  to  be  instilled  in  what  was  to  be,  in  effect,  a  new  Army. 

In  July  of  1973,  at  the  Annual  Command  Chaplains  Conference,  General  Abrams  addressed 
the  chaplains  on  the  subject  of  reform  and  modernization:  "The  Army  is  and  always  will  be,  people. 
Our  people  are  really  good.  It  is  a  rare  man  that  wants  to  be  bad,  but  a  lot  of  men  are  not  strong 
enough  to  be  good  all  by  themselves,  and  a  little  help  is  enough.  It  does  not  make  any  difference  if 
they  are  officers,  non-commissioned  officers,  or  in  the  lower  ranks.  It  does  not  make  much 
difference  where  they  come  from.  If  we  have  faith  in  them  and  encourage  them  and  keep  standing 
for  the  right  ourselves,  the  Army  will  get  back  into  the  shape  the  country  needs  and  has  to  have.  You 
have  got  to  get  down  with  them,  and  roll  up  your  sleeves  and  get  in  among  them,  all  ranks.  They 
have  got  to  feel  that,  they  have  got  to  know  that,  and  when  they  do,  there  is  notliing  they  can  not  get 
done  and  get  done  well. ..This  has  got  to  be  a  living,  breathing,  everyday  effort."''*  Before  Abrams' 
tenure  as  Chief  of  Staff  was  cut  short  by  his  death  from  cancer  in  1974,  he  had  instilled  a  new  spirit 
of  renewal  in  the  Army's  senior  leadership.  He  had  convinced  them  that  reform  was  not  only 
possible,  but  had  already  begun."" 


In  fiscal  year  1973,  the  United  States  Army  began  its  most  sweeping  reorganization  in  ten 
years.  Dubbed  Operation  STEADFAST,  the  reorganization  of  the  Army  sought  to  realign  the  major 
Army  commands  in  the  Continental  United  States  on  a  functional  basis.  Headquarters  U.S. 
Continental  Army  Command,  or  CONARC,  situated  at  Fort  Monroe,  and  headquarters  U.S.  Army 
Combat  Developments  Command,  or  CDC,  based  at  Fort  Belvoir,  VA,  were  discontinued.  Their 
successor  organizations,  the  U.S.  Army  Training  and  Doctrine  Command,  or  TRADOC,  and  the  U.S". 
Army  Forces  Command,  FORSCOM,  received  the  realigned  missions  on  July  1.  TRADOC 
assumed  the  Combat  Developments  Mission  from  CDC,  the  CONARC  individual  training  mission, 
and  command  from  CONARC  of  the  major  Army  installations  in  the  United  States  that  housed 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Army  training  centers  and  Army  branch  schools.  FORSCOM  assumed  CONARC's  operational 
missions:  the  command  and  readiness  of  all  divisions  and  corps  in  the  continental  United  States  and 
the  installations  where  they  were  based."' 

As  part  of  General  Abrams'  vision  of  resurgence  in  military  values  and  professionalism, 
preparedness,  effective  organization,  and  modernized  weaponry,  the  United  States  Army  Training 
Doctrine  Command  would  accept  the  responsibility  for  training  the  Army  of  the  fiiture.  The  United 
States  Army  Forces  Command,  established  (as  was  TRADOC)  by  the  Department  of  Army  on  July 
1 ,  1973,  accepted  the  mission  of  continued  tactical  training  and  operational  deployments. 

General  William  DePuy,  the  first  commander  of  TRADOC,  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
brilliant  general  officers  in  the  United  States  Army.  With  World  War  II  experience  fighting  the 
Germans  in  Normandy  as  well  as  a  strong  conviction  developed  over  an  entire  career  that  the  Army 
must  "train  as  it  fights,"  General  DePuy  dominated  the  process  of  institutional  metamorphosis  in  the 
early  years  in  training,  doctrine  and  leader  development. 

As  its  first  order  of  business,  TRADOC  began  a  fundamental  reformation  of  Army  training. 
Adopting  General  DePuy's  simple  and  direct  maxim,  "an  Army  must  train  as  it  fights,"  training 
reform  began  by  pushing  young  officers  out  of  the  classroom  and  into  the  field.  Instead  of 
concentrating  on  training  schedules,  the  Army  refocused  itself  to  train  to  a  standard,  preferably  one 
based  on  necessary  combat  skills.  The  "Systems  Approach  to  Training"  was  developed  on  the 
proposition  that  even  the  most  complex  combat  maneuver  could  be  subdivided  into  a  series  of 
discreet  individual  tasks.  Each  task  would  have  set  conditions  and  a  measurable  standard  by  which 
soldier  skills  would  be  evaluated  and  to  which  the  soldiers  would  be  held  accountable."  In  order 
to  test  the  readiness  of  soldiers  and  units  to  perform  their  tasks,  the  Army  training  and  evaluation 
program,  or  ARTEP,  appeared  in  1975  and  became  the  principle  vehicle  for  measuring  training 

In  order  to  give  units  a  realistic  but  bloodless  war  game  in  which  to  practice  their  tactical 
skills.  Major  General  Paul  Gorman,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Training  at  TRADOC,  developed 
a  training  method  for  using  integrated  laser  technology  which  could  be  attached  to  all  weapons  from 
rifles  to  tank  guns.  The  United  States  Navy  had  already  adopted  such  a  "Star  Wars"  approach  to 
training.  In  the  TRADOC  ground  war  adaptation,  remote  control  cameras  could  record  video 
coverage  of  a  battle  area  giving  combat  units  immediate  feedback  on  how  well  they  had  done  in 
simulated  combat  situations.  Eventually  this  laser  approach  to  training  culminated  in  the  creation 
of  the  National  Training  Center  (NTC)  at  Fort  Irwin,  California,  hi  a  vast  exercise  area,  the  multiple 
integrated  laser  engagement  system  (MILES)  permitted  combat  units  to  be  pitted  against  each  other 
in  relatively  free  play,  force-on-force  engagements.  The  success  of  the  NTC  was  the  result  of  not 
so  much  its  technology,  but  of  its  effect  of  its  real  world,  real  time,  no  nonsense  combat  simulation 
on  how  the  Army  prepares  units  for  war.^^ 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Doctrinal  Reform:  How  to  Fight 

The  fourth  Arab-Israel  War  which  began  on  October  6,  1973.  jolted  the  Army  out  of  its 
doctrinal  doldrums  and  forced  it  to  face  the  reality  that  its  method  of  fighting  risked  obsolescence. 
Israeli  experience  made  it  clear  to  the  Americans  that  the  modem  battlefield  had  become  enormously 
lethal.  Whereas  a  World  War  II  tank  required  an  average  of  1 7  rounds  to  kill  another  tank  at  a  range 
of  700  meters,  by  1973  tanks  required  only  2  rounds  to  kill  at  1,800  meters.  The  American  TOW 
missile  used  by  the  Israelis  could  kill  with  almost  a  90%  probability  out  to  a  range  of  3,000  meters. 
To  small  unit  commanders  the  realities  of  this  precision  revolution  meant  that,  "what  can  be  seen  can 
be  hit,  and  what  can  be  hit  can  be  killed.""''  If  the  Americans  hoped  to  defend  Europe  against 
overwhelming  Soviet  numbers,  evolutionary  changes  in  training  and  doctrine  would  have  to  close 
the  gap  on  the  Soviet  Army.  A  ten  year  lag  in  development  of  conventional  combat  capabilities 
while  fighting  in  the  jungles  of  Vietnam  would  have  to  be  made  good  by  quick  and  thorough 

General  DePuy  dealt  skeptically  with  those  who  looked  at  the  development  of  doctrine  as  a 
scholastic  exercise.  "Doctrine,  or  the  method  of  war  an  Army  employs,"  noted  DePuy,  "doesn't  work 
unless  it's  between  the  ears  of  at  least  51%  of  the  soldiers  who  are  charged  to  employ  it."-'  DePuy 
also  had  an  almost  obsessive  desire  to  break  the  Army  from  its  Vietnam  malaise  and  get  it  moving 

Beginning  in  late  1973,  General  DePuy  hosted  a  year  of  meetings  with  branch  commandants, 
allies,  and  the  Air  Force.  He  demanded  that  a  new  doctrinal  manual  be  written  in  simple  English. 
He  personally  wrote  much  of  the  1976  version  of  Field  Manual  100-5,  which  sought  to  define  the 
fundamentals  of  land  warfare.  He  wanted  to  give  the  field  a  practical  guide  on  "how  to  win  the  first 
battle  of  the  next  war."  The  Fulda  Gap  Region  of  the  German  border  became  a  familiar  prospective 
battlefield.  The  October  '73  war  became  the  model  for  the  first  battle:  short  lived,  exhausting,  and 
terribly  destructive  to  both  sides.  If,  like  the  Israelis,  the  American  Army  expected  to  fight  out- 
numbered and  win,  it  had  to  exploit  every  advantage  accruing  to  the  defender  in  order  to  hit  the 
enemy  first  and  with  great  precision.  FM  1 00-5  reflected  the  value  that  both  the  Israelis  and  the  U.S. 
Army  placed  on  the  liberal  use  of  suppressive  fire  power  to  paralyze  an  enemy  momentarily  before 
maneuvering  against  him. 

The  new  doctrine  in  Field  Manual  100-5  stressed  an  "  Active  Defense"  in  which  division 
commanders  would  quickly  shift  six  to  eight  battalions  to  repel  a  Soviet  attack  of  twenty  to  twenty- 
five  battalions.  Using  "battle  calculus,"  which  identified  enemy  targets  to  be  eliminated,  division 
commanders  would  re-set  their  defenses  after  the  first  battle  to  defeat  the  additional  follow-on  Soviet 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


As  soon  as  it  was  published.  Field  Manual  1 00-5  became  the  most  controversial  doctrinal 
statement  in  the  history  of  the  American  Army.  |  A  chorus  of  objections  came  principally  from 
outside  TRADOC,  the  most  discordant  from  outside  the  Army.  Criticism  centered  on  the  manual's 
preoccupation  with  the  effects  of  weapons  and  exchange  ratios  and  a  perceived  return  to  the 
American  fixation  on  fire  power  and  attrition  warfare  rather  than  the  maneuver-centered  focus 
traditionally  attributed  to  modem  armies. 

Lieutenant  General  Donn  A.  Starry,  in  command  of  the  Army's  V  Corps,  charged  with 
defending  the  Fulda  Gap  in  Germany,  was  one  of  the  first  to  publicly  question  the  utility  of  the 
tactics  in  Field  Manual  100-5.  General  Starry  particularly  did  not  like  the  math.  Facing  him  across 
the  inner  German  border  were  at  least  four  Soviet  and  East  European  tank  armies  arrayed  in  three 
enormous  echelons  of  armor,  infantry,  and  artillery.  Starry  had  neither  the  forces  nor  the  time  to 
reset  the  defense  before  being  overwhelmed  by  second  and  third  echelons  even  if  he  could  defeat  the 
first  echelon.  In  addition,  the  Soviets  had  increased  their  missile  strength  dramatically  in  the  early 
'70s.  From  1968  to  1973  the  Soviet  Union  had  added  727  intercontinental  ballistic  missiles  to  its 
inventory  and  more  than  500  short-range  ballistic  missiles.  The  Soviets  likewise  had  the  largest  tank 
army  in  the  world  and  the  largest  in  their  country  since  World  War  II.  With  a  personnel  cap  of 
780,000  imposed  by  Congress  on  the  strength  of  the  United  States  Army,  organized  into  thirteen 
divisions,  it  was  clear  that  the  Soviet  threat  would  have  to  be  offset  by  continued  teclinological 
development  in  weaponry  and  continued  doctrinal  development  in  tactics  and  leadership. 

Technology  and  the  AirLand  Battle 

From  1977  to  1981,  a  period  that  coincided  with  the  administration  of  President  Jimmy 
Carter,  the  Soviet  Union  continued  its  buildup  of  what  was  already  the  largest  military  force  in  the 
world.  In  1977,  when  President  Carter  made  the  decision  to  cancel  the  production  of  the  Bl  bomber, 
the  Soviets  were  building  one  similar  Backfire  Bomber  every  12  days,  each  one  having  a  range  of 
5,100  nautical  miles.  In  that  same  year  the  Soviet  Union  had  675  medium  and  heavy  bombers  to  the 
United  States'  414.  The  Soviet  Union  was  producing  or  testing  8  new  intercontinental  ballistic 
missiles  each  year  and  by  1980  had  a  total  of  300,  from  a  starting  point  of  75  in  1962.  In  1977  the 
Soviet  Union  added  1,000  new  medium  range  missiles,  and  by  1980  had  200  of  these  deployed  in 
Eastern  Europe.  In  1977  the  Soviet  Union  had  1 ,400  strategic  missile  launchers  in  Eastern  Europe, 
1,000  of  which  were  re-loadable.  The  Soviets  also  had  produced  93  missile  submarines  by  1981 
with  a  range  extending  to  any  part  of  the  United  States  from  either  the  Atlantic  or  the  Pacific  Oceans. 

In  order  to  offset  this  huge  buildup  in  Soviet  weaponry.  Secretary  of  Defense  Harold  Brown 
supported  a  policy  of  increasing  the  technological  advantage  in  U.S.  weaponry.  Secretary  Brown 
wrote,  "the  military  balance  between  the  United  States  and  its  allies  and  friends  on  the  one  hand  and 
the  Soviet  Union  and  the  states  subordinated  to  them  on  the  other  is  not  nearly  so  unfavorable  as  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


denigrators  of  U.S.  military  capability  have  been  proclaiming  for  the  last  few  years;  but  it  is 
precarious  enough.  The  United  States  must  not  fail  to  take  advantage  of  the  advantages  that  it 
has — economic,  political,  ideological,  or  any  other  and  among  all  these,  the  United  States 
technological  advantage  is  one  of  the  most  important  and  valuable.""*  There  were,  of  course, 
alternatives  to  a  reliance  on  increasing  technology.  For  example,  the  United  States  could  have 
doubled  the  number  of  military  personnel  under  arms  to  approach  Soviet  levels.  It  could  have 
increased  defense  procurement  budgets  by  50%  in  order  to  compete  with  the  Soviets  in  quantities 
of  equipment.  It  could  have  substituted  the  purchase  of  allied  military  equipment  for  much  of  the 
U.S.  military  production.  However,  none  of  these  options  would  have  been  economically  acceptable 
to  the  American  people. 

Instead  Secretary  Brown  and  his  Pentagon  planners,  including  Mr.  William  J.  Perry,  Under 
Secretary  of  Defense  for  Research  and  Engineering  in  the  Carter  administration,  made  the  decision 
to  recommend  monumental  increases  in  the  quality  of  weapons  available  for  American  military 
forces.  General  Abrams  had  already  called  for  new  weapons  initiatives  in  tank  production,  air 
defense  artillery,  and  other  vital  areas.  But  the  main  strategic  problem  Secretary  Brown  and  Mr. 
Perry  had  to  deal  with  during  the  Carter  years  was  to  offset  the  idea  of  a  nuclear  exchange.  The 
Soviet  Union  did  not  believe  the  United  States  and  its  NATO  allies  would  fight  a  nuclear  war  or 
could  win  one  if  they  did.  Since  the  Soviets  out  numbered  the  NATO  forces  in  conventional  units, 
the  temptation  for  them  to  attack  in  Europe  seemed  to  Mr.  Perry  and  to  his  boss.  Secretary  Brown, 
to  be  growing.  The  solution  was  the  "offset  strategy" — to  use  the  U.S.  advantage  in  technology  to 
make  up  for  the  Soviets'  huge  numerical  advantage  in  weapons  and  men. 

This  concept  also  reflected  deeper  assumptions  about  the  attitude  of  Americans  toward 
defense  in  the  wake  of  Vietnam.  American  young  people  and  their  parents  would  not  countenance 
another  draft.  That  alternative  was  not  politically  feasible.  Nor  would  the  Americans  wish  to  pay 
for  an  attempt  to  match  the  Soviets  tank  for  tank  and  soldier  for  soldier.  Instead,  the  American  force 
multiplier  would  be  high  technology.  This  was  a  centrist  way  to  answer  charges  that  the  Democratic 
Party  of  the  Carter  years  was  soft  on  defense  without  bursting  the  budget  or  imposing  sacrifices  that 
could  not  be  sustained.  It  was  a  way  to  prevent  politics  from  undermining  defense." 

Concomitant  with  the  Department  of  Defense's  emphasis  on  high-tech  weapons  development, 
there  was  a  sharp  evolution  in  doctrinal  thinking  at  the  tactical  level.  This  was  prompted  in  part  by 
the  debate  on  the  Active  Defense,  which  General  DuPuy's  1976  FM  100-5  had  outlined;  but  it  was 
also  a  result  of  new  tactical  concepts  and  concerns.  Just  as  with  the  Active  Defense,  the  new 
doctrine  was  a  product  of  a  wider  historical  current  of  the  time.  It  too  sprang  in  large  degree  from 
the  thinking  and  influence  of  one  man.  General  Starry,  who  succeeded  General  DePuy  as  TRADOC'S 
Commanding  General  in  July  1977.  This  new  doctrine  came  to  be  called  AirLand  Battle. 

General  Starry,  a  major  contributor  to  the  earlier  Active  Defense  doctrine  while  Commandant 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


of  the  U.S.  Armor  School,  examined  its  assumptions  in  the  field  during  1976  -  1977  as  V  Corps 
Commander  in  Europe.  From  that  experience  he  brought  to  TRADOC  a  close  appreciation  of  the 
powerful  Soviet  second  and  follow-on  echelons  beyond  the  main  battle  front.  Whatever  the  success 
of  a  skillfiil  Active  Defense,  the  numerical  superior  follow-on  echelons  would  at  some  point  prevail 
by  sheer  numbers  and  roll  over  the  defenders  to  secure  victory.  Starry's  concept  of  the  major  Central 
Battle  fought  by  the  corps  and  division,  analyzed  functionally,  suggested  and  clarified  the 
requirement  for  U.S.  forces  to  fight  a  deep  battle  simultaneously  with  the  main  or  close-in  battle. 
Thus  could  U.S.  forces  disrupt  the  enemies  echelon  line-up,  throw  off  his  time  table,  and  prevent 

Tactical  nuclear  planning,  to  provide  a  ready  option  to  deter  or  counter  Warsaw  Pact  Forces 
if  directed  by  national  command  authority,  was  an  aspect  of  the  planning.  Deeper  cooperative 
planning  with  the  Air  Force  accompanied  this  work,  and  by  late  1979  planners  were  developing  joint 
concepts  for  deep  interdiction  and  for  operations  upon  an  integrated  conventional-nuclear-chemical 
battlefield.  The  integrated  battlefield  was  a  concept,  however,  larger  than  those  options  alone.  The 
concept  called  for  integrated  AirLand  Operations  and  integrated  maneuver  and  fire  support;  it 
presented  a  larger  total  battlefield  vision  extending  from  the  U.S.  rear  area  forward  and  deep  into  the 
enemy  rear. 

This  planning  in  1979-1980  went  forward  in  a  changing  national  political  climate,  as  the 
perceptions  of  the  Carter  administration  about  the  state  of  U.S.  military  readiness  vis-a-vis  the  Soviet 
Union  and  the  unstable  Third  World  underwent  sharper  vision.  The  year  1 979  marked  twin  foreign 
policy  defeats  for  the  United  States:  the  Soviet  invasion  of  Afghanistan  and  the  opening  of  the 
Iranian  hostage  crisis. 

In  late  1980,  the  ideas  of  the  integrated  battlefield  were  developed  further  and  refined  in  the 
concept  of  an  extended  battlefield.  This  view  possessed  not  only  distance,  but  time  and  resource 
dimensions.  Publication  of  this  concept,  retitled  AirLand  Battle  by  Headquarters,  TRADOC, 
followed  in  March  1981. 

Following  publication  of  the  revised  FM  100-5,  the  concept  of  AirLand  Battle  was  sanctioned 
as  the  Army's  fighting  doctrine  for  the  decade  ahead.  Adjusted  in  1 986  to  clarify  and  expand  the  idea 
of  the  operational  level  of  war,  to  put  into  better  balance  the  offense  and  defense,  and  to  highlight 
the  synchronization  of  the  close,  deep,  and  rear  battles,  AirLand  Battle  furnished  a  revitalized 
doctrine  for  the  future. 

Threat  Responses 

The  reform  and  modernization  of  the  Army  in  the  decade  of  the  1970s  was  driven  not  only 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


by  the  lessons  of  Vietnam  but  also  by  the  perception  of  the  Communist  threat  at  that  time.  From 
1945  to  1975  the  United  States  Government  had  embraced  several  Counter  force  Strategies  which 
constituted  what  some  geo-political  historians  later  called  "Cold  War  I."  These  strategies  included 
the  containment  of  Russian  expansion  as  espoused  by  Ambassador  George  Keenan  and  the  Truman 
Doctrine  from  1945  to  1953.  The  containment  policy  was  effected  by  such  actions  as  the  Berlin 
AirLift  ,  support  for  Greece  and  Formosa,  implementation  of  the  Marshall  Plan  and  the  formation 
of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty  Organization.  The  Korean  War,  likewise,  was  an  effort  to  contain  the 
expansion  of  Russian  Communism  in  Asia  through  what  was  perceived  at  the  time  as  an  Asian 
satellite  government. 

From  1954  to  1961  John  Foster  Dulles,  Secretary  of  State  in  the  Eisenhower  Administration, 
had  urged  a  massive  retaliation  or  "brinksmanship"  policy  which  guaranteed  retaliation  of  land- 
based  missiles  in  the  event  of  a  general  nuclear  war.  The  "flexible  response"  policy  of  the  Kennedy 
Administration  included,  in  the  extreme,  the  assured  destruction  of  25  percent  of  Soviet  cities  and 
100  per  cent  of  all  major  Soviet  military  targets.  Nevertheless,  the  flexible  response  policy  likewise 
dictated  a  more  limited  intervention  into  Vietnamese  and  Russian-Cuban  affairs. 

With  the  promulgation  of  the  Nixon  Doctrine  in  1969,  the  policy  of  the  United  States 
became  that  of  a  "sufficient  deterrent."  The  growth  of  detente  and  treaty  limitations  agreements  with 
the  Soviet  Union,  to  include  the  Salt  Agreement  of  1972  and  the  limitation  of  strategic  offensive 
arms,  froze  the  land-based  missiles  deployed  by  the  United  States  at  1 ,054  and  those  deployed  by 
the  Soviet  Union  at  1,618.  The  Nixon  Detente  was  relatively  short  lived  in  light  of  the  Soviet 
Union's  intervention  in  Angola  and  Afghanistan. 

"Cold  War  11"  began  in  the  Carter  Administration  and  witnessed  a  growth  in  United  States 
defense  expenditures  from  $89  billion  in  1976  to  more  than  $1 18  billion  in  1979.  These  funds  were 
to  effect  the  reorganization  and  technological  modernization  of  the  All  Volunteer  Army  to  provide 
a  defense  establishment,  in  Secretary  Brown's  terms,  "capable  of  winning  two  and  a  half  wars"  in 
any  world-wide  scenario. 

In  addition  to  a  competition  between  the  United  States  and  the  Soviet  Union,  which  in  1 973 
Premier  Chou  En  Lai  of  China  had  called  the  cause  of  "world  intranquility  and  an  age  of  great 
disorder,"  there  was  also  a  mushrooming  of  revolutionary  activity  in  the  Third  World.  In  a  sense 
there  had  always  been  a  draining  of  mineral  resources  from  Third  World  countries  to  industrialized 
countries.  Indeed,  by  1980,  if  all  of  the  countries  of  the  world  had  sought  to  achieve  the  same 
standard  of  living  as  was  then  in  effect  in  the  United  States,  most  of  the  earth's  mineral  resources 
including,  iron,  manganese  and  petroleum  would  have  been  exhausted  in  eight  years.'"*  Nevertheless", 
the  poverty  imbalance  between  older,  affluent  nations  of  the  industrialized  West  and  "emerging" 
Third  world  nations  with  access  to  advanced  military  technology  was  troublesome. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


In  January  of  1980,  Secretary  of  Defense  Harold  Brown  wrote:  "the  particular  manner  in 
which  our  economy  has  expanded,  means  that  we  have  come  to  depend  to  no  small  degree  on 
imports,  exports  and  earnings  from  overseas  investments  for  our  material  well-being.  A  large  scale 
disruption  in  the  supply  of  foreign  oil  could  have  as  damaging  consequences  for  the  United  States 
as  the  loss  of  an  important  military  campaign,  or  indeed  a  war."  This  concern  was  one  motivation 
behind  the  1980  formation  of  a  Rapid  Deployment  Force  which  could  be  sent  quickly  to  any  part  of 
the  globe  where  American  interests  were  endangered;  a  threat  that  was  now  seen  asa  product  as 
much  from  the  Third  World  instability  as  from  Soviet  expansionism.  International  economic 
disorder,  in  short,  could  almost  equal  in  severity  the  threat  to  America  from  the  Soviet  military 
build-up.  Since  the  widening  gap  between  rich  countries  and  poor  countries  was  likely  to  increase 
the  frequency  of  Third  World  revolutions,  the  outlook  was  for  a  very  busy  Rapid  Deployment  Force 
in  the  decades  following. 

Regardless  of  their  variety  of  institutional  forms  of  government,  most  of  the  new  countries 
in  the  Third  World  had  one  common  political  characteristic:  the  gradual  awakening  and  activation 
of  the  masses  regardless  of  whether  they  were  yet  participating  formally  in  their  own  governmental 
processes.  This  was  the  essence  of  the  worldwide  democratic  revolution  which  was  beginning  to 
spread  rapidly  in  the  1970s.  This  political  revolution  was  reflected  each  day  in  newspaper  reports, 
as  evident  in  the  following  headlines  from  the  New  York  Times: 

Black  Protests  Mounting  in  South  Africa  (May  16,  1973) 

World  Gypsies  Resist  Genocide  by  Assimilation  (June  18,  1971) 

Rhodesia  Guerrillas  Double-time  to  Polls  (March  11,  1980) 

Teheran  Students  Demand  Role  in  University  Control  (February  21,  1979) 

Shaw  Quits  Iran  for  Indefinite  Stay  (January  17,  1979) 

Somoza  Yields  Post:  Flies  to  United  States  (July  18,  1979) 

New  regimes  and  leaders  had  begun  purposefully  to  exploit  the  mass  media  to  the  utmost  in 
order  to  mobilize  popular  support  for  their  revolutionary  programs.  "It  is  true,"  stated  President 
Nasser  of  Egypt,  "that  most  of  our  people  are  still  illiterate.  But  politically  that  counts  far  less  than 
it  did  20  years  ago.  Radio  has  changed  everything.  Today  people  in  the  most  remote  villages  hear 
what  is  happening  everywhere  and  form  their  opinions.  Leaders  cannot  govern  as  they  once  did. 
We  live  in  a  new  world. "^^ 

In  essence,  then,  the  history  of  the  United  States  Army  in  the  1970s  was  characterized  by 
recovery  from  the  Vietnam  War,  by  reduction  in  size,  by  the  creation  of  an  all  volunteer  force,  and 
by  reorganization  and  modernization  to  meet  evolving  national  defense  requirements.  These 
requirements  included  nuclear,  conventional,  and  counter-insurgency  defense  plans  which  were 
global  in  their  geographical  extent.  The  organizational  reform  of  the  Army,  of  the  All  Volunteer 
Army,  included  the  formation  of  the  United  States  Forces  Command,  United  States  Army  Training 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


and  Doctrine  Command,  Reserve  Readiness  Regions,  and  a  varied  force  structure  to  include  light 
divisions  as  well  as  heavy  armored  divisions.  The  development  of  what  became  known  as  "The 
Army  of  Excellence,"  in  the  1980s  did  not  escape  public  attention.  Morale  among  the  soldiers  was 
high  by  the  mid  1980s.  A  1986  Army  survey  of  its  personnel  found  that  about  72  percent  of  the 
officers  agreed  with  the  statement  that  military  service  "is  an  experience  one  can  be  proud  of" 
Almost  55  percent  of  the  enlisted  members  polled  also  agreed. 

And  if  polls  were  any  indication,  the  military  became  a  more  respected  institution  with  the 
public.  In  1984,  63  percent  of  Americans  surveyed  in  the  Gallop  Poll  said  they  had  "a  great  deal" 
or  "quite  a  lot"  of  confidence  in  the  military,  ranking  second  —  after  church  and  organized 
religion — among  10  American  institutions.  The  turn  about  was  nothing  short  of  remarkable.  The 
military  outranked  the  United  States  Supreme  Court,  banks,  public  schools,  newspapers.  Congress, 
television,  organized  labor  and  big  business.  A  Harris  Survey  of  July  1989  found  that  Americans 
had  more  confidence  in  the  military  than  they  had  in  the  medical  community  or  even  in  the  Supreme 
Court. ^'  Fifteen  years  of  modernization  and  training  had  revitalized  the  Army's  spirit  and  had 
replaced  the  "lost  decade"  in  Vietnam  with  a  new  Army  of  Excellence. 



1 .  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)Orris  Kelly,  30  March  1994  and  Chaplain  (Col.) 
Cecil  Currey,  USAR  Retired,  30  June  1994. 

2.  David  Cortright,  Soldiers  in  Revolt,  (New  York:  Anchor  Press/Doubleday,  1975),  p.  154. 

3.  Guenter  Lewy,  America  In  Vietnam  (New  York:  Oxford  University  Press,  1978),  p.  430. 

4.  Rodger  R.  Venzke,  Confidence  in  Battle,  Inspiration  in  Peace  (Washington:  Office  of  the 
Chief  of  Chaplains,  1977),  p.  164-165. 

5.  David  Cortright,  Soldiers  in  Revolt,  p.  1 1 . 

6.  /Z7/V/.,  pp.1 1-43. 

7.  Ibid.,  p.  43. 

8.  Rick  Atkinson,  The  Long  Gray  Line,  (New  York:  Pocket  Books,  1989),  p.459. 

9.  Ibid.,  p.  459. 
\0.  Ibid.,  p.  461. 

1 1 .  Personal  Interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Matthew  Zimmerman,  21  March  1994. 

12.  Henry  F.  Ackermann,  He  Was  Always  There:  The  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Ministry  In  The 
Vietnam  Conflict,  (Washington,  D.C.:  Office  of  The  Chief  Chaplains,  1989),  p.  202. 

U.  Ibid.,  p.  2\4. 

14.  Rodger  R.  Venzke,  Confidence  In  Battle,  Inspiration  In  Peace,  p.  169. 

15.  Department  of  the  Army  Historical  Summary:  Fiscal  Year  1972.  (Washington,  D.C.:  Center 
for  Military  History),  1974,  p.  iv. 

16.  Robert  H.  Scales,  Certain  Victory,  (Washington,  D.C.:  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Staff,  1993), 


M.Ibid.  p.7. 


19.  Henry  F.  Ackermann,  He  Was  Always  There,  p. 214. 



20.  Robert  H.  Scales,  Certain  Victory,  p.  7. 

21 .  John  L.  Romjue,  Prepare  the  Army  for  War,  (Fort  Monroe,  Virginia:  Office  of  the  Command 
Historian,  United  States  Army  Training  and  Doctrine  Command,  1993),  p.  5. 

22.  Robert  H.  Scales,  Certain  Victory,  p.  12. 
23.//^/t/.,  p.  21. 

24.  Ibid.,  p.  10. 

25.  Ibid.,  p.  12. 

26.  Harold  Brown,  "Technology,  Military  Equipment,  and  National  Security,"  Parameters,  Vol. 
8,  No.  1  (March  1983)  p.  26. 

27.  Charles  Lane,  "Perry's  Parry,"  The  New  Republic,  June  27,  1994,  p.  22. 

28.  John  L.  Romjue,  Prepare  The  Army  For  War,  p.  55. 

29.  L.  S.  Stavrianos,  The  World  Since  1500,  (Englewood  Cliffs,  New  Jersey:  Prentice  Hall, 
1982),  p.  512. 

30.  Ibid.,  p.522. 

31.  The  Army  Times,  "Fifty  Years  of  Military  Life,"  Volume  51,  Number  6,  (1990)  p.  165. 






Before  the  Vietnam  War  ended  it  was  apparent  that  the  Chaplain  Corps  would  be  challenged 
in  many  different  ways  to  help  meet  the  human  needs  of  the  Army.  Whereas  historically  the  Army 
had  been  totally  mission  oriented,  personnel  and  personal  management  issues  demanded  increased 
attention  after  Vietnam.  Chaplains,  often  with  little  support  from  their  civilian  ecclesiastical 
counterparts,  had  to  be  innovators  cnid  visionaries  for  a  new  world  of  ministry.  ( liapkun  Gerhardt 
Hyatt,  formerly  the  MACV  Chaplain  in  Vietnam,  was  selected  to  lead  the  Chaplaincy  during  this 
challenging  period. 


Innovative  programs  from  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  to 
redirect  the  Chaplaincy  and  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  Army. 

Emphasis  on  Installation  Chaplains  as  the  key  to  quality  soldier 


First  Reserve  Advisor  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

Organizational  Development  and  Clinical  Pastoral  Education 


Chaplains  serve  on  Drug  and  Alcohol  Abuse  Prevention  Teams. 

Emphasis  on  minority  recruitment. 

First  female  chaplain  commissioned  for  active  duty  in  the  Army. 

First  Gospel  Services  in  the  U.S.  for  soldiers. 

Personal  Effectiveness  Training  sponsored. 

Chaplain  Service  School  Instructors  assigned. 

Chaplain  Assistant  MOS  reviewed  for  quality  improvement. 

Creation  of  the  Chaplain  Center  and  School  at  Fort  Wadsworth. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 



The  Army  Chaplaincy: 
Designing  Ministries  to  Meet  the  Army's  Needs 

You  have  got  to  gel  with  them,  and  roll  up  your  sleeves  and  get  in  among  them,  all 
ranks... a  little  help  is  enough. 

General  Creighton  W  Abrams 
Chaplains  Conference  on  Ministry  to  Soldiers 

The  Crucible  of  the  Seventies 

Chaplain  Gerhardt  W.  Hyatt  was  promoted  to  Major  General  on  August  3,  1971,  by  General 
William  C  Westmoreland,  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army.  General  Westmoreland  had  been  the  senior 
commander  in  Vietnam  during  the  most  difficult  phase  of  that  war.  The  same  day  Hyatt  was 
promoted,  he  was  appointed  the  thirteenth  Chief  of  Chaplains  of  the  United  States  Army  by  President 
Richard  Nixon.  Chaplain  Hyatt's  four-year  term  as  leader  of  the  Chaplaincy  paralleled  a  period  of 
unprecedented  turbulence  and  unrest  in  the  Army  and  in  the  nation.  The  country,  the  churches  and 
society  in  general  found  themselves  in  a  crucible  of  changing  values,  conflicting  ideologies  and  the 
apparent  disintegration  of  many  traditional  values  in  American  life 

Senator  J.  William  Fulbright  of  Arkansas  reflected  upon  the  social  turmoil  in  the  United  States 
when  he  addressed  the  staff  and  students  at  Westminster  College  on  November  2,  1974  It  was  an 
important  speech  that  highlighted  the  conditions  of  that  period.  His  remarks  reminded  those  who 
heard  them  of  apocalyptic  prophesies.  He  summarized  the  angst  and  hopelessness  that  seemed  to 
permeate  the  times.  Paramount  to  his  concerns  was  what  he  referred  to  as  the  looming  economic 
crisis.  Inflation  was  rising  steadily.  OPEC  nations  were  strangling  the  economies  of  most  other 
nations  of  the  world  with  profiteering  from  their  oil  production.  As  a  result  of  the  Yom  Kippur  War 
(October  1973),  prices  of  oil  on  the  international  market  rose  more  than  200  percent.  Fulbright 
echoed  the  words  of  President  Gerald  Ford  that  inflation  threatened  to  "destroy  our  country,  our 
homes,  our  liberty."' 

In  addition  to  economic  issues,  Americans  faced  the  usual  national  security  dilemmas.  The 
Cold  War  continued  unabated.  The  military-industrial  complex  was  busy  churning  out  weapons  and 
supplies  to  fend  off  the  multi-faceted  Russian  threat,  or,  if  necessary,  to  destroy  it.  In  October  1973 
the  war  between  the  Arabs  and  the  Israelis  resulted  in  heavy  Israeli  casualties  as  well  as  in  economic 
chaos.  The  ubiquitous  fear  of  another  Arab-Israeli  conflict  was  ever  present.  At  the  same  time  the 
tentacles  of  communism  were  reaching  deeper  into  the  Western  hemisphere.  Sentiment  for  revolution 
was  growing  in  Iran  and  in  many  other  nations.  The  following  newspaper  headlines  of  the  seventies, 
highlight  some  of  the  fierce  issues  that  affected  the  lives  of  almost  all  citizens  in  one  way  or  anothef' 

June  1 7,  1 972  Five  men  break  into  Watergate 

June  17,  1972  Navajo  Indians  gain  control  of  the  Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs 

July  13,  1972  Paris  Peace  Talks  on  Vietnam  resume 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


January  22,  1973  Supreme  Court  says  states  cannot  interfere  with  abortion  during  the 

first  six  months  of  pregnancy 

January  24,  1973  Court  orders  desegregation  of  schools  in  Memphis 

February  1 1,  1973  First  National  Women's  Political  Caucus  ends  in  Houston 

February  21,  1973  Senate  establishes  federal  security  force  at  airports 

February  27,  1973  200  armed  Indian  supporters  control  Wounded  Knee 

October  10,  1973  Vice  President  Agnew  resigns 

October  30,  1973  House  committee  meets  to  consider  impeachment  of  Nixon 

March  7,  1974  Numerous  indictments  in  Watergate  investigation 

August  9,  1974  President  Nixon  resigns 

September  8,  1974  President  Ford  pardons  Nixon 

It  would  be  hard  to  imagine  such  a  short  period  of  time  filled  with  so  many  world-shaking 
events.  Trouble  spots  occupied  the  attention  of  foreign  policy  and  military  strategy  experts 
throughout  the  nation. 

Conditions  in  the  churches  were  no  less  tempestuous,  for  divided  public  opinion  during  the 
closing  years  of  the  Vietnam  War  had  savaged  the  unity  of  many  mainline  denominations  Many 
church  leaders  were  vocally  opposed  to  the  war  and  insisted  that  the  chaplaincy  was  no  longer  a 
viable  ministry  option  for  them.  On  May  17,  1968,  a  unanimous  vote  was  cast  by  500  members 
attending  the  American  Jewish  Congress  to  terminate  the  military  chaplaincy  '  This  was  but  the 
prelude  of  similar  challenges  to  come. 

The  Winter  Edition  of  FOCUS,  the  United  Church  of  Christ  Youth  Magazine,  illustrated  this 
situation.  There  appeared  a  feature  article  entitled  "An  honest  letter  to  the  not  yet  drafted,"  by 
The  Reverend  Ralph  Weltge,  Secretary  for  Young  Adult  Ministry  in  the  United  Church  of  Christ. 
Among  other  things,  Weltge  stated,  "Put  in  plain  terms,  you  are  young  and  vulnerable,  and  they'll  use 
a  military  gang-bang  to  rape  your  mind  Boot  camp  is  really  the  American  version  of  Chinese 
'thought  reform'""*  He  continued,  "As  they  work  you  over,  you  may  perceive  the  contradiction 
between  military  training  and  what  you  learned  back  home  in  church,  and  want  to  talk  to  the  chaplain. 
Beware  of  him!  After  attending  his  compulsory  'character  guidance  lectures'  you  may  already  suspect 
his  incompetence  -  at  least  to  counsel  you  on  the  problem  of  Christian  conscience.'"  Weltge  went 
on  forcefiilly  to  recommend  that  soldiers  and  those  about  to  be  conscripted  should  consider  applying 
for  conscientious  objector  status"  Though  the  article  did  not  represent  all  UCC  leadership,  it  did 
portray  the  strong  feelings  of  some  leaders  of  that  denomination  and  others. 

During  the  years  1971-75,  several  denominations  wrestled  with  the  issue  of  providing 
chaplains  for  the  military.  Some  came  close  to  withdrawing  support  for  the  Chaplaincy  altogether  and 
recalling  chaplains  they  had  already  endorsed.  Meetings  were  held  between  denominational  leaders 
and  their  chaplains  to  try  to  make  decisions  on  this  matter.  Unfortunately,  many  of  the  more  radical 
ecclesiastical  leaders  had  never  served  in  the  military  and  therefore  had  very  little  understanding  of 
what  a  chaplain  did  Some  saw  the  chaplain  as  a  cheerleader  for  war  or  one  who  was  so  controlled 
by  the  command  that  he  could  not  take  independent  ethical  or  moral  positions. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  American  Civil  Liberties  Union,  in  a  joint  study  with  The  United  Church  Of  Christ, 
produced  a  document  entitled,  "The  Abuses  of  the  Military  Chaplaincy  "''  The  author  defined  "abuse" 
as  any  structure  or  activity  of  the  Chaplaincy  that  does  not  tend  to  further  free  exercise  of  religion. 
The  claimed  abuses  included  the  Army  setting  standards  for  selection  of  chaplains,  screening  of 
chaplains  by  a  military  board,  establishment  of  denominational  quotas  for  chaplains,  performance  of 
military  fLinctions  by  chaplains;  precedence  of  General  Protestant  worship  services  over 
denominational  services;  Human  Self  Development  programs,  and  command  relationships  such  as  the 
chaplain  serving  on  the  commander's  staff.  There  was  little  in  the  life  of  the  chaplain  that  the  study 
did  not  interpret  as  abuse 

At  approximately  this  same  time  Professor  Harvey  Cox  of  Harvard  University  wrote  a 
controversial  book.  The  Military  Chaplain:  From  a  Religious  Mihtary  to  a  Military  Religion.  In 
response  to  Chaplain  Ray  Strawser's  recommendation  to  purchase  the  book  for  the  staflF,  the  Chief 
of  Chaplains  wrote  him  a  note  stating,  "Forget  it!  We've  had  experts  try  to  sabotage  us!  It's  an  effort 
to  salve  their  own  conscience  for  their  own  inadequate  effectiveness  in  their  ministry  and  divert 
attention  from  the  utter  bankruptcy  of  their  philosophy"'*  It  was  apparent  that  the  Chaplaincy  was 
under  attack  from  several  directions  and  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  on  occasion,  had  a  yen  to  strike  back. 

A  Canadian  -American  Chief 

Chaplain  Gerhardt  W.  Hyatt,  son  of  a  noted  minister  and  missionary,  was  bom  in  Melford, 
Saskatchewan,  Canada,  on  July  I,  1916.  Hyatt  graduated  from  Concordia  College  in  Canada, 
Concordia  Seminary  in  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  and  George  Washington  University  (Master  of  Arts).  He 
also  received  the  honorary  Doctor  of  Divinity  Degree  from  Concordia  Seminary  in  1969.  He  was 
ordained  in  the  Lutheran  Church  -  Missouri  Synod  in  1944  and  installed  as  pastor  of  Our  Savior 
Lutheran  Church,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina.  In  June  1945  he  entered  the  Army  as  a  chaplain  while  still 
a  Canadian  citizen.  He  became  a  United  States  citizen  in  November  of  that  same  year. 

Chaplain  Hyatt  served  in  numerous  field  and  staff  positions  around  the  world.  One  of  his  first 
assignments  was  to  a  transportation  battalion  which  became  a  part  of  the  historic  Task  Force  Smith 
during  the  Korean  War.  The  Army  had  little  emphasis  on  readiness,  and  the  task  force  entered  Korea 
without  adequate  support.  Among  other  deadly  lessons,  they  found  that  the  2.5  inch  bazooka  did  not 
work  and  discarded  it.'^  The  contacts  Hyatt  made  and  the  challenging  experiences  he  had  during  that 
period  prepared  him  for  many  fliture  assignments. 

In  his  next  combat  tour,  during  the  Vietnam  War,  Chaplain  Hyatt  served  as  the  command 
chaplain  for  the  Military  Advisory  Command-Vietnam  (MACV)  In  a  very  unusual  following 
assignment  for  that  time,  he  was  detailed  for  a  three-year  tour  with  th'^  Office  uf  the  Deputy  Chief 
of  StaflF  for  Personnel  in  the  Pentagon.  Later  he  became  the  Director  of  Personnel  for  the  Chaplaincy, 
and  then  served  as  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains  under  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Francis  Sampson.  In 
total,  Chaplain  Hyatt  worked  in  the  Pentagon  for  12  years  before  he  became  Chief  of  Chaplains  All 
of  these  experiences  in  the  field  with  soldiers  as  well  as  in  high  level  staflF  positions  provided  excellent 
preparation  for  the  demands  that  faced  him  and  the  Chaplaincy  in  the  Seventies. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Hyatt,  His  StafTand  Their  Challenges 

Chaplain  Hyatt  was  in  many  ways  a  very  reticent  man,  yet  he  became  one  of  the  most 
influential  figures  the  Chaplaincy  ever  produced  His  strengths  lay  in  several  areas  important  for  the 
fijture  of  the  Chaplaincy.  He  was  not  merely  a  theoretician  He  knew  the  Army  well  from  his  service 
at  all  echelons  and  in  a  wide  variety  of  assignments  He  was  masterful  in  relating  to  top  generals  and 
other  Pentagon  officials.  Some  said  that  Hyatt  could  achieve  more  with  a  handshake  than  others  could 
through  years  of  staff  work  Much  of  that  resulted  from  his  12  years  in  the  Pentagon  before  becoming 
Chief  of  Chaplains,  and  his  associations  with  young  officers  who  themselves  later  became  general 

Chaplain  Hyatt  had  the  managerial  brilliance  and  foresight  to  surround  himself  with  highly 
effective  chaplain  staff  officers  Though  Hyatt  was  a  quiet  and  conservative  individual,  he  had  no  fear 
of  innovation  and  encouraged  his  staff  to  think  new  thoughts  and  try  new  programs  '"  Among  the 
innovative  members  of  his  staff  were  Chaplains  Orris  Kelly  (his  Executive  Officer),  Charles  Kriete 
(Director  of  Plans,  Programs  and  Polices),  and  Edward  O'Shea,  Richard  Tupy,  Richard  Martin,  and 
a  host  of  others  who  served  as  action  officers.  He  also  enjoyed  the  support  of  his  Roman  Catholic 
deputies.  Chaplain  (Brigadier  General)  Aloysius  J.  McElwee,  1971-1973,  and  Chaplain  (Brigadier 
General)  Thaddeus  F  Malanowski,  1974-1978. 

Chaplain  Hyatt,  perhaps  better  than  any  other  chaplain  of  his  time,  understood  the  Army  as 
a  system  and  wanted  the  Chaplaincy  to  be  an  integral  part  of  the  system.  He  wanted  to  help  the  Army 
address  the  severe  problems  it  faced  and  at  the  same  time  demonstrate  the  professionalism  of  the 
Chaplaincy.  The  programs  developed  by  his  staff  were  in  large  measure  responses  to  emerging  needs 
and  the  mission  to  help  the  Army  respond  to  them." 

Chaplain  Charles  Kriete,  Director  of  Plans,  Programs  and  Polices,  shepherded  most  of  the 
innovative  programs  implemented  during  the  Hyatt  years.  Many  of  these  were  not  new  creations,  but 
rather  adaptations  of  existing  activities  that  already  were  being  tested  in  some  form  either  in  the 
civilian  community  or  in  the  military  The  genius  of  Chaplain  Kriete  and  his  staff  was  in  their  ability 
to  envision  the  metamorphosis  of  these  programs  and  activities  into  shapes  and  forms  that  would 
meet  the  unique  needs  of  the  Army  as  a  system  at  that  time.  The  demand  for  chaplain  ministry  to  the 
institution  was  overwhelming.  Chaplain  Hyatt  was  exactly  the  kind  of  leader  needed  for  the  uncertain 
times  between  1973  and  1975,  and  he  gathered  around  him  the  right  kind  of  staff  officers  to 
implement  his  vision  to  enhance  the  respect  of  the  military  for  the  Chaplaincy  and  thereby  enable  it 
to  become  a  more  professional  branch.  The  programs  Hyatt  and  his  staff  implemented  lasted  through 
the  Seventies  and  beyond. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Institutional  Stress  and  Change 

It  has  already  been  noted  that  the  Army  (as  well  as  the  nation)  was  suffering  a  "Post 
Traumatic  Stress  Disorder."''^  Some  feared  the  Army  was  falling  apart.  The  Vietnam  War  had  left 
deep  psychological,  social  and  spiritual  scars  that  were  festering  and  slow  to  heal.  Additionally,  the 
war,  or  at  least  the  times  themselves,  spawned  a  plethora  of  other  symptoms  reflecting  the  disquiet 
of  those  years.  Some  of  these  problems  related  directly  to  the  Army.  This  was  especially  true  of  the 
Draft.  As  early  as  1969,  President  Nixon  had  established  a  panel  to  develop  plans  to  end  the  draft 
and  move  toward  an  all  volunteer  Army." 

Conscription  did  not  end  until  June  1973,  with  the  tinal  induction  of  Private  Dwight  Stone 
of  Sacramento,  California.  For  the  first  time  since  1948,  the  military  services  would  be  composed 
completely  of  volunteers.  The  concept  of  the  modern  Volunteer  Army  or  VOLAR  was  bom.  New 
incentives  were  needed  to  attract  young  men  and  women  to  the  Army  Less  stringent  standards,  better 
living  and  working  conditions  and  the  provision  for  beer  in  the  barracks  were  some  of  the 
innovations.  Kitchen  Police  (KP)  was  seen  as  a  strong  negative  inducement;  and,  therefore,  the  Army 
began  hiring  civilians  to  perform  those  and  other  mundane  duties  Many  of  the  changes  did  improve 
the  quality  of  life  of  soldiers  and  did  help  in  reaching  recruitment  goals.  Some  of  the  changes, 
however,  did  not  last  very  long — one  of  those  was  beer  in  the  barracks.  Soldiers  actually  wanted 
discipline  and  rigorous  training.  That  was  the  reason  many  enlisted.  Some  felt  instead  they  were 
being  coddled  and  not  challenged.  It  was  a  time  of  uncertainty  for  both  soldiers  and  the  Army 
leadership.  High  rates  of  drug  abuse  and  misconduct  were  prevalent  in  the  continental  U.S. 
(CONUS)  and  in  Europe  and  these  exacerbated  the  seething  problems  involved  in  moving  fi-om  war 
to  peace. 

In  early  1973  there  were  still  a  few  chaplains  in  Vietnam.  The  war  was  quickly  moving  toward 
closure  for  the  United  States,  but  toward  an  uncertain  fiature  for  citizens  of  South  Vietnam.  The  last 
chaplain  serving  in  Vietnam  left  the  war  zone  in  March  1973.  No  chaplains  served  in  Vietnam  after 
that  date.''' 

Before  his  retirement.  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Francis  L.  Sampson,  the  former  Chief  of 
Chaplains,  approved  a  Five  Year  Program  for  Fiscal  Years  1973-77."  This  excellent  document 
outlined  where  he  saw  the  Chaplaincy  at  that  time  and  placed  continued  emphasis  on  the  traditional 
fijnctions  of  Chaplain  Corps'  ministry,  training,  and  administration.  It  was  an  important  document  that 
basically  stressed  "business  as  usual."  The  plan,  written  in  1970-71,  could  not  envision  the  dramatic 
changes  in  emphasis  that  would  be  required  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  period  for  which  it  was  written. 
New  challenges  faced  the  Chaplaincy  and  new  means  of  management  would  be  required. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Pastors  for  the  Total  Army  Community 

Upon  assuming  the  oflFice  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Chaplain  Hyatt  issued  a  document  with 
48  projects  in  eight  areas  that  he  determined  needed  to  be  addressed  for  the  benefit  of  the  total  Army. 
At  the  Command  Chaplain  Conference  in  July  1974,  Hyatt  said  the  following  regarding  his  Five  Year 
Planning  Guidance; 

The  premise  on  which  the  objectives  of  the  Five  Year  Planning  Guidance  are  based  is  that  the 
parish  ministry  is  at  the  heart  of  the  chaplaincy.  We  are  professional  pastors  and  we  have  a 
total  ministry  to  the  entire  community  Perhaps  more  than  anyone  else,  we  can  provide  the 
leadership,  personal  openness  and  acceptance,  and  professional  expertise  which  commanders 
need  in  order  to  have  a  positive  and  healthy  environment,  a  climate  of  moral  responsibility, 
and  a  community  of  openness  and  trust."" 

That  document  was  refined  in  FY  75  and  published  as  "Objectives  for  the  Seventies."'^  The 
eight  major  areas  listed  in  the  guidance  were: 

Religious  Services 
Religious  Education 
Pastoral  Concerns 
Human  Self  Development 
Administration  and  Financial  Management 
Professional  Development 
Management  and  Procurement 
Research  and  Development. 

Each  major  area  was  broken  out  into  its  various  elements,  and  a  detailed  schedule  listed  all 
that  was  to  be  accomplished  in  each  component.  In  September  1974,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  issued 
a  Memorandum  entitled  "Army  Stewardship  Concept."  This  document  specified  two  main  objectives 
"(1)  Reciprocal  and  collaborative  relations  between  chaplains  at  all  levels  and  (2)  A  commitment  to 
action  rather  than  reaction."  The  Plan  included  Key  Result  Areas  such  as  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's 
Planning  Guidance  The  Key  Result  Areas  were  basically  the  eight  areas  previously  specified  in  the 
"Objectives  for  the  Seventies  "'"  They  were  intended  to  be  measurable  so  that  effective  evaluation 
could  be  applied  and  the  Chaplaincy  would  be  able  to  determine  at  any  time  how  much  had  been 

The  management  processes  established  by  Chaplain  Hyatt  provided  the  means  by  which  new 
programs  could  be  introduced  into  the  Chaplaincy  to  meet  the  changing  needs  of  the  Army.  They  also 
established  the  fi"amework  and  the  philosophy  under  which  the  Chaplaincy  would  operate  for  the  next 
decade  or  more.  At  the  heart  of  Chaplain  Hyatt's  strategy  was  his  conviction  that  installation 
chaplains  were  the  key  leaders  for  implementing  ministry  for  soldiers  and  family  members.  The  best 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


senior  chaplains  should  be  found  at  installation  level,  he  believed,  and  quality  ministry  would  follow.        | 

Soldier  and  Family  Support 

Hospital  Ministry 

Clinical  Pastoral  Education  (CPE)  began  in  earnest  in  the  Chaplaincy  in  the  1960s  as  a  result 
of  the  efforts  of  Chaplains  Thomas  Harris  and  John  Betzold  who  coordinated  the  program  with  the 
Office  of  the  Army  Surgeon  General.  As  a  result  of  Chaplain  Harris'  creativity  and  excellent  staflF 
work,  not  only  did  he  gain  acceptance  for  the  CPE  program,  but  he  also  succeeded  in  receiving 
approval  for  a  chaplain  to  teach  medical  ethics  and  doctor  patient  relationships  as  a  member  of  the 
staff  of  various  Army  Medical  faculties.'^  Initially  CPE  training  and  ministry  was  carried  out  only  in 
hospital  settings.  It  was  soon  recognized,  however,  that  the  skills  learned  had  a  much  wider 
application.  Chaplain  Hyatt  envisioned  CPE  being  used  in  many  other  areas  of  the  military 
community.  In  FY  72-73,  he  approved  a  concept  for  the  development  of  a  Community  Model  CPE 
program  at  Fort  Benning,  Georgia,  and  at  Fort  Knox,  Kentucky,  pioneered  by  Chaplain  Robert  Crick 
and  by  Chaplain  Thomas  R.  Smith.'"  The  Community  Model  required  CPE  students  to  take  one 
quarter  of  training  in  each  of  the  following  areas:  Basic  Training  Brigade,  Family  Chapel,  Post 
Stockade,  and  the  Post  Hospital.  This  broad-based  training  enabled  chaplains  to  serve  in  a  wide 
variety  of  assignments  whereas  the  medical  model  essentially  prepared  chaplains  only  for  the  narrower 
hospital  ministry.  Later  in  the  seventies  the  community  model  was  eventually  broadened  and  training 
was  provided  at  Forts  Benning  and  Hood. 

By  1973,  seventy-five  chaplains  had  completed  one  year  of  CPE  training.  Chaplain  Hyatt  saw 
value  in  CPE  for  all  chaplains  He  saw  it  as  a  means  of  extending  skills  and  enhancing  ministry.  He 
declared  that  he  wanted  every  chaplain  to  have  at  least  one  quarter  of  CPE  training.-'  In  order  to 
carry  out  this  objective  he  announced  that  he  would  establish  CPE  training  centers  at  14  CONUS 
installations,  five  Major  Army  Medical  Centers,  and  three  Overseas  locations.  During  this  period  of 
growth  the  Chaplaincy  also  began  training  CPE  students  for  the  higher  level  of  CPE  Supervision. 
This  meant  that  chaplains  could  then  provide  supervisory  training  for  other  chaplains.  This  was  very 
intense  training  and  produced  highly  qualified  mentors.  Walter  Reed  Army  Medical  Center  was  the 
first  Army  center  to  be  granted  accreditation  for  training  supervisors,  by  the  civilian  Association  of 
Clinical  Pastoral  Educators. 

Family  Life 

Interest  in  Family  Ministry  had  been  growing  since  the  end  of  the  Vietnam  War.  In  the 
Modern  Volunteer  Army  more  soldiers  were  married  than  ever  before  and  the  need  for  ministry 
increased  significantly.  Some  chaplains  received  graduate  training  in  family  life  ministry  at  the 
American  Institute  for  Family  Relations  ( AIFR),  in  California.  Family  Life  Ministry  programs  began 
in  the  early  1970s  at  such  places  as  Forts  Campbell,  Ord,  and  Sill.  These  programs  normally  provided 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


full-time  ministry  in  counseling,  parenting,  and  education. 

The  US.  Army  Chaplain  Board,  recognizing  the  need  for  greater  emphasis  on  Family  Life 
Ministry,  designated  one  of  its  staff  members  in  1974  to  specifically  focus  on  this  area.""  Another 
major  area  of  need  for  ministry  and  emphasis  was  to  Asian  spouses  and  their  family  members.  Many 
soldiers  who  had  served  in  the  Far  East  returned  with  Asian  spouses  who  were  isolated  and  alone  in 
their  new  environment.  It  was  a  critical  ministry  often  provided  by  the  chapel  team  to  help  integrate 
foreign  spouses  into  their  new  community.  One  entire  edition  of  the  A//7/7a/y  Chaplains  Review  was 
devoted  to  the  need  for  this  ministry." 

At  the  end  of  the  war  in  Vietnam,  many  former  Vietnamese  soldiers  and  citizens  fled  the 
conquering  hordes  of  North  Vietnamese  invaders.  Some  escaped  to  neighboring  nations  and  many 
eventually  made  their  way  to  the  United  States.  It  was  decided  that  ministry  should  be  provided  to 
families  and  individuals  under  American  control.  A  refugee  camp  was  established  by  Department  of 
the  Army  at  Fort  Chaffee,  Arkansas  Assigned  to  provide  special  ministry  were  three  Roman  Catholic 
and  four  Protestant  Chaplains,  three  Vietnamese  speaking  Protestant  Missionaries,  three  civilian 
Catholic  Priests,  and  a  Buddhist  Monk.  Four  Army  chaplains  also  ministered  to  Vietnamese  refugees 
on  the  Island  of  Guam."'' 

Drug  and  Alcohol  Abuse  Prevention 

Another  legacy  of  the  War  in  Vietnam  was  the  gargantuan  and  pervasive  problem  of  drug 
abuse.  It  was  clearly  a  major  symptom  of  the  times.  Its  cost  in  terms  of  dollars  and  manpower  were 
enormous.  On  July  17,  1971,  President  Nixon  called  for  an  "urgent  and  immediate"  program  to  deal 
with  the  escalating  problem  of  drug  abuse."'  In  response  to  the  President's  message,  the  Army 
published  DA  Circular  600-85  "Army  Alcohol  and  Drug  Abuse  Prevention  and  Control  Program." 
Drug  and  Alcohol  Prevention  Teams  were  established  throughout  the  Army.  Chaplains  served  on 
most  of  these  teams  as  pastors,  counselors  and  moral  leaders. 

Chaplain  involvement  in  drug  and  alcohol  ministry  has  a  long  history,  perhaps  first  receiving 
Chief  of  Chaplain  emphasis  after  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Sampson's  visit  to  Vietnam,  July  1 1  to  August 
8,  1969.  Following  Chaplain  Sampson's  visit  to  Southeast  Asia,  he  directed  that  the  Army  chaplains 
conduct  day-long  training  workshops  throughout  the  Army  on  drug  and  alcohol  abuse  as  part  of  the 
chaplain's  monthly  training  program  for  the  third  quarter  of  that  fiscal  year."* 

Chaplain  Delbert  Gremmels  wrote  the  justification  for  the  chaplain  spaces  on  the  drug  training 
teams."'  The  Army  recognized  the  skills  chaplains  possessed  and  accepted  Gremmel's  proposals. 
Chaplains  were  highly  successful  in  providing  ministry  to  those  addicted  and  in  the  development  of 
strategies  and  ministries  aimed  at  prevention.  This  action  was  important  to  the  success  of  the  drug 
teams  It  also  provided  the  basis  for  retaining  many  chaplain  spaces  that  would  otherwise  have  been 
lost  during  the  Army  reducfion  in  force.  During  1973-74,  seventy-eight  chaplains  worked  with  eighty- 
one  drug  teams.""  As  other  personnel  were  trained  in  drug  counseling  and  prevention,  the  chaplains 
played  a  lesser  roll.  They  did,  however,  remain  active  in  ministering  and  providing  support  in  the  drug 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


abuse  milieu. 

In  1973,  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly  became  the  first  Executive  Officer  in  the  Oflfice  of  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains.  One  of  the  first  tasks  assigned  to  him  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  to  work  with  Brigadier 
General  Robert  Gard,  fi-om  the  Office  of  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel,  to  develop  methods 
for  dealing  with  the  serious  problem  of  drug  abuse.  They  met  with  many  experts  in  the  field  and  with 
Congressional  Staff  personnel.  One  of  the  major  objectives  was  to  develop  a  training  program  for 
drug  counselors.  Chaplain  Kelly  was  assigned  the  duty  to  study  and  identify  an  institution  where  such 
training  could  be  done.  He  recommended  Yale  University,  because  of  the  excellent  training  it 
provided,  even  though  it  had  only  recently  canceled  its  ROTC  program  in  reaction  to  the  Vietnam 
War  "'  Chaplain  Kelly's  involvement  was  a  natural  evolution  fi-om  his  leadership  in  the  area  in 
Vietnam,  and  while  serving  in  the  Plans,  Programs  and  Policies  Division  of  the  Oflfice  of  the  Chief  of 

Chaplain  involvement  in  drug  ministry  consumed  much  of  almost  every  chaplain's  time.  It  was 
uppermost  on  every  commander's  mind  and  took  high  priority  in  the  chaplain's  workload.  The  effort 
was  rewarded  by  success  in  helping  individual  soldiers  combat  their  addictions  and  won  widespread 
respect  for  the  abilities  of  chaplains.  The  old  stereotypes  of  chaplains  as  inept  "Chaplain  Stainglass," 
or  overiy  pious  "Father  Mulcahey,"  were  quickly  fading  away.  As  non-chaplain  personnel  became 
trained  and  competent  in  drug  prevention  and  treatment,  the  chaplaincy  let  others  take  the  lead.  By 
the  early  1980s,  there  were  only  four  chaplains  remaining  who  were  directly  involved  in  drug  ministry. 

Muhi-cultural  Programs 

Toward  the  end  of  United  States  involvement  in  Vietnam  (late  1960s  -  early  1970s),  American 
society  was  seething  in  racial  unrest.  What  happened  in  civilian  communities  was  true  of  the  Army 
as  well.  The  morale  of  many  units  was  seriously  degraded.  Chaplains  had  long  been  involved  in  race 
relations  ministry  through  counseling,  training  and  race  relations  councils.  Now  a  strenuous  effort 
would  be  required  to  meet  this  challenge. 

Since  the  initiation  of  the  All  Volunteer  Army,  the  presence  of  minorities  in  the  Army  steadily 
increased.  The  number  of  blacks,  for  instance,  nearly  doubled  immediately  after  1973.  The  same  was 
true  of  other  minorities,  especially  Hispanics.  The  face  and  the  color  of  the  Army  was  changing 
dramatically.  That  was  not  the  issue.  The  problem  was  that  many  soldiers  were  not  yet  ready  for  this 

In  December  1972  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  convened  a  conference  of 
distinguished  black  leaders  to  assist  in  meeting  the  needs  of  minority  soldiers  and  the  recruitment  of 
black  chaplains.  As  a  result  of  that  meeting,  a  goal  was  established  to  have  15%  of  the  chaplaincy 
comprised  of  black  chaplains.^'  It  was  felt  that  this  would  ensure  the  ability  to  equitably  assign  black 
chaplains  wherever  needed  to  provide  special  ministries  and  reduce  tensions.  Although  that  lofty 
numerical  goal  was  never  met,  it  did  serve  to  highlight  the  emphasis  placed  on  soliciting  chaplains  to 
meet  the  changing  ethnic  composition  of  the  Army.  The  special  recruitment  effort  did  result  in  an 
increase  to  65  black  chaplains  with  similar  increases  for  other  minorities.^^ 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


In  FY  73-74,  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  sponsored  a  Gospel  Music  workshop,  and 
underscored  special  programs  for  Martin  Luther  King  Day,  Black  History  Week  and  other  significant 
cultural  events 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  Five  Year  Program  for  FY  74-78  addressed  the  problem  of  race 
relations.  "The  Army  chaplaincy  must  bring  to  bear  the  resources  of  religious  faith  and  work  within 
this  framework  to  alleviate  the  situation.  "^^  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  also  called  for  the  initiation  of 
ministries  of  human  relations  to  accelerate  "the  integration  of  cultural  and  racial  resources  into 
existing  programs."  Special  conferences  for  black  chaplains  were  convened  to  hear  their  needs  and 
concerns.  Throughout  FY  1974,  Race  Relations  and  Multi-cultural  Workshops  were  held  in  various 
places  with  21 1  chaplains  in  attendance.  In  his  March  1974  Newsletter,  Chaplain  Hyatt  wrote: 

The  Army  has  set  out  to  win  the  battle  against  racial  discrimination.  This  commitment 
is  clear  in  programs,  plans  and  training  developed  and  used  world-wide...  All  human 
beings  must  be  freed  from  those  personal  and  institutional  abuses  which  rob  life  of 
meaning  and  fulfillment.^^ 

Gospel  services  proliferated  to  almost  every  CONUS  and  overseas  installation  as  a  means  of 
meeting  both  religious  and  cultural  needs  of  black  soldiers  and  their  family  members.  The  history  of 
the  Black  Gospel  Service  is  not  fully  known/*  but  it  is  possible  that  the  first  modern  Army  Gospel 
Service  was  held  by  accident  in  Kaiserslautem,  Germany,  in  1968.  Chaplain  Leroy  Johnson  formed 
a  black  concert  choir  to  sing  on  Armed  Forces  Radio  Network,  and  later  toured  Europe,  singing  at 
"gospel  services.""  In  CONUS,  the  first  Gospel  Service  was  held  (by  Chaplain  John  Paul  Monk)  at 
Fort  Carson,  where  racial  tensions  between  soldiers  and  the  civilian  community  ran  high. 

Chaplain  Roy  Plummer  initiated  a  very  successfijl  and  highly  recognized  program  of  Black 
Gospel  Services,  in  1973-74,  at  Fort  Lewis,  Washington  When  he  was  first  assigned.  Chaplain 
Plummer  was  told  that  he  was  too  young  and  too  black  to  conduct  the  main  Protestant  service  at  the 
9th  Infantry  Division  Chapel.  Some  white  parishioners  began  to  leave  the  chapel.  Subsequently,  a 
black  member  of  the  congregation  began  to  invite  as  many  African  American  soldiers  and  family 
members  as  possible  to  attend  the  service.  In  less  than  one  year  the  congregation  was  too  large  to  fit 
into  the  chapel.^*  At  about  this  same  time,  at  the  urging  of  Chaplain  Tom  McMinn  at  III  Corps, 
Chaplain  Irving  Jennings  began  to  conduct  Black  Gospel  Services  at  Fort  Hood,  Texas.  Chaplain 
James  Russell  followed  suit  at  Fort  Bliss.  As  with  the  service  at  Fort  Lewis,  the  Gospel  Services 
were  the  most  heavily  attended  and  certainly  the  most  enthusiastic  of  any  services  held  on  posts. 

The  focus  on  the  needs  of  black  soldiers  was  clearly  essential.  It  soon  became  apparent, 
however,  that  the  problem  was  much  larger.  Other  minorities,  racial,  cultural  and  religious,  also 
needed  special  ministries.  Chaplain  W.  E.  Smith,  a  Reservist  and  professor  at  Brigham  Young 
University,  was  prophetic  when  writing: 

Sooner  or  later,  trends  which  appear  in  American  life  are  felt  in  the  military — whether 
these  trends  are  sociological,  political,  economic  or  religious.  The  current  trend  which 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


reinforces  concepts  of  pluralism  and  sanctity  of  the  individual  is  no  exception.^' 

Focused  emphasis  was  being  placed  on  meeting  the  needs  of  black  soldiers,  there  was  also  an 
increased  awareness  of  the  needs  of  Hispanic  soldiers  and  their  dependents.  Special  cultural  programs 
centered  around  special  historical  or  religious  events  began  to  find  their  way  into  parish  programs  and 
the  general  military  community.  Additionally,  religious  groups  other  than  Judeo-Christian  began  to 
clamor  for  recognition.  Special  arrangements  were  made  to  accommodate  religious  and  dietary  needs 
of  Muslims  and  others.  Recognition  of  gender  (female)  as  a  minority  category  was  also  coming  to  the 
forefront.  Plans  were  already  being  laid  to  meet  this  challenge. 

This  new  perspective  on  pluralism  led  to  the  development  of  a  broad  emphasis  on  Multi- 
cultural ministry.  One  of  the  chief  architects  of  the  new  programs,  a  young  chaplain  named  Matthew 
A.  Zimmerman,  was  assigned  to  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.""  Chaplains  met  annually  to 
identify  needs  both  of  minority  chaplains  and  their  constituents,  to  recommend  initiatives  and  to 
evaluate  the  success  of  ongoing  programs  New  policies  were  developed  to  address  inequities  and 
to  ensure  that  every  soldier  was  treated  with  dignity  and  respect. 

Transforming  the  System: 
Personal  Effectiveness  Training 

The  Army  that  returned  fi"om  Vietnam  was  in  disarray.  Morale,  discipline  and  leadership  were 
at  an  extremely  low  point  and  sinking  deeper.  Army  leaders,  especially  noncommissioned  officers  and 
junior  officers,  were  reluctant  to  enforce  rules  and  to  maintain  high  standards.  Over  800  reported 
"fi'aggings"  and  other  threats  to  life  and  limb  immobilized  many  of  the  leaders  who  were  positioned 
to  correct  these  very  problems.""  Young  officers  and  sergeants  were  sometimes  afraid  to  enter  soldier 
work  or  living  areas  for  fear  that  they  would  be  attacked  either  verbally  or  physically.  Soldiers 
continually  challenged  the  authority  of  their  leaders.  In  many  instances  it  was  difficult  to  determine 
who  the  real  leaders  were 

Chaplain  Hyatt  gave  a  highly  eftective  speech  at  the  Infantry  School  on  the  subject  of 
leadership  and  why  soldiers  do  not  reenlist.  He  stressed  the  need  for  proper  treatment  of  soldiers. 
Reports  of  the  speech  reached  General  Abrams,  the  Chief  of  StaflFof  the  Army,  who  passed  on  the 
report  to  Lieutenant  General  Bernard  Rogers,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  StaftTor  Personnel  (DCSPER).''" 

In  August  1973,  General  Rogers  asked  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  asked  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 
for  assistance  in  working  out  a  program  to  increase  leadership  effectiveness  of  junior  officers  and 
noncommissioned  officers."  Chaplains  were  chosen  because  of  their  training  in  problem-solving, 
counseling  and  communication  skills.  These  were  the  skills  needed  to  build  trust  and  confidence  in 
junior  Army  leaders.  A  team  of  chaplains  worked  with  social  scientists  at  Fort  Bliss,  Texas,  to 
develop  what  would  be  called  "Personal  Effectiveness  Training"  (PET).  The  PET  program,  while  not 
mandatory,  was  implemented  at  almost  all  CONUS  installations.  PET  training  consisted  of  workshops 
and  seminars  which  provided  skills  and  experience  in  communications,  counseling  and  effective 
leadership.  Graduates  of  these  programs  returned  to  their  units  and  practiced  the  new  abilities  with 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


the  soldiers  under  their  command  or  supervision 

Chaplain  Albert  Ledebuhr,  US  Army  Europe  (USAREUR)  Command  Chaplain,  requested 
that  Clinical  Pastoral  Education  (CPE)  trained  chaplains  be  assigned  to  the  European  Command  in 
order  to  form  counseling  teams  to  assist  with  the  implementation  of  the  PET  program. '*'*  These 
counseling  teams  conducted  workshops  throughout  the  command  Their  seminars  had  two  main 
emphases:  1 )  to  train  officers  and  NCOs  to  be  more  efficient  and  responsive  in  understanding  and 
meeting  needs  of  their  soldiers,  and  2)  to  acquaint  participants  with  practical  techniques  and  methods 
of  counseling/" 

The  PET  program  contributed  to  a  restoration  of  confidence  and  leadership  at  the  middle 
management  level  of  the  Army.  Social  scientists  from  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General  were  very 
impressed  with  the  program  and  expressed  an  interest  in  engaging  in  future  projects  with  the 
Chaplaincy.  In  1974  the  PET  program  was  highly  rated  by  commanders  in  the  field.  The  decision  was 
made  at  the  US  Army  Training  and  Doctrine  Command  that  PET  should  be  included  in  the  Program 
of  Instruction  for  all  Drill  Sergeants.  As  non-chaplains  were  trained  in  the  PET  skills,  chaplains 
turned  over  responsibility  for  the  program  to  the  commanders,  but  remained  available  to  assist  in 
instruction  and  in  consultation/"' 

Organization  Development  and  Parish  Development 

In  1970  relations  between  the  races,  particularly  black  and  white,  were  severely  strained.  The 
Secretary  of  Defense  requested  improvements  in  communications  between  the  races  as  a  means  of 
alleviating  the  problem  The  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  contracted  with  the  National  Training 
Laboratories  (NTL)  to  begin  an  extensive  and  intensive  training  program  in  human  relations  and 
interpersonal  dynamics  Several  chaplains  attended  strenuous  training  sessions  at  the  NTL  training 
facility  at  Bethel,  Maine  In  1971-72,  nearly  100  chaplain  advance  course  students  participated  in 
Human  Relations  training.  At  the  same  time,  similar  training  also  was  being  conducted  on  19 
CONUS  installations.^'  Dr.  Cy  Mill,  NTL  consultant,  stated  that  Army  chaplains: 

Have  power  at  their  command  which  is  rarely  used,  the  power  of  the  church,  power 
of  their  position  as  representatives  of  right  and  justice,  power  of  their  individual 
personalities,  and  power  to  limit  the  extent  to  which  they  will  accede  to  the 
restrictions  which  bind  other  branches  of  the  service.** 

Another  innovative  program,  known  throughout  the  Chaplaincy  and  the  Army  as 
Organizational  Development,  had  its  roots  in  new  instructional  approach  mandated  by  TRADOC  and 
implemented  at  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  School  in  1968-1969.  In  an  effort  to  focus  training  on  the 
tasks,  skills,  and  attitudes  chaplains  needed  to  perform  their  religious  support  duties.  Chaplain  Charles 
Kriete,  Director  of  Curriculum  development.  Chaplain  Richard  Tupy  and  Chaplain  Edward  O'Shea 
applied  a  TRADOC  Systems  Engineering  process  to  identify  tasks  and  then  design  a  curriculum  to 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


support  task  specific  training.'*'  By  dividing  the  Advanced  Chaplains  Course  into  small  groups. 
Chaplain  Ed  O'Shea  observed  that  "reality  teaching  was  done  in  a  real  way.""'  Chaplain  Chet 
Lindsey,  the  Chaplain  School  Commandant,  approved  the  initiative. 

As  part  of  the  instructional  revolution  at  the  School,  Chaplain  Ed  O'Shea  introduced  an 
instructional  method  called  the  Group  Process  Plan.  The  GPP  was  not  only  a  small  group  learning 
process  but  also  a  problem-solving  technique."  Chaplain  Kriete  thought  it  could  be  described  as 
"task-oriented  sensitivity  training.""  "It  was  this  plan,"  Chaplain  O'Shea  later  recalled,"  which  gave 
birth  to  Organizational  Development.  In  fact.  Colonel  Morton,  the  first  Commandant  of  the  Sergeant 
Majors  Academy,  which  was  organized  at  Ft  Bliss  in  1971,  had  visited  the  Chaplain  School  earlier 
and  determined  that  the  Academy  would  utilize  the  GPP  as  its  teaching  methodology.  Chaplain 
Harold  Lamm  and  I  were  commissioned  to  spend  three  weeks  at  Ft.  Bliss  introducing  the  process  to 
the  staff  and  training  the  faculty  in  its  use.""  Chaplain  John  Scott,  who  served  as  the  first  chaplain 
appointed  to  the  Sergeant  Majors  Academy,  may  have  been  among  the  first  chaplains  in  the  Army  to 
transition  to  the  Organizational  Development  program. 

The  purpose  of  Organizational  Development  was  to  enable  participatory  management  and 
decision-making  Chaplains  and  laity  at  all  levels  worked  together  to  set  goals,  improve 
communications  and  enhance  relationships.  Major  stress  was  placed  on  the  process  used  and  the 
development  of  interpersonal  skills  rather  than  on  a  quantifiable  end  product.  Heavy  emphasis  was 
placed  on  the  effect  of  interpersonal  relations  and  human  dynamics  on  decision-making  in  the  Army. 
Chaplain  leaders  felt  that  effective  ministry  included  being  in  touch  with  one's  own  feelings  as  well 
as  those  of  the  chapel  team  and  other  constituents.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  appointed  Chaplain 
Edward  O'Shea  to  serve  as  his  senior  project  officer  for  the  implementation  of  Organizational 
Development  programs  to  be  conducted  at  17  posts  by  the  end  of  1975.^^  O'Shea  was  highly 
qualified  and  an  enthusiastic  proponent  of  this  movement.  Much  of  the  success  of  the  program  was 
due  to  his  skill  and  leadership 

Chaplain  Hyatt  viewed  the  chaplaincy  as  a  "decentralized  non-system. "  He  wanted  input  from 
post  chaplains  and  commanders  and  in  turn  sought  to  empower  them  to  provide  ministry.'' 
Consultants  were  used  to  gain  information  and  identify  resources  to  meet  those  needs 

At  Fort  Bliss,  Texas,  Chaplain  Trevor  Turner,  the  installation  staff  chaplain,  gathered  his 
twenty  or  so  chaplains  together  for  several  days  to  learn  how  to  apply  the  methods  of  organizational 
development.  Civilian  leaders  under  contract  with  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  facilitated  the 
sessions.  Chaplains  began  by  identifying  their  own  strengths  and  weaknesses.  They  then  looked  at  the 
needs  of  the  religious  community.  As  a  result  of  these  meetings,  chaplains  learned  not  only  how  to 
relate  more  effectively  with  each  other,  but  also  how  to  organize  and  implement  programs  to  meet 
the  actual  needs  of  their  parish. 

The  experimental  programs  were  highly  successful  and  in  1 974  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  decided 
to  eliminate  the  outside  consultants  and  rely  on  his  own  chaplains  to  provide  Organizational 
Development  training.  Consequently,  OCCH  established  a  "Green  Suit"  network  of  12  chaplain 
trainers.'^  This  cadre  traveled  throughout  the  Army  providing  new  resources  to  chaplains  on  the  posts 
to  help  them  develop  proactive  ministries  in  their  commands,  units  and  chapels.  They  also  served  as 
personal  consultants  to  the  installation  staff  chaplain. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Organizational  Development  continued  to  be  used  as  a  tool  to  increase  the  effectiveness  of 
chaplains'  pastoral  and  prophetic  ministry.  In  1974,  four  interrelated  goals  were  specified:  1 )  to  assist 
chaplains  to  evaluate  their  leadership  styles,  2)  to  develop  alternatives  to  traditional  programming 
and  development,  3)  to  assist  in  the  creation  of  an  open  work  environment,  and  4)  to  aid  in 
emergence  of  proactive  rather  than  reactive  approaches  to  ministry." 

In  1974,  the  Chaplaincy  changed  the  name  of  its  program  from  "Organizational  Development" 
to  "Parish  Development."  The  purpose  of  the  change  was  to  allow  for  the  incorporation  of  a 
theological  underpinning  and  perspective.'*  It  had  been  felt  by  some  that  the  program  up  to  that  point 
had  been  too  "secular"  and  it  needed  a  distinctively  theological  imprint  on  it.  The  same  "green  suit" 
network  provided  the  impetus  and  the  training  for  the  new  endeavor  Two  pilot  programs  were 
established.''  The  program  at  Fort  Leonard  Wood  was  led  by  Chaplain  Eugene  Allen,  and  the 
program  at  Fort  Myer  by  Chaplain  William  Martin  The  Mid-Atlantic  Association  for  Training  and 
Consulting  (MATC),  provided  training  for  chaplains  and  assistants  and  in  1981  they  began  training 
consultants  to  work  with  parishes  on  a  regular  basis. "^^ 

The  same  general  principles  used  by  Organizational  Development  were  incorporated  into 
Parish  Development.  The  significant  difference  was  that  the  focus  was  specifically  on  improving 
parish  life.  By  1981  almost  every  Army  installation  had  established  a  Parish  Council  through  which 
planning  and  coordinating  of  activities  was  accomplished.  In  establishing  the  program  using  chaplain 
leaders,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  wrote  that: 

Our  ultimate  goal  is  to  be  able  to  do  for  ourselves  what  we  currently  have  others 
doing  for  us.  We  want  to  develop  chaplains  who  can  assume  the  role  of  consultants 
to  installations  other  than  their  own,  and  serve  as  internal  consultants  on  their  own.*' 

One  effect  of  reemphasizing  the  role  of  the  chaplain  as  religious  leader,  as  in  the  Parish 
Development  program,  was  to  identify  an  area  of  Chaplain  Corps  autonomy  at  the  DA  Staff  level. 
Chaplain  Hyatt  wanted  the  Army  to  understand  that  chaplains  had  a  distinct  contribution  to  make  as 
religious  leaders  and  advisors  to  commanders  in  the  areas  of  religion,  morals  and  morale.  As  a  result 
of  his  valued  relationship  with  General  Abrams,  Chaplain  Hyatt  was  placed  on  Abrams'  personal  staff 
Other  senior  commanders  soon  followed  suit  and  added  their  staff  chaplains  to  their  personal  staff 

Management  by  Objectives  for  Results 

In  1970,  at  approximately  the  same  time  that  Organizational  Development  was  being 
introduced  to  the  Chaplaincy,  a  parallel  management  device  was  being  developed.  Chaplain  Clifford 
Keys,  Director  of  Management  at  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Office,  determined  that  new  methods  were 
necessary  for  moving  the  Chaplaincy  into  the  future.  Management  by  Objectives  for  Results  (MBOR) 
became  the  new  model  of  management.  Peter  Drucker  and  George  Odiorne  had  introduced  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


method  in  the  business  world." 

MBOR  used  many  of  the  techniques  of  Organizational  Development  and  Parish  Development 
and,  therefore,  it  was  seen  as  a  complementary  effort.  It  was  a  goal  setting,  participatory  management 
process  that  envisioned  the  chaplains  and  laity  working  together  as  a  team  at  every  level  of  the 
institution.  Chaplain  Hyatt  stated  that  MBOR  "enables  a  united  effort  in  accomplishing  the  work  of 
ministry  in  chapel/unit/parish  setting.  It  opens  the  door  to  eflFective  communications  "*^  MBOR 
required  the  definition  of  the  Chaplaincy  or  parish  mission,  clarification  of  roles,  establishment  of 
goals,  identification  of  indicators  to  determine  effectiveness,  result  oriented  objectives,  action  plans 
and  feedback. **' 

MBOR,  in  various  forms,  remained  the  management  process  used  throughout  the  seventies, 
eighties  and  into  the  early  nineties  It  could  be  questioned  whether  the  innovations  of  the  seventies 
would  have  occurred  without  these  procedures  in  place. 

Values  and  the  Human  Self  Development  Program 

The  initial  concept  for  the  Human  Self  Development  Program  arose  in  the  late  1960s  or  early 
1970s.  Bits  and  pieces  began  to  make  their  way  into  the  system  until  a  full  fledged  program  was 
installed  in  1973.  The  official  program  was  established  under  AR  600-30.''*  In  preparing  for  the  new 
program  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Newsletter  announced  the  following  definition: 

The  Human  Self  Development  Program  is  an  Army  wide  coordinated  human  relations 
program.  The  word"human"  is  used  to  emphasize  we  are  not  to  manipulate  persons 
as  though  they  are  "things  "  The  word  "self  emphasizes  dignity,  responsibility  and 
personal  worth  of  human  beings.  The  word  "development"  suggests  processes  rather 
than  perfection  as  a  goal.*^ 

The  focus  of  the  program  was  on  the  whole  person.  It  was  to  address  people  problems  and 
was  implemented  at  the  local  installation  or  the  small  unit  level.  Chaplains  and  other  officers 
participated  in  the  instructional  aspects  of  the  effort.  The  U.S.  Army  Training  and  Doctrine 
Command  specified  that  two  hours  of  training  in  Human  Self  Development  were  required  for  all 
recruit  soldiers  in  Basic  Combat  Training  and  for  those  in  Advanced  Individual  Training  Films  and 
other  resources  were  provided  by  the  US  Army  Chaplain  Board.  The  major  goals  of  the  program 
were  to: 

(1)  Maintain  positive  social  values 

(2)  Increase  personal  responsibility 

(3)  Prevention  as  well  as  rehabilitation 

(4)  Alternatives  to  drugs  and  alcohol  abuse,  racial  bias  and  AWOL 

(5)  Positive  teaching  about  America's  past  and  fiiture 

(6)  Emphasis  on  personal  uniqueness  and  self-fijlfiUment."* 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Human  Self  Development  Councils  were  established  at  unit  and  installation  levels  to  deal  with 
human  relations  problems  arising  locally  Provisions  were  made  in  the  Chief  of  Chaplains'  Five  Year 
Program  for  development,  staffing  and  printing  of  resource  materials/'^  Much  of  this  work  was  done 
by  the  US  Army  Chaplain  Board 

Religious  Education 

Throughout  much  of  the  history  of  the  Chaplaincy,  religious  education  was  carried  out  by 
chaplains  and  lay  leaders.  The  first  civilian  Director  of  Religious  Education  (DRE)  was  hired  by  the 
Army  in  Germany  in  1956.™  There  was  a  slow  but  steady  increase  in  numbers  until  the  early  1970s. 
The  Chief  of  Chaplain's  annual  report  states  that  by  1974  there  were  87  DREs  in  the  Army  and  the 
number  was  increasing  DREs  were  originally  hired  "as  a  way  of  assuring  quality  control  and 
professionally  trained  leadership  in  the  chapel  religious  education  program."'''  Professional  religious 
educators  were  also  used  as  resource  persons  for  the  total  religious  program  and  often  were  members 
of  the  senior  chaplain's  staff"  During  the  mid-1970s  the  major  emphasis  was  on  improving  the  quality 
of  religious  education  Teacher  training  programs  were  developed  and  the  DREs  played  a  crucial  role 
in  that  project 

Jewish  Lay  Leadership  Training  was  established  in  1973  as  a  direct  result  of  the  growing 
shortage  of  Jewish  chaplains  in  all  military  services  In  many  places  the  only  way  Jewish  services 
could  be  provided  was  through  the  use  of  trained  lay  leaders  if  they  were  available  The  Department 
of  Defense  Armed  Forces  Chaplain  Board  published  "A  Jewish  Program  and  Resource  Guide  For 
Lay  Leaders  in  the  Armed  Forces  of  the  United  States."^*  Training  was  provided  on  a  regional  basis 
to  interested  and  qualified  Jewish  personnel  in  that  area  The  National  Jewish  Welfare  Board  granted 
certification  for  the  faith  group  to  ensure  their  objective  standards  were  satisfied.  Jewish  Lay 
Leadership  was  highly  successful  particularly  on  smaller  installations  and  units  where  no  chaplain  was 
available.  Jewish  chaplains  often  became  circuit  riders  providing  professional  services  on  a  rotating 
basis.  In  the  interim.  Lay  Leaders  provided  ministry  and  leadership. 

Female  Chaplains 

Women  were  playing  a  more  prominent  role  both  in  society  and  in  the  military  in  the  early 
years  of  the  1970s.  The  Women's  Liberation  Movement  was  in  fiill  swing.  Congress  was  debating  the 
Equal  Rights  Amendment  (ERA)  and  women  everywhere  were  ascending  to  positions  hitherto 
forbidden  to  them.  The  Army  anticipated  the  passage  of  the  ERA  and  began  making  plans  for  fijll 
integration  of  women  into  the  Army.  The  fact  that  the  amendment  was  not  passed  in  1970,  did  not 
deter  the  Army  from  moving  ahead  with  its  own  plans  With  the  dissolution  of  the  Women's  Army 
Corps,  female  soldiers  were  being  integrated  into  the  Army  in  new  and  challenging  ways. 

The  ending  of  the  Draft  was  accompanied  by  a  shortfall  in  accessioning  male  soldiers.  At  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


same  time,  a  study  revealed  that  more  women  with  generally  higher  qualifications  could  be  recruited 
at  less  expense  The  Womens'  Armed  Services  Act  of  1948  had  limited  the  number  of  women  to  2% 
of  the  total  force,  and  only  10%  of  that  2%  could  serve  as  officers/"  Now  the  way  was  clear  for  more 
women  not  only  to  volunteer,  but  to  be  recruited.  In  1972  only  one  out  of  every  50  soldiers  recruited 
was  female,  but  in  1973  that  figure  climbed  to  one  out  of  every  16.  Since  then,  the  number  of  women 
in  the  Army  has  remained  at  approximately  1 1%  of  the  total  force. 

Seminary  enrollment  of  women  had  escalated  during  the  last  years  of  Vietnam  More 
denominations  were  recognizing  the  ordination  of  women.  It  was  time  to  consider  commissioning  the 
first  female  chaplain  since  the  Civil  War.  In  1864,  Mrs  Ella  Hobart  was  selected  by  her  unit,  the  First 
Wisconsin  Regiment  of  Heavy  Artillery,  to  be  its  chaplain.  She  was  a  leader  in  the  Religion- 
Philosophical  Society  in  Illinois  and  was  not  ordained  Although  she  served  with  her  unit  for  several 
months,  possibly  in  combat  at  Fort  Stevens  near  Washington  in  1 864,  she  was  denied  a  commission 
by  Secretary  of  War  Edwin  M  Stanton'^  No  female  chaplains  had  served  since  that  time. 

Chaplain  Charles  Kriete,  Director  of  Plans,  Programs  and  Policies,  recommended  to  Chaplain 
Hyatt  that  a  woman  be  commissioned  as  a  chaplain.  Chaplain  Hyatt  agreed.  The  Navy  had  a  female 
chaplain  and  the  Army  needed  to  get  on  board  as  well.  The  first  denomination  to  respond  with  a 
woman  candidate  was  the  African  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  (AME).  The  Chaplaincy  approved 
The  Reverend  Alice  M  Henderson,  an  ordained  AME  minister,  to  be  the  first  female  chaplain.^'  In 
choosing  Chaplain  Henderson,  the  Chaplaincy  met  two  of  its  affirmative  action  goals,  for  Chaplain 
Henderson  was  also  black.  Chaplain  Henderson  was  sworn  into  the  Army  on  July  8,  1974,  at  U.S. 
Forces  Command  Headquarters  in  Atlanta.  She  completed  Basic  Chaplain  Training  and  was  assigned 
to  the  426th  Signal  Battalion  at  Fort  Bragg,  North  Carolina.  She  later  remarried  and  became  Chaplain 
Alice  Henderson  Harris.  Approximately  one  year  later  another  AME  chaplain,  Betty  Pace,  was 
commissioned  an  Army  Chaplain. 

The  early  years  were  not  always  kind  to  women  chaplains  They  constantly  felt  that  they 
needed  to  "prove"  themselves  and  justify  their  ministry.  Sometimes  they  were  greeted  with  hostility 
by  soldiers,  commanders  and  other  chaplains.  On  occasion  they  were  "paraded"  before  the  troops  and 
the  press  which  perhaps  created  false  expectations.  Chaplain  Janet  Horton  wrote  that  they  were 
sometimes  expected  to  be  "the  Star  Spangled  Barbie  Doll"  or  "Wonder  Woman,  Marilyn  Monroe  and 
Tina  Turner,  all  rolled  into  one."^*  Some  of  the  early  pioneers  paid  a  heavy  price  in  paving  the  way 
for  their  successors  Many  were  not  selected  for  promotion  and  were  released  from  active  duty. 
Those  who  followed  were  more  successful 

Chaplains  In  Service  Schools 

The  ministry  of  chaplains  as  instructors  in  Army  service  schools,  at  West  Point,  at  the  U.S. 
Army  War  College  and  other  locations  in  the  1970s  was  the  result  of  the  need  at  the  end  of  the 
Vietnam  War  for  a  new  approach  to  moral  leadership  training  in  the  Army.  The  My  Lai  massacre  of 
March  1968,  and  the  resulting  Peers  Inquiry  of  March  1970,  underscored  the  failure  of  thirty  officers 
and  senior  noncommissioned  officers  in  Task  Force  Barker  of  the  American  Division  to  model  and 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


enforce  standards  of  conduct  in  Vietnam.  While  this  incident  may  not  be  representative  of  the  total 
Vietnam  experience,  the  wide  publicity  generated  by  the  tragedy  at  My  Lai  called  into  question  the 
type  of  training  enlisted  soldiers  and  officers  received  in  the  laws  of  warfare  and  professional  military 

For  two  hundred  years,  from  1775  to  1975,  Army  Chaplains  had  been  expected  to  assist  the 
commander  with  training  soldiers  in  moral  conduct.  General  George  Washington  had  ordered  the 
soldiers  of  the  Continental  Army  to  march  to  worship  services  in  brigade  formation,  under  arms,  and 
to  pay  close  attention  to  the  sermons  that  chaplains  delivered.  During  the  Civil  War,  chaplains  were 
required  by  Army  regulation  to  "report  to  the  colonel  commanding  the  moral  and  religious  condition 
of  the  regiment,  and  such  suggestions  as  may  conduce  to  the  social  happiness  and  moral  improvement 
of  the  troops.""  Throughout  its  long  history,  the  Army  had  always  assumed  that  chaplains  would 
teach  morality  to  enlisted  soldiers,  but  not  necessarily  to  ofTicers  who  were  assumed  to  be 
"gentlemen."'"  In  the  course  of  World  War  II,  and  subsequently  in  Korea,  and  during  the  war  in 
Vietnam,  chaplains  conducted  thousands  of  Character  Guidance  classes  for  soldiers  around  the  world. 
At  the  end  of  the  Vietnam  War,  the  scope  of  the  chaplain  teaching  ministry  expanded  to  include 
officer  as  well  as  enlisted  soldier  instruction. 

On  21  January  1971,  General  William  Westmoreland,  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  directed 
Major  General  Franklin  M.  Davis,  Jr ,  Commandant  of  the  U.S.  Army  War  College,  to  study  the 
moral  and  ethical  climate  of  the  Army  and  the  leadership  qualities  required  for  the  decade  of  the 
1970s/'''  Among  studies  considered  was  the  Peers  Inquiry,  directed  by  Lieutenant  General  William 

The  findings  of  this  study  surprised  and  in  some  cases  shocked  many  of  the  Army's 
senior  leaders  In  general,  it  discovered  that  the  majority  of  the  Officer  Corps 
perceived  a  stark  dichotomy  between  appearance  and  reality  of  the  adherence  of 
senior  officers  to  the  traditional  standards  of  professionalism.  Instead,  these  officers 
saw  a  system  that  rewarded  selfishness,  incompetence,  and  dishonesty."" 

As  a  result  of  the  Army  War  College  studies  and  the  concerns  of  the  Army  Chief  of  Staff, 
courses  in  ethics,  leadership,  and  professionalism  were  initiated  in  Army  service  schools,  at  West 
Point,  and  at  the  War  College  itself  Chaplain  Charles  Kriete  attended  the  War  College  in  1974-1975, 
and  in  1975  he  was  assigned  as  the  first  chaplain  to  serve  on  the  faculty."'  Other  chaplains  who  served 
on  the  faculty  included;  Chaplains  Edward  O'Shea,  Donald  Davidson,  Timothy  Tatum,  John 
Schumacher,  Thomas  Norton  and  John  Brinsfield."" 

Chaplain  Hyatt  recognized  that  if  the  moral  climate  of  the  Army  was  to  change,  it  would  have 
to  be  done  at  least  in  part  through  the  kind  of  training  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers  received 
at  their  Service  Schools.  Chief  among  his  concerns  was  that  some  stress  be  placed  on  ethics  and 
moral  leadership.  He  coordinated  at  Department  of  the  Army,  at  the  Major  Commands,  and  with  the 
commandants  of  the  Schools  themselves  for  the  placement  of  chaplains  on  the  faculty  of  all  the 
Service  Schools.  His  efforts  were  rewarded. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 



Chaplain  Benjamin  Price  was  one  of  the  first  chaplains  to  serve  as  an  instructor  in  a  Service 
School — at  the  Armor  School,  Fort  Knox,  Kentucky.  Chaplain  Benjamin  Smith  was  appointed  as 
director  at  the  Defense  Race  Relations  Institute,  Patrick  Air  Force  Base,  Florida.  This  was  a  highly 
visible  and  critical  position  and  indicated  great  respect  for  Chaplain  Smith  and  for  the  Chaplaincy. 
These  appointments  had  been  preceded  by  earlier,  temporary  assignments,  of  chaplains  to  a  few 
Service  Schools.  Chaplain  Thomas  McMinn  had  been  assigned  to  the  Command  and  General  Staff 
College  to  teach  the  Law  of  Land  Warfare,  among  other  leadership  subjects,  in  the  1960's;  and 
Chaplains  Benjamin  Smith  and  Harold  Lamm  served  as  instructors  during  the  Vietnam  War  at  the 
Civil  Affairs  School.'' 

By  1974  fourteen  chaplains  were  regularly  assigned  to  the  faculties  of  Service  Schools.  Most 
taught  moral  leadership,  ethics,  counseling,  and  human  relations.  Chaplain  Donald  Clark  was  assigned 
as  a  branch  chief  at  the  School  for  Administration  at  Fort  Benjamin  Harrison.  The  Sergeants  Major 
Academy  was  established  at  Fort  Bliss  in  1973.  A  chaplain  assignment  was  requested  by  DCSPER 
to  help  develop  the  curriculum,  the  course  objectives  and  instructional  methodology.  Chaplain  John 
Scott,  for  example,  served  as  Director  of  Leadership  and  Management  at  the  Sergeant  Majors 
Academy  and  was  responsible  for  fifty  percent  of  the  specified  curriculum.*^  A  list  for  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains  of  the  chaplain  instructors  and  the  Service  Schools  to  which  they  were  assigned  included:*' 

U.S.  Army  Institute  of  Administration 
Air  Defense  Artillery  School 
Armor  School 
Command  and  General  Staff"  College 

Field  Artillery  School 
Infantry  School 

Academy  of  Health  Sciences 
Sergeants  Major  Academy 

Quartermaster  School 
Transportation  School 
The  Army  War  College 
Defense  Race  Relations  Institute 


n  Donald  Clark 
n  Jerry  Autry 
n  Richard  Matthew 
n  Don  Adickes 
n  Roland  Day 
n  Harold  Davis 
n  Meredith  Standley 
n  William  Bander 
n  David  Polhemus 
n  John  Scott 
n  Michael  Rogers 
n  John  Pearson 
n  Archie  Roberts 
n  Rueben  Askew 
n  Charles  Kriete 
n  Benjamin  Smith 

At  the  Army  War  College,  Chaplain  Charles  F  Kriete  wrote  a  brilliant  paper  for  the  Strategic 
Studies  Institute  entitled,  "The  Changing  Moral  Dimension  of  Strategy."  In  1977  Chaplain  Kriete 
became  the  Commandant  of  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School.  He  later  returned  to  the 
War  College  and  taught  strategy  and  military  history  until  his  retirement  in  1983.*'' 

Service  School  instructors,  while  under  the  direct  control  of  the  commandant,  received 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


chaplain  technical  supervision  from  the  Staff  Chaplain  at  TRADOC.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains 
maintained  a  keen  interest  in  the  selection  and  performance  of  instructors  In  1974  and  1975,  Service 
School  chaplains  attended  conferences  sponsored  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  to  provide  materials  and 
guidance  for  improving  moral  leadership  and  ethics  instruction  and  to  ensure  standardization  in  course 
materials  Chaplains  had  an  opportunity  to  learn  from  each  other  as  well  as  from  the  resource  persons 
provided  by  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

One  of  the  most  popular  and  highly  publicized  Chaplain  Service  School  Instructors  was 
Chaplain  Jerry  D.  Autry  who  served  at  the  U.S.  Army  Air  Defense  Artillery  School,  Fort  Bliss, 
Texas  Chaplain  Autry  not  only  taught  counseling  and  ethics  at  the  ADA  School,  he  also  volunteered 
to  help  preach  at  the  Center  Chapel.  He  wrote  weekly  articles  for  the  Fort  Bliss  newspaper,  played 
championship  racquetball,  and,  with  his  wife  Jackie,  was  active  in  a  multitude  of  chapel  programs. 
In  1975  Chaplain  Autry  wrote  an  article  for  the  Military  Chaplains  Review  in  which  he  observed: 

There  are  twenty-three  service  schools  in  the  Army  plus  national-level  senior  service 
schools  and  academies  which  trained  over  240,000  students  last  year  Because  of 
numbers  alone,  the  opportunities  for  the  chaplain's  ministry  in  this  environment  are 
staggering.  The  chaplain,  as  an  image-builder,  is  performing  a  service  that  will 
enhance  the  ministry  of  all  chaplains  in  the  field.  From  my  perspective,  therefore, 
every  chaplain  benefits  from  the  service  school  chaplain's  ministry." 

As  a  chaplain  who  had  been  awarded  the  Silver  Star  for  heroism  in  Vietnam,  Chaplain  Autry's 
perspective  was  important.  So  too  were  the  ministries  of  teaching,  leadership  and  responsibility 
modeled  by  all  chaplain  service  school  instructors. 

Conscientious  Objection 

In  the  decade  of  the  seventies  there  was  a  growing  number  of  soldiers  seeking  to  be  classified 
as  Conscientious  Objectors.  Much  of  the  impetus  for  this  came  from  disapproval  of  the  waning 
Vietnam  War,  and  the  disenchantment  many  denominations  felt  with  the  Army.  Many  church  groups 
actively  provided  information  to  soldiers  on  how  to  apply  for  that  status.  The  Department  of  the 
Army  faced  a  mountain  of  applications  from  soldiers,  and  the  sincerity  of  many  was  questioned. 
Because  of  the  massive  applications  and  questionable  motivations,  the  Army  leadership  considered 
removing  Conscientious  Objection  as  a  basis  of  separation  from  the  military.  Chaplains  were  to  be 
part  of  the  review  process.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  did  not  agree  with  this  proposed  policy  and 
officially  and  strongly  nonconcurred  with  the  proposal."*'  Chaplain  Hyatt  saw  the  legitimate  role  of 
the  chaplain  as  a  confidant  and  as  a  pastor,  not  as  one  who  approved  or  disapproved  applications.*' 
He  encouraged  chaplains  to  be  active  in  providing  ministry  to  those  who  were  struggling  with  matters 
of  conscience. 

The  Department  of  the  Army  established  a  Conscientious  Objector  Review  Board  in 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Washington  to  examine  appeals.  The  Military  District  of  Washington  provided  chaplains  to  participate 
in  these  regularly  scheduled  Board  meetings.  Chaplains  Franklyn  Holley  and  Edward  Gaffhey  were 
the  original  chaplain  members  of  the  Board.**  The  volume  of  appeals  was  so  great  that  later  Chaplain 
Matthew  Zimmerman,  an  action  officer  in  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Office,  and  others,  spent  at  least 
one  day  each  week  at  Board  deliberations. 

Chaplain  Assistants 

A  severe  shortage  of  chaplain  assistants  existed  in  the  early  1970s.  At  the  same  time  the  Army 
was  in  the  process  of  reclassifying  many  soldiers  who  were  serving  in  other  specialties.  The  Women's 
Army  Corps  (WAC)  which  previously  had  basically  a  single  occupational  specialty  for  its  members, 
was  being  integrated  into  the  rest  of  the  Army.  Consequently,  in  1972-73  the  Chaplain  Assistant  MOS 
(71M)  was  opened  up  to  members  of  the  WAC.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  agreed  to  the  proposal  with 
the  stipulation  that  women  be  assigned  only  to  TDA  units.""  He  did  not  fee!  that  the  time  was  right 
for  women  to  be  integrated  into  combat  units.  The  first  WAC  to  be  awarded  the  Chaplain  Assistant 
MOS  was  Specialist  Lorraine  Daleshal  After  completing  chaplain  assistant  training,  she  was  assigned 
to  Fort  McClellan,  Alabama,  which  had  previously  been  the  home  of  the  Womens  Army  Corps.''^ 

In  1973-74  reclassification  continued  throughout  the  Army.  The  difficulty  for  the  Chaplaincy 
was  that  many  soldiers,  mostly  male,  who  were  being  reclassified  as  chaplain  assistants  did  not  know 
what  duties  were  expected  of  them.  This  problem  was  exacerbated  by  that  fact  that  many  being 
reclassified  were  in  higher  grades  and  had  neither  the  experience  nor  the  knowledge  to  lead 
subordinate  chaplain  assistants.  Additionally,  they  occupied  grades  that  normally  would  have  been 
available  for  career  progression  to  those  who  had  been  serving  in  the  specialty.  This  degraded  the 
morale  of  many  long  term  chaplain  assistants. 

Chaplain  assistants  were  anxious  to  improve  their  professional  training  and  stature.  Training 
in  Church  Business  Administration  was  offered  to  numerous  chaplain  assistants /"  It  was  to  the 
advantage  of  both  the  enlisted  personnel  and  the  Chaplaincy  to  offer  this  training  Assistants  were 
facing  greater  and  greater  competition  for  promotion  Professional  training  such  as  in  Church 
Administration  would  enable  them  to  remain  competitive.  The  Chaplaincy  and  chapel  programs 
benefitted  through  the  increased  skills  and  competencies  of  the  assistants. 

A  task  force  was  formed  in  1974  to  study  the  MOS  71M  and  prepare  recommendations  for 
the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Among  the  suggestions  offered  by  the  committee  were  the  following:'** 

-  Prepare  new  job  descriptions  that  would  adequately  reflect  the  duties  of  chaplain  assistants. 

-  Explore  paraprofessional  roles  for  assistants  (e.  g.  precounseling  &  church  administration) 

-  Determine  training  needed  to  enhance  the  career  field 

-  Explore  certification  in  Church  Business  Administration 

Chaplain  Marvin  Hughes  was  instrumental  in  drafting  plans  that  would,  in  time,  turn  the 
chaplain  assistant  MOS  into  a  professional  service. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  United  States  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School 

As  a  consequence  of  Operation  STEADFAST,  the  reorganization  of  the  Army  in  CONUS, 
decisions  were  made  to  collocate  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  School  and  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain 
Board.*"  General  William  DePuy,  Chairman  of  the  Interservice  Training  Review  Board  (ITRB),  and 
Chaplain  Will  Hyatt  were  two  of  the  key  leaders  involved  in  the  process. 

One  of  Chaplain  Hyatt's  dreams  was  to  have  the  Chaplain  School  located  on  an  installation 
where  it  could  stand  alone  and  have  the  distinctiveness  it  deserved.  His  vision  was  a  small  post  where 
the  School  would  be  the  main  occupant  and  all  the  flinctions  of  the  post  would  revolve  around  the 
institution.  On  6  March  1973,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  proposed  to  the  Assistant  Chief  of  Staff  for 
Force  Development,  that  the  activities  of  the  Chaplain  School  relocate  to  Fort  Wadsworth,  Staten 
Island,  New  York,  from  Fort  Hamilton,  in  Brooklyn,  New  York.  The  School  had  many  different 
homes  over  the  years  Fort  Hamilton  was  one  of  the  longest  site  locations  since  the  School  had  been 
located  there  in  the  early  1960s.  Chaplain  Hyatt  fijrther  proposed  that  the  School's  name  be  changed 
to  the  United  States  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School.  It  would  become  a  total  academic  complex. 
It  would  house  the  School,  the  Museum,  and  a  proposed  "Institute  for  Family  Life  and  Human 

The  name  of  the  school  was  changed  at  the  beginning  of  FY  73,  but  the  actual  move  did  not 
take  place  for  another  couple  of  years.  Formal  approval  and  announcement  to  Congress  occurred  on 
19  July  1974  and  the  move  was  completed  by  the  end  of  September  1974  The  United  States  Army 
Chaplain  Board,  a  Field  Operating  Agency  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  located  at  Fort  Meade,  was 
collocated  with  the  School  in  1975.  The  United  States  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School  now  had 
finally  found  the  home  it  had  sought  for  many  years 

Chaplain  Hyatt  wrote  in  his  Information  Letter  that  "While  the  move  is  a  mere  four  miles  long, 
it  is  the  culmination  of  our  dream  to  provide  a  professional  home  for  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplaincy."'^ 
The  four  miles  from  Fort  Hamihon  to  Fort  Wadsworth  included  the  length  of  the  Verazanno  Bridge. 
The  footing  of  one  end  of  the  bridge  was  on  Fort  Hamilton,  while  the  other  footing  was  on  Fort 
Wadsworth.  Little  could  Chaplain  Hyatt  know  that  five  years  later,  in  1979,  the  School  would  move 
again.  This  time  to  Fort  Monmouth,  New  Jersey.  Moreover,  in  1993  another  move  would  be 
announced  to  relocate  the  school  to  Fort  Jackson,  South  Carolina. 

The  Reserve  Components 

The  Reserve  Components  were  continually  gaining  stature  during  the  seventies.  It  was 
obvious  that  they  would  be  critical  to  the  success  of  any  fijture  ground  war.  Reserve  officers  were 
being  assigned  active  duty  tours  as  staff  officers  at  Department  of  the  Army  and  at  Major  Army 
Commands.  In  1974,  Chaplain  Elmer  G.  Smith  was  the  first  Reserve  Chaplain  to  be  assigned  to  the 
Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  as  Reserve  Advisor  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain  Theo  D. 
Holland  was  the  first  Army  National  Guard  Chaplain  assigned  to  a  like  position.'* 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


In  1974  a  new  Table  of  Distribution  and  Allowances  (TDA)  was  developed  for  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains  Office  and  approved  by  the  Army  Staff.  Chaplain  Hyatt  had  tried  for  several  years  to  gain 
approval  for  a  Reserve  General  Officer  for  his  staff  The  1974  TDA  authorized  one  brigadier  general. 
Later  Chaplain  Herman  A.  Norton,  professor  of  Church  History  at  Vanderbilt  University,  was  chosen 
as  the  first  Brigadier  General,  USAR,  in  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.** 

Army  Reorganization 

In  1 973  the  Army  was  in  the  throes  of  a  complete  reorganization  The  Continental  Army 
Command  was  divided,  as  a  major  part  of  Operation  STEADFAST,  into  two  new  commands: 
Training  and  Doctrine  Command  and  Forces  Command.  The  emphasis  of  the  Army  was  on 
decentralization.  It  was  not  merely  an  attempt  to  modernize,  but  also  to  tailor  the  Army  for  a  future 
with  less  manpower  and  fewer  resources 

One  example  of  how  quickly  change  came  occurred  in  Panama.  In  July  1974,  the  U.S.  Army 
Southern  Command  (SOUTHCOM)  was  relieved  as  a  major  command  and,  after  57  years,  became 
a  subordinate  command  of  FORSCOM  "'"  During  that  same  period  of  time  (February,  1974) 
Secretary  of  State  Henry  Kissinger  met  with  Panama's  Foreign  Minister  to  renegotiate  the  Panama 
Canal  Treaty.""  On  18  September  1974,  Hurricane  "FIFI"  caused  a  national  disaster  in  Hondouras. 
Nearly  100,000  people  needed  medical  assistance.  U.S.  Army-South's  role  "shifted  from  surveying 
to  rescue  and  assistance  "'""  USARSO  became  an  early  prototype  for  regional  support  in  an 
operation  other  than  war. 

Deployments  during  Crises 
The  Republic  of  Turkey:  Ministry  on  the  Margins  of  Diplomacy  1974-75. 

How  long  will  we  be  stuck  in  Turkey  with  no  mission?  Trees  don  7  live  that  long! 

Specialist  Dan  Taylor 
Chaplain  Assistant 
Sinop,  1975 

In  1 974- 1 975,  U.S.  soldiers  were  deployed,  with  chaplain  support,  on  four  continents  and  in 
a  variety  of  threat  situations  worldwide.  Divisions  and  brigades  of  forward-  deployed  forces  were 
important  deterrents  in  the  Cold  War  era.  For  a  brief  time,  a  small  contingent  of  troops  in  Sinop, 
Turkey,  captured  the  attention  of  the  Department  of  Defense,  the  Congress,  and  the  President  of  the 
United  States.  The  issue  was  whether  the  southern  flank  of  NATO  would  survive. 

Sinop  was,  in  1974,  a  picturesque  Turkish  town  with  a  population  of  approximately  15,000 
located  on  the  Black  Sea.  Its  name  was  derived  from  the  ancient  Greek  city  of  Sinop,  the  home  of 
Diogenes,  the  Skeptic  philosopher,  and  later  of  Marcion,  the  Christian  heretic.  In  1974  its  value  to 
NATO,  and  therefore  to  the  United  States,  lay  in  its  close  proximity  to  a  number  of  Soviet  defense 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


installations  and  launch  sites,  1 75  miles  north  in  Russia  and  in  the  Southern  Ukraine.  The  official 
designation  for  the  joint  US. -Turkish  intelligence  station,  located  on  the  top  of  a  hill  overlooking  the 
town  of  Sinop,  was  TUSLOG,  Det  4,  or  Turkish-United  States  Logistics  Group,  Detachment  4.  The 
soldiers,  sailors,  and  airmen  stationed  there,  whose  numbers  fluctuated  from  165  to  more  than  200 
intelligence  analysts  and  linguists,  simply  called  it  "Diogenes  Station."""  The  mission  of  the 
intelligence  personnel  at  Sinop  was  to  monitor  all  Soviet  microwave  and  radio  transmissions  of 
interest  to  Turkey  and  the  United  States  as  allies  in  NATO  lime  Magazine  and  The  New  York  Times, 
among  other  news  media,  ran  extensive  stories  on  the  American  bases  and  posts  in  Turkey  including 
"the  four  intelligence  gathering  sites:  Sinop,  Golbasi,  Karamursel,  and  Diyarbakir,  located  roughly 
in  an  arc  from  Istanbul  to  Ankara.'"^ 

The  physical  appearance  of  Diogenes  Station  was  a  dead  giveaway  that  it  was  an  intelligence 
station.  On  perhaps  fifty  acres  of  ground  there  were  twenty  buildings  including  a  chapel  (one  of  the 
few  permitted  by  the  Turkish  government),  an  officer's  club,  an  NCO  club,  a  mess  hall,  several 
barracks  buildings,  a  gymnasium,  a  post  exchange  with  a  short  order  grill,  a  headquarters  building, 
and,  behind  two  barbed  wire  fences,  several  buildings  covered  with  antennae  and  satellite  dishes. 
Moreover,  a  large  "water  tower"  occupied  a  portion  of  ground  near  some  Byzantine  ruins  on  the 
north  side  of  the  post.  It  was  the  only  "water  tower"  in  Turkey  with  an  elevator. 

Morale  support  for  military  and  civilian  personnel  at  the  station  was  as  good  as  might  be 
found  at  any  isolated  post  Mail  was  irregular  because  there  was  no  radar  at  the  airport,  but  at  least 
once  each  month  there  were  letters  and  packages  from  home.  The  two  chaplains  on  the  post,  the  only 
Army  chaplains  in  Turkey,  ran  a  comprehensive  religious  program  including  Protestant  Bible  studies, 
choir  practice,  two  worship  services  each  Sunday,  daily  Roman  Catholic  Mass,  bus  tours  to  the  Seven 
Churches  of  Revelation  archeological  sites  in  western  Turkey,  and  a  ministry  to  the  Turkish  Boys' 
and  Girls'  Orphanages  in  downtown  Sinop 

Counseling  ministry  under  these  circumstances  was  exceptionally  critical.  Family  problems 
occurring  some  8,000  miles  away  in  the  United  States  and  the  serious  communication  difficulties  in 
calling  home  depressed  many  soldiers.  Alcohol  consumption  for  many  was  an  almost  daily  ritual  and 
was  often  excessive  Chaplain  Chester  R.  StefTey,  the  Protestant  Chaplain  and  Chaplain  Charles  D. 
Logue,  the  Catholic  Chaplain,  worked  long  hours  in  1974  to  assure  that  every  service  member,  male 
or  female,  had  the  opportunity  to  talk  to  a  chaplain  everyday.  "The  coffee  pot  is  always  on  in  the 
chapel,"  and  "There  are  no  strangers  here,  only  friends  we  have  not  met,"  were  two  common  slogans 
the  soldiers  often  heard  as  they  passed  the  chapel. 

The  Poppy  and  Oil  Issues 

In  May  1974,  the  Turkish  government  announced  a  resumption  of  support  for  farmers 
planting  poppies  for  the  production  of  legal  medicinal  opium. '"^  Although  the  production  of  opium 
was  very  important  to  the  manufacture  of  morphine,  and  promised  to  relieve  some  of  the  pressure 
on  Turkey's  economy,  it  was  also  a  violation  of  a  1962  agreement  with  the  United  States  by  which 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


the  Kennedy  Administration  and  Congress  had  guaranteed  $35  million  in  annual  grants  to  Turkey  if 
cultivation  of  poppies  were  curtailed.  Experience  with  the  international  drug  trade  convinced  many 
U.S.  lawmakers  that  "legal"  opium  quickly  turned  into  heroin  on  the  black  market.  The  U.S.  State 
Department  recalled  U.S.  Ambassador  William  B.  Macomber,  Jr.,  to  discuss  the  "poppy  issue,"  and 
threatened  to  withhold  $20  million  in  development  aid  for  Turkey  in  retaliation  for  this  breach  of 
understanding  between  the  two  governments.  Representative  Charles  B.  Rangel  of  New  York  warned 
that  current  law  required  the  President  to  cut  off  all  foreign  aid  of  any  sort  "to  countries  not 
cooperating  in  the  curb  of  international  drug  tratfic."  ""' 

The  Invasion  of  Cyprus 

On  January  28,  1974,  General  George  Grivas,  one  of  the  key  leaders  who  had  helped  Cyprus 
achieve  independence  from  Great  Britain,  died  at  the  age  of  75.  If  General  Grivas  had  been 
remembered  only  as  a  hero  in  the  independence  movement,  there  could  have  been  a  simple  state 
funeral  with  appropriate  demonstrations  of  national  respect  and  grief  However,  General  Grivas  had, 
in  his  later  years,  championed  the  cause  of  the  unification  of  Cyprus  with  Greece  This  position  was 
opposed  by  the  independence-minded  government  of  Archbishop  Makarios  as  well  as  one-third  of 
the  population,  more  than  100,000  of  whom  were  Cypriot  Turks. 

On  July  16,  after  trading  blows  with  the  government  for  weeks,  a  faction  of  the  Cypriot 
National  Guard,  led  by  Greek  officers,  overthrew  the  government  of  Cyprus  and  installed  Nikos 
Sampson  as  the  new  President.  Archbishop  Makarios  took  refiige  at  first  on  a  British  airbase,  then 
in  Malta,  and  finally  in  London.  President  Nixon  was  advised  that  the  safety  of  the  3,200  Americans, 
including  tourists,  could  not  be  assured. 

Before  Washington  had  time  to  react,  Turkish  Premier  Ecevit  ordered  a  fijll-scale  invasion 
of  Cyprus.  Citing  the  obvious  violation  of  the  1960  treaty  (which  established  Cyprus  as  an 
independent  state),  by  President  Sampson  and  his  "Union  with  Athens"  party,  Ecevit  moved  to 
establish  "a  federation"  government  which  would  respect  the  rights  of  the  Turkish  minority  on 
Cyprus.  On  July  20,  Turkish  aircraft  bombed  the  airfield  at  Nicosia  as  a  precursor  to  an  air,  sea  and 
land  invasion  of  40,000  Turkish  troops.""  In  Athens,  Brigadier  General  Dimitrios  loannides  mobilized 
120,000  Greek  troops  and  threatened  war  with  Turkey. 

On  Cyprus  the  Turkish  invasion  was  overwhelming.  Within  48  hours  Turkish  forces  had 
seized  one-third  of  the  island,  approximately  200  square  miles  of  territory.  After  intense  negotiations 
with  the  United  States,  Great  Britain,  Greece  and  Turkey,  a  cease  fire  was  declared  on  July  22.  Two 
days  later  President  Sampson  of  Cyprus  resigned,  replaced  by  President  Glafkos  Clerides  who  had 
pledged  to  negotiate  an  acceptable  long-term  solution  to  the  problems  on  Cyprus 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  United  States  Congress  Acts 

As  the  problems  concerning  Cyprus  were  being  reported  in  the  world  press,  the  U.S.  House 
of  Representatives  faced  the  question  of  a  request  from  Turkey  for  an  increase  in  military  aid.  The 
Turkish  government  had  just  paid  $52  million  for  modernized  arms  from  U.S.  defense  industries. 
They  requested  an  additional  $173.7  million  in  aid  and  the  right  to  purchase  $230  million  worth  of 
tanks  and  spare  parts  for  heavy  equipment 

On  September  19,  Senator  Thomas  Eagleton  introduced  legislation  in  the  U.S.  Senate  to  cut 
off  all  foreign  aid  to  Turkey  and  to  delay  the  delivery  of  military  equipment  the  Turkish  government 
had  already  purchased  In  spite  of  the  President's  plea  against  it,  the  US.  House  of  Representatives 
voted  its  approval  on  September  25,  by  a  margin  of  307  to  90,  with  the  provision  that  the 
implementation  of  the  legislation  would  be  delayed  until  December  15,  1974,  in  order  to  give  the 
President  time  to  negotiate.'"* 

Reaction  in  Turkey  ranged  from  anger  to  outrage.  Twenty-five  thousand  Turkish  students 
organized  a  protest  march  in  Istanbul.'"'  Students  burned  the  American  flag  in  the  streets.  The 
Turkish  government  almost  immediately  began  purchasing  arms  from  West  Germany  and  the  Soviet 
Union.  As  a  preface  to  an  agreement  between  the  Soviet  Union  and  Turkey,  the  Soviets  extended 
$700  million  to  Turkey  to  build  a  steel  mill  and  two  power  stations.  On  July  25,  1975,  Turkey 
announced  that  the  validity  of  the  Turkish-American  joint  defense  treaty  was  void.  All  military 
activities  on  some  26  bases  would  cease  on  July  26.  Only  the  NATO  base  at  Incirlik  would  remain 
in  mission  status,  and  that  base  would  be  under  strict  Turkish  scrutiny.  The  7,000  American  military 
personnel  could  remain  in  country,  but  the  post  exchanges  would  be  closed,  no  Army  Post  Office  mail 
would  be  allowed  into  Turkey,  and  all  international  Christmas  mail  would  have  to  arrive  in  Turkey 
by  September  1,  1975.""  In  effect,  American  soldiers  in  Turkey  had  no  mission  except  to  wait.  For 
the  American  military  it  was  to  be  proverbially  "a  long,  hot  summer." 

Ministry  to  Those  Who  Wait 

In  the  summer  of  1 975,  Lieutenant  Colonel  John  Norris,  the  commander  of  Diogenes  Station, 
had  present  in  his  command  approximately  165  soldiers  With  the  interruption  of  the  installation's 
mission  for  most  military  personnel,  with  the  exception  of  the  military  police  company  which  was 
hardly  larger  than  a  platoon,  the  challenge  for  Lt.  Col.  Norris,  his  two  staff  chaplains,  CWO  Tom 
Stephen  and  the  company  commander,  1st  Lieutenant  Dan  Puckett,  was  how  to  keep  the  troops  busy 
so  that  boredom,  irritation,  and  depression  did  not  become  major  morale  problems. 

Compounding  the  difficulty  of  having  no  mission  and  no  job,  the  soldiers  at  Diogenes  Station 
were  also  subject  to  constant  harassment  by  some  of  the  more  radical  elements  in  the  town  of  Sinop 
at  the  bottom  of  the  hill.  One  MP  standing  gate  guard  duty  said  that  serving  at  Sinop  reminded  him 
of  a  potential  "Custer's  Last  Stand,"  with  165  soldiers  surrounded  by  15,000  unhappy  Turks. '"  The 
hostility  of  some  of  the  townspeople  went  beyond  mere  unhappy  expressions.  Late  July  1975,  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


main  water  pipe  which  carried  all  of  the  potable  water  up  the  hill  to  the  Americans  was  mysteriously 
broken  in  multiple  places.  Since  the  pipe,  made  of  terra  cotta  clay,  ran  for  seven  miles  to  a  river  south 
of  town,  repair  took  weeks.  Moreover,  due  to  multiple  death  threats  against  the  Americans,  Lt.  Col. 
Norris  put  the  town  off" limits  not  only  to  individuals,  but  to  vehicular  traffic.  In  effect,  the  soldiers 
had  no  bath  or  laundry  water,  no  water  to  drink  or  use  for  coffee,  and  no  water  to  flush  the  bathroom 
facilities  Since  food  could  not  be  transported  through  the  gate  from  the  town,  the  soldiers  ate 
hamburgers  and  drank  Pepsi  Colas  from  the  Post  Exchange  warehouse. 

At  the  same  time  the  food  and  water  were  being  curtailed,  the  Turkish  workers  who  had  run 
the  Army  motor  pool  and  the  mess  hall  declared  a  strike  for  higher  pay.  Negotiations  with  the  Turkish 
labor  union  seemed  to  be  linked  to  discussions  at  a  much  higher  level  concerning  the  future  of  the 
base  itself  The  American  troops,  deprived  of  many  comforts,  including  mail  and  even  water  with 
which  to  brush  their  teeth,  dug  latrines,  ate  hamburgers  and  waited. 

Chaplain  Charles  Logue,  the  senior  Army  chaplain  at  Sinop,  devised  a  number  of  activities 
to  assist  soldiers  with  their  boredom  Nightly  seminars  on  Turkish  history  and  the  religion  of  Islam 
were  presented  in  the  chapel  as  a  way  to  defuse  hostility  toward  the  Turkish  people  who  remained 
NATO  allies  in  spite  of  the  treaty  and  labor  union  disputes.  Discussion  groups  met  to  devise  ways 
in  which  soldiers  could  help  one  another  cope.  Worship  services,  Bible  studies  and  counseling 
continued  daily 

The  last  week  in  July,  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield  arrived  from  Fort  Bliss,  Texas,  to  replace 
Chaplain  Steffey  whose  tour  had  been  completed  Chaplain  Brinsfield  was  the  last  officer  to  enter 
Turkey  before  the  closure  of  the  bases  In  essence  his  deployment  was  a  comedy  of  errors.  When  he 
landed  at  Ankara,  he  was  told  by  the  Army  liaison  officer  to  write  his  family  a  letter  using  Turkish 
stamps  since  mail  through  APO  channels  had  been  shut  off.  After  a  trip  of  400  miles  in  an  Army  van, 
sometimes  along  the  Turkish  Black  Sea  coast  where  there  were  no  speed  limits,  guard  rails  or  at  times 
paved  roads,  he  arrived  at  Sinop  to  find  three  messages  from  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Office  The  first 
was  sent  to  him  in  Atlanta  where  he  had  been  on  leave  It  instructed  him  to  return  to  Fort  Bliss.  The 
second  message  was  sent  to  John  F.  Kennedy  Airport  in  New  York,  telling  him  his  deployment  had 
been  canceled  The  third  had  been  sent  to  Rome,  Italy,  instructing  him  to  contact  Fort  Bliss.  After 
all  three  messages  had  missed  him  by  minutes,  the  decision  to  let  him  stay  at  Sinop  was  easy.  Chaplain 
Brinsfield  began  eating  hamburgers  with  his  troops  and  prepared  for  a  13  month  tour."'^  The 
deployment  gave  contemporary  meaning  to  the  old  observation,  "They  also  serve  who  only  stand  and 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Systems  Issues: 
Chief  of  Chaplains  on  the  Commanders  Personal  Staff 

Chaplain  Hyatt,  after  some  discussion  among  other  staff  members,  was  placed  on  the  personal 
staff  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  General  Creighton  W.  Abrams.""*  Hyatt's  task  was  to  advise 
General  Abrams  on  matters  of  religion,  morals  and  morale  to  help  the  commander  better  accomplish 
his  mission.  This  was  a  significant  step  and  one  that  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  hoped  every  commander 
and  every  chaplain  would  emulate.  Prior  to  this  time  chaplains  generally  served  on  installations  under 
the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel  or  the  Director  of  Personnel  and  Community  Activities 
(DPCA).  The  problem  with  this  arrangement  was  that  it  sometimes  put  the  post  chaplain  at  a 
disadvantage  in  competing  for  resources  and  personnel.  Additionally,  the  chaplain  had  no  direct 
access  to  the  commander.  If  the  installation  DCSPER/DPCA  was  fair-minded,  he  would  see  that  the 
chaplain  received  his  equitable  share  of  resources  and  was  fairly  represented  to  the  commander. 
Unfortunately,  this  was  not  always  the  case. 

Perhaps  one  of  the  most  significant  arguments  for  this  new  staff  arrangement  was  that  the 
commander  was  responsible  for  the  religious  program  and  moral  welfare  of  the  command.  The 
chaplain  was  his  representative  in  these  areas.  Without  direct  access  to  the  commander,  the  chaplain 
could  not  effectively  manage  that  responsibility.  Additionally,  chaplains  were  protected  by  regulation 
and  law  in  the  area  of  privileged  communication  There  were  things  that  had  to  be  discussed  only  with 
the  commander.  Chaplain  Albert  Ledebuhr  worked  hard  both  in  Europe  and  in  CONUS  to  have 
chaplains  placed  on  the  commander's  personal  staff  Later  he  reflected  that  many  of  the  significant 
accomplishments  of  the  Chaplaincy  would  have  been  impossible  without  that  relationship."' 

The  reorganization  of  the  Army  after  Vietnam  had  other  impacts  on  the  Chaplaincy.  A  major 
effort  was  undertaken  in  what  was  called  MOGA  (Management  of  Grade  Authorization).  The  Army 
wanted  to  bring  its  TOE  and  TDA  authorizations  in  line  with  its  TAADS  (The  Army  Authorization 
Document  System)  documentation  This  had  not  been  the  case  before,  but  now  the  Army  was  faced 
with  decreased  manpower  and  increased  missions.  The  Army  needed  6,000  spaces  in  order  to 
increase  the  size  of  divisional  forces.  The  Chaplaincy  in  that  round  lost  66  spaces  with  eight  colonel 
spaces  downgraded  "*■ 

More  bad  news  was  ahead.  The  Army  wanted  to  reduce  the  Chaplain  Branch  strength  from 
1,465  to  1,370  by  1976.  The  question  was  how  that  would  be  accompHshed.  The  Army  was 
considering  a  Reduction  in  Force  (RIF)  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  wanted  to  take  the  reduction  in  the 
least  painfial  way  for  his  chaplains  and  their  families.  He  decided  he  would  meet  the  requirement  by 
limiting  the  number  of  accessions  and  releasing  chaplains  who  were  not  selected  for  promotion  for 
the  second  time."'  Chaplain  Marvin  Hughes  labored  intensively  to  protect  every  position  possible. 
He  doggedly  followed  every  attempt  to  reduce  the  chaplaincy  and  succeeded  in  keeping  the  reduction 
well  below  the  projections 

Chaplain  Richard  Tupy,  personnel  systems  staff  officer,  developed  a  new  computerized 
method  for  use  in  personnel  management.  The  system  paralleled  the  Army's  grouping  of  Specialty 
Skill  Identifiers  (SSI)  and  Additional  Skill  Identifiers  (ASI).  These  identifiers  would  indicate  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


special  training  and  experience  a  chaplain  had  in  a  specific  field.  One  example  of  an  SSI  was  that  of 
a  Clinical  Pastoral  Education  Supervisor.  Very  few  chaplains  possessed  an  SSI.  On  the  other  hand, 
almost  all  chaplains  held  ASIs,  such  as  training  managers,  fiands  custodians,  and  manpower 
management  specialists. 

Gaining  Confidence,  Admiration  and  Respect 

It  is  not  possible  to  evaluate  the  successflilness  of  all  the  programs  of  the  Hyatt  era,  but  it  is 
clear  that  cumulatively  his  period  was  a  watershed  of  change.  Though  much  of  what  resulted  from 
his  leadership  was  pure  reaction  to  pressing  needs  rather  than  planned  design,  Hyatt  transformed  a 
scraggly  corps  of  individualists  into  a  cohesive,  professional  and  highly  competent  Chaplaincy. 
Among  the  chief  instruments  he  used  in  reaching  this  goal  were  Organizational  Development  and 
Management  by  Objectives  for  Results  Chaplain  Hyatt  and  his  staff  demonstrated  that  management 
was  a  ministry,  indeed  one  on  which  all  others  may  depend. 

In  his  farewell  letter  Chaplain  Hyatt  wrote  to  the  chaplains: 

You  have  expanded  your  ministry  to  encompass  more  than  I  ever  dreamed  could  be 
done  in  such  a  short  time.  You  have  gained  the  confidence  of  the  whole  Army,  the 
admiration  and  respect  of  the  Congress  and  the  gratitude  of  the  citizens  of  this  nation 
and  the  members  of  the  religious  community...  You  have  found  methods  of  opening 
doors  into  people's  individual  lives  to  improve  the  spiritual  quality  of  their  sojourn  on 
this  earth.  And,  you  have  had  the  courage  to  minister  to  the  Army  and  its  power 
structure...  I  am  grateful  to  God  for  every  day  He  has  given  me  to  be  Chief  of  such 
noblemen  in  His  Kingdom  .My  heart  will  always  be  in  the  Chaplaincy  of  the  United 
States  Army."* 

Upon  his  retirement  from  the  Army  on  July  29,  1975,  Chaplain  Hyatt  became  the  President 
of  Concordia  College  in  St.  Paul,  Minnesota,  and  later  spearheaded  a  multi-million  dollar  fiand  raising 
drive  for  the  Lutheran  Church,  Missouri  Synod.  He  died  while  on  a  trip  to  Washington,  DC,  in 
August  1985.  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly,  his  successor  as  Chief  of  Chaplains,  stated  simply,  "Chaplain 
Hyatt  stood  head  and  shoulders  above  his  contemporaries  as  a  visionary  leader.  He  was  one  of  the 
finest  and  most  efficient  Chiefs  in  the  history  of  the  Chaplain  Corps.""'' 



1.  As  cited  in  The  National  Obsen>er,  November  16,  1974,  pp  17-18. 

2.  Thomas  Leonard,  et.  al.  Day  by  Day:  The  Seventies  1970-75  (New  York,  NY.:  Facts  on  File 
Publications,  1985),  I,  iff. 

3.  As  cited  in  The  New  York  Times,  May  18,  1968,  p  Al  ff. 

4.  The  United  Church  of  Christ,  FOCUS,  Winter  Edition,  1970,  p.3. 

5.  IhiJ.,pA. 
6  Ihid.,pJ. 

I .  Randolph  N  Jonakait,  "The  Abuses  of  the  Military  Chaplaincy,"  ACLU  Reports,  New  York, 
May  1973. 

8.  Note  from  Chaplain  Gerhardt  Hyatt  to  Chaplain  Ray  Strawser,  October  19,  1971    Copy  in  the 
Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

9.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col )  Charles  Kriete,  USA  Ret ,  October  12,  1994. 

10.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj  Gen.)  Orris  Kelly,  USA  Ret ,  March  30,  1994. 

II.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Charles  Kriete,  USA  Ret.,  October  12,  1994. 

12.  Personal  interview  and  review  of  literature  with  Ms.  Anet  Springthorpe,  R.N.,  Psychiatric 
Nurse,  July  19,  1995. 

13.  The  Army  Times,  Editors,  Fifty  Years  of  Military  Life  -  1940-1990,  (Washington,  DC: 
1990),  p.44. 

14.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  ^«/7Ha////^/onca//?^v/^M',  July  1,  1973  to  June  30,  1974, 
p  Iff 

15.  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Five  Year  Program,  FY  1973-1977,  p.  Iff. 

16.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  75,  pp.53,  54. 
17  Ibid. 

IS.  Ibid,  p.2] 

19.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Orris  E.  Kelly,  USA  Ret.,  March  30,  1994. 


20.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  .4///H/a////i7or/ca/^gv/eM-,  July  1,  1972  -  June  30,  1973, 

21   Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaphms  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1974  -  June  30,  1975, 


22.  Ibid. 

23.  See  the  Military  Chaplains  RevieM',  Winter  1976. 

24.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  ^/7/;Ha////5/o/-/ca/7?t?v/eH',  July  1,  1974  -  June  30,  1975, 

25.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chap\ams  Annual  Historical  Revien',  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 

26.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Historical  Review,  July  1  to  September  30,  1969,  p.  30. 

27.  Interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Harold  Lamm,  USA,  Ret.,  January  1 1,  1984. 

28.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains /l«/»/fl////.s7or/6a//e<?v/e?H',  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 

29.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Orris  Kelly,  USA  Ret.,  March  30,  1994 

30.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Charles  Kriete,  USA  Ret.,  October  12,  1994. 

31.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chap\ains  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1972  -  June  30,  1973, 

32.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  ^/;//»o////.y/t»/7ca//^t'i7£'M',  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 

33.  Ibid.,  p.37. 

34.  Ibid.,  p.34. 

35.  Ibid.,  p.38,  39. 

36.  There  are  references  to  a  service  conducted  by  a  black  freedman,  informally,  the  "assistant 
chaplain,"  for  other  freed  slaves  at  the  Union  (U.S.)  Hospital  in  Newport  News,  Virginia,  daring 
McClellan's  Peninsula  Campaign  of  1862.   See  the  reports  by  Chaplain  William  Meech,  1862, 
Rare  Book  Section,  Chaplain  Corps  Museum 

37.  Interview  with  Chaplain  Leroy  Johnson,  USA  Ret.,  July  12,  1994. 


38.  Interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Roy  Plummer,  July  5,  1994. 

39.  Chaplain  (Col.)  Wilford  E.  Smith  (USAR),  "Pluralistic  Developments  in  America  as  They 
May  Influence  The  Military  Chaplaincy,"  M//7flrv'  Chaplains  Review,  Summer,  1974. 

40.  Chaplain  Zimmerman  became  the  Army's  18th  Chief  of  Chaplains  in  1990. 

41.  "Fraggings"  involved  soldiers  throwing  or  planting  hand  grenades  to  explode  or  kill  their 
leaders.  Though  not  a  frequent  occurrence,  it  did  happen  occasionally  in  Vietnam. 

42.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Charles  Kriete,  USA  Ret.,  October  12,  1994. 

43  Office  of  the  C\\i&i  oi  C\\?i'()\&ms  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 
p. 45. 

44.  Ihid.,  p.46-47. 

45.  Ibid.,  p  46-47. 

46.  Office  of  the  C\\\Qi  o^  C\\di^\?im?,  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1974  -  June  30,  1975, 

47.  Cecil  D  Lewis,  "A  History  of  Parish  Development,"  Military  Chaplains  Review,  Fall  1981, 


48.  Ibid.,  p. 8. 

49.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Charles  Kriete,  22  December  1995. 

50.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Ed  O'Shea,  22  December  1995. 

52.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Charles  Kriete,  US  Army  War  College,  4  January 

53.  Personal  letter  from  Chaplain  (Col )  Edward  L.  O'Shea,  USA-Ret.,  to  Chaplain  (Col  )  Gilbert 
H.  Pingel,  USACSSA,  9  December  1995. 

54. //)/(/.,  p.ll. 

55.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Charles  Kriete,  USA  Ret.,  October  12,  1994. 

56.  Cecil  D.  Lewis,  "Parish  DQVQ\oi^menX,"'  MiUtaiy  Chaplaitis  Review,  Fall  1981,  p  7, 


57.  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1974  -  June  30,  1975,  p.41. 


59.  In  1978,  a  similar  program  to  train  chapel  activity  specialists  for  organizational  development 
was  also  established. 


61   OCCH,  Information  Letter,  DACH-AM  (276),  March  1,  1975 

62.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Charles  Kriete,  4  January  1996. 

63.  Peter  Drucker,  Practice  of  Management ,  1954,  and  George  Odiorne,  Management  by 
Objectives,  1965. 

64  As  cited  in  Cecil  D.  Lewis,  "Parish  Development,"  Military  Chaplains  Review,  Fall  1981, 


65  Ibid.,  pp.48-50. 

66.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 

67.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Animal  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1972  -  June  30,  1973, 
p.  Iff. 

68.  Ibid.,  pp.75-76. 

69.  Ibid ,  p. 78. 

70.  Edward  J.  Horan,  "Directors  of  Religious  Education  Positions  in  the  Development  of  the 
Army:  A  State  of  the  Profession  Report,"  Department  of  the  Army,  Office  of  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains,  June  11,  1990. 


72  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 
p  119 

73.  The  Army  Times,  1990,  Fifty  Years  of  Military  Life,  1940  -  1990,  (Washington,  DC.)  p.  102. 

74.  Herman  A.  Norton,  Struggling  for  Recogiution,  the  United  States  Army  Chaplaincy,  1791  - 
1865,  (Washington,  DC:  Department  of  the  Army,  1977),  p. 86. 


75  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1974-June  30;  1975,  p. 35. 

76.  Janet  Y.  Horton,  "Women  in  the  Chaplaincy:  New  Challenges  and  New  Life",  Military 
Chaplains' Review,  Winter  1981,  p  27  flf. 

77  War  Department,  Revised  United  States  Army  Regulations  of  1861,  (Washington,  DC. : 
Government  Printing  Office,  1863),  p. 507. 

78.  The  exception  was  the  ministry  of  chaplains  as  Professors  of  History,  Geography  and  Ethics  at 
the  United  States  Military  Academy  from  1814-1893.  Even  so,  these  chaplain-professors  taught 
cadets  moral  philosophy  in  class,  the  regular  officers  were  taught  through  sermons  and  by 

79.  Department  of  the  Army,  US  Army  War  College,  Leadership  for  the  I970's,  (Carlisle 
Barracks,  Pennsylvania:  USAWC,  July  1,  1971),  p.  iii.  Copy  on  loan  from  Chaplain  (Colonel) 
Thomas  McMinn,  USA  Ret.,  Anniston,  Alabama. 

80.  Quotation  from  Admiral  Thomas  Moorer,  The  Chaplain,  Spring  Quarter,  1973,  p.  12. 

81 .  In  the  Department  of  Corresponding  Studies. 

82.  From  1976  to  1995. 

83.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Harold  Lamm,  USA  Ret.,  January  11,  1984. 

84.  Office  of  the  C)^\Qi  oi  Ch^A&ms,  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 

85.  Ibid. 

86.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Charles  Kriete,  USA  Ret.,  October  12,  1994. 

87.  Jerry  D.  Autry,  "The  Chaplain  in  the  Military  Service  S)C\ioo\,"  Military  Chaplains  Review, 
Spring,  1975,  p.  19. 

88.  Office  of  the  chief  of  Chaplains  ^///7Ma////5/o/-/ca//?t?v/eM',  July  1,  1972  -  June  30,  1973,  p. 53. 

89.  Ibid.,  p.55. 
90. /A/c/.,  p  58 
91./Z>/(/.,  p.l43. 

92.  McClellan  News,  October  23,  1972,  Fort  McClellan  Alabama,  p.4. 


93.  Office  of  the  Chief  of:  Chaplains  Annual  Historical  RevieM,  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 
p  119. 

94.  Ibid.,  p. \20. 

95  OCCH,  DACH-PP  Information  Paper,  December  31,  1975,  p.27.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps 

96.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1972  -  June  30,  1973, 

97.  OCCH  Information  Letter,  DACH-AM  (270),  September  1,  p.l. 

98.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  ^/?««o////5tor/ca/7^<?i7^H',  July  1,  1973  -  June  30,  1974, 

99.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains /l/?/»/a////.y/o/-/cfl/;?<?v/VM',  July  1,  1974  -  June  30,  1975,  p.  1 

100.  US  Army  Forces  SOUTHCOM,  HQ,  193rd  Infantry  Brigade,  Annual  Report,  January  1, 
1974  -  October  31,  1974,  p.  IX-1 

101.  Ibid.,  p.  II-5.  Note:  In  1977,  President  Jimmy  Carter  and  Panama's  Omar  Torrijos  signed 
the  Panama  Canal  Treaty  giving  Panama  sovereignty  and  control  of  the  Canal  at  noon  on 
December  31,  1999. 

102.  Ibid. 

103  Information  concerning  Sinop's  history  in  1974-76  comes  from  the  New  York  Times 
Company,  The  New  York  Times  Index,  New  York  1975,  pp  2419-2473,  and  from  the  personal 
recollection  of  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Brinsfield,  who  was  assigned  as  the  Protestant  Chaplain  at 
Sinop  from  July  1975  to  August  1976 

104.  Hie  New  York  Times,  July  29,  1975  as  cited  in  The  New  York  Times  Index,  1975,  p.  2471 . 

105.  The  New  York  Times,  May  7,  1974,  as  cited  in  the  Index,  1974,  p.  2419 

106.  Ibid. 

107  The  New  York  Times,  July  20,  1 974,  as  cited  in  the  Index,  p.  540. 

108.  The  New  York  Times,  October  10,  1974 

109.  The  New  York  Times,  January  26,  1975. 


110.  IJie  New  York  Times,  August  25,  1975. 

111.  Personal  Recollection  by  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield,  Protestant  Chaplain,  Sinop,  Turkey, 

\  12.  Ibid. 

113.  Attributed  to  the  seventeenth  century  English  poet,  John  Milton. 

1 14.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col  )  Harold  Lamm,  USA  Ret.,  January  11,  1984. 

1 15.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Albert  Ledebuhr,  January  23,  1984. 

116.  Otfice  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  ^///;/w///M7o/7ca//?fv/^vf,  July  1,  1974  -  June  30,  1975, 


1 18.  Office  of  the  Cliaef  of  Chaplains  Annual  Historical  Review,  July  1,  1975  -  June  30,  1976, 

119.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Orris  Kelly,  USA  Ret.,  March  30,  1994. 





"One  of  our  dilemmas  is  thai  our  knowledge  is  about  the  past,  hut  our  decisions  are 
about  the  future.   We  have  so  few  precedents  to  guide  us  through  these  kaleidoscopic  times.  So 
much  has  happened:  two  global  wars,  nuclear  fission,  population  explosion,  cybernetics,  Freud, 
Stravinsky,  Picasso,  lonesco,  moon  landings,  Telstar. . .  and  an  assassinated  President.    These, 
along  with  a  list  of  other  events  from  our  recent  past,  tend  to  convey  not  only  a  sense  of  change, 
but  of  loss  —  the  sound  of  a  door  .shutting  to  the  past. 

To  say  we  are  caught  between  a  past  that  is  much  different  from  the  present,  and  a  future 
that  we  know  will  be  immeasurably  different  from  both  —  is  common  place.    We  are  slowly 
realizing,  however,  that  one  age  has  ended,  but  the  new  one  has  not  yet  begun.  " 

Chaplain  (Major  General)  Orris  E.  Kelly 
Chief  of  Chaplains,  1976 


Institution  of  a  Professional  Development  Plan  for  the  Chaplaincy 

Forward  Thrust  Doctrine 

First  Chaplain  faculty  member  assigned  to  teach  at  the  Army  War  College 

Management  by  Objectives  for  Results 

Chaplain  Assistants  renamed  Chapel  Activity  Specialists 

Parish  Development  Program 

History  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy  (5  volumes)  published 

First  Reserve  Chaplain  assigned  to  the  staff  of  the  Army  Reserve 

Component  Personnel  Center 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter  61 


Ministry  to  the  Institution  and  to  the  People 

Chaplains  have  looked  after  the  Army 's  spiritual  welfare,  hm>e  championed  our  soldiers ' 
human  needs,  have  set  the  moral  tone  for  the  Army...  They  have  always  been  there  when  we 
needed  them. 

General  Bernard  W.  Rogers 
Chief  of  Staff,  USA,  1977 

In  the  mid-70s  many  nations  in  the  world  were  experiencing  major  political  and  military 
realignments  as  old  alliances  broke  down  and  new  ones  arose  from  the  ashes  In  April  of  1975, 
Saigon  fell  to  North  Vietnamese  forces  as  Congress  denied  further  military  aid  to  previous  South 
Vietnamese  allies.  The  aftershocks  of  the  war  in  Vietnam  were  powerflil  and  often  disruptive  in 
American  society  and  in  the  armed  forces  The  USSR  signed  a  twenty-five  year  pact  with  Vietnam, 
thus  essentially  ending  North  Vietnam's  old  confederacy  with  China.  China's  Mao  Tse-tung  died  in 
1976,  opening  the  possibility  for  new  relationships  with  the  West.  In  1978,  the  United  States 
announced  full  diplomatic  relations  with  the  People's  Republic  of  China. 

President  Jimmy  Carter,  elected  in  1976,  had  made  several  important  international  diplomatic 
initiatives.  Talks  between  the  United  States  and  Russia  on  nuclear  ground  testing  resulted  in  a  treaty 
in  1976  which  for  the  first  time  included  on-site  inspections  of  facilities  In  another  part  of  the  world, 
signs  of  progress  also  surfaced.  President  Anwar  Sadat  of  Egypt  visited  Israel  in  1977,  marking 
the  first  visit  by  an  Arab  leader  since  the  founding  of  the  nation  of  Israel  in  1948  In  1978  talks 
between  Anwar  Sadat  and  Menachem  Begin,  hosted  at  Camp  David  by  President  Carter,  resulted 
in  the  drafting  of  a  proposed  peace  treaty  for  the  two  Middle  East  countries 

President  Jimmy  Carter  warned  on  the  domestic  front  that  the  energy  crisis  in  the  United 
States  could  bring  on  a  national  catastrophe  He  suggested  handling  this  crisis  with  the  force  and 
resolve  of  a  military  operation  He  fijrther  announced  that  within  five  years  American  ground  troops 
would  be  removed  from  Korea  Overcoming  Congressional  opposition,  he  signed  the  Panama  Canal 
Treaty  which  would  end  United  States'  control  of  the  Panama  Canal  on  December  31,  1999.  Carter, 
seeking  to  assuage  the  unrest  in  America,  granted  pardon  to  most  Vietnam-era  draft  dodgers.  Each 
of  these  decisions  had  far  reaching  implications  for  soldier  morale  as  well  as  for  the  allocation  of 
Army  resources. 

Trouble  also  was  brewing  in  the  Western  Hemisphere.  Sandanista  guerrillas  attempted  to 
overthrow  the  Nicaraguan  government.  A  military  junta  seized  control  of  Honduras,  while  at  the  same 
time  the  200th  coup  in  1 58  years  took  place  in  Bolivia.  Cuba,  although  no  longer  a  major  threat  in 
the  Western  Hemisphere,  deployed  military  advisors  to  Angola. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Adjusting  the  Army  Structure 

Geographically,  the  United  States  Army  was  oriented  toward  Europe  throughout  the  decade 
of  the  seventies.  Since  the  Cold  War  showed  no  signs  of  thawing,  the  Army  had  to  be  prepared  to 
engage  the  Soviet  Bloc  at  a  moment's  notice.  The  major  concern  of  the  1970's  in  the  Army,  therefore, 
was  Readiness. '  The  Army  announced  that  it  must  be  prepared  to  wage  war  in  more  than  one 
geographical  area  at  a  time  To  make  a  swift  transition  from  peace  to  war,  there  could  be  no 
substitute  for  soldiers,  units  and  equipment  capable  of  immediate  deployment  to  Europe,  or  other 
trouble  spots  in  the  world. 

It  was  not  an  ideally  prepared  Army  As  late  as  1979,  readiness  remained  a  thorny  problem. 
Serious  male  personnel  shortages  led  to  expanded  roles  for  women  However,  the  combat  exclusion 
policy  prohibited  the  assignment  of  women  farther  forward  than  brigade  level.  In  1979,  only  four  of 
the  ten  CONUS  divisions  were  deemed  ready  for  overseas  deployment."  The  Army  busily  reshaped 
its  forces  as  best  it  could  for  a  changing  battlefield  As  a  result  of  battles  in  the  Middle  East,  American 
defense  plans  placed  new  emphasis  on  highly  mechanized  and  armored  divisions  The  Army  was 
transitioning  from  a  21  division  to  a  24  division  force  (16  active  and  8  National  Guard).  Army 
strength  reached  790,000  in  1975;  and,  in  spite  of  new  missions,  decreased  to  less  than  770,000  by 

The  Army  continued  to  adjust  to  current  conditions  and  plans  to  meet  future  contingencies. 
The  STEADFAST  reorganization  to  address  serious  command  and  control  problems  was  nearing 
completion.  The  former  Continental  Army  Command  was  divided  into  the  Training  and  Doctrine 
Command  (TRADOC)  and  Forces  Command  (FORSCOM).  General  William  DePuy,  the  first 
commander  of  TRADOC,  provided  a  new  focus  for  the  Army.'  DePuy's  vision  was  to  "win  the  first 
battle  of  the  next  war."  He  placed  heavy  stress  on  combat  developments,  doctrine  and  organization 
and  viewed  Army  Training  Centers  as  crucial  to  the  Army's  fliture.  Under  the  leadership  of  General 
DePuy  and  his  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Training,  Major  General  Paul  F.  Gorman,  TRADOC 
embarked  on  a  Systems  Approach  to  Training  (SAT).  This  required  soldiers  to  train  to  established 
Army  standards  and  to  have  that  training  regularly  evaluated  and  reinforced  Each  part  of  training  was 
to  be  sequential,  building  on  previous  steps  This  emphasis  also  required  that  there  be  a  solid  link 
between  Army  doctrine  and  the  training  soldiers  received.  As  part  of  this  new  process  the  Army 
introduced  the  Army  Training  and  Evaluation  Programs  ( ARTEP).  The  ARTEP  was  a  performance 
oriented  program  for  collective  training.  Included  in  SAT  was  the  Skill  Qualification  Test  (SQT)  to 
indicate  individual  soldier  proficiency/  Also  during  this  time,  the  Department  of  the  Army  and 
TRADOC  undertook  a  study  of  officer  training.  The  study  called  RETO,  the  Review  of  Officer 
Education  and  Training,  under  the  direction  of  Brigadier  General  Benjamin  Harrison,  involved  every 
part  of  every  officer's  training  and  resulted  in  a  major  overhaul  of  Army  training  programs. 

TRADOC  placed  great  emphasis  on  strengthening  force  and  firepower  in  the  Army's  divisions. 
Division  '86,  a  test  program  with  the  1st  Cavalry  Division  at  Fort  Hood,  Texas,  fi"om  1977  to  1979, 
resulted  in  a  restructuring  of  Army  divisions.  The  new  heavy  division  required  more  mechanized  and 
armored  equipment  and  more  people.  This  stretched  the  resources  of  the  Army  to  the  limit.  Each  of 
the  changes  in  Army  organization,  doctrine,  and  training  transformed  the  way  the  chaplaincy  was 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


organized  and  trained  as  well. 

Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne,  following  the  force  structure  issues  carefully  from  the  Office  of  the 
Chief  of  Chaplains,  paid  a  visit  to  Fort  Hood  to  discuss  the  assignment  of  chaplains^  Chaplain  Billy 
Ingram  from  the  1  st  Calvary  Division  and  Chaplain  Joseph  Stock,  who  was  the  Assistant  Division 
Chaplain  of  the  1st  Armored  Division  at  Fort  Hood  during  the  period  the  restructuring  experiment 
was  taking  place,  noted  that  commanders  had  long  requested  assignment  of  chaplains  to  battalions. 
The  restructuring  of  the  division  provided  the  opportunity  to  accomplish  that.  This  concept  of 
forward  positioning  for  chaplains  became  in  1978  the  Forward  Thrust  Doctrine  of  the  Chaplaincy. 
Chaplain  Stock  recounted  that  assigning  chaplains  to  the  most  forward  units  accomplished  several 
goals.*  It  identified  the  chaplain  with  the  unit.  It  put  the  chaplain  on  the  commander's  staff.  It  allowed 
the  chaplain  the  opportunity  to  provide  more  meaningfiil  coverage  to  the  unit,  more  counseling  and 
more  services  tailored  to  the  unit's  needs.  Both  the  units  and  the  religious  support  teams  benefitted 
from  the  new  arrangement. 

Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  Chief  of  Chaplains 

General  Bernard  Rogers,  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  wrote  an  article  in  the  Militaiy 
Chaplains  RevieM'  entitled  "The  Challenges  of  the  Chaplaincy."^  General  Rogers  set  out  a  summons 
for  the  next  four  years.  He  listed  four  difficulties  faced  by  chaplains: 

1.  Providing    spiritual    guidance    in    a    pluralistic    society — cooperation    without 

2.  Providing  for  human  needs — finding  proper  balance  between  spiritual  and  secular 

3.  Providing  a  moral  framework  for  the  military  community — if  the  officer  corps  is  to 
be  the  "conscience  of  the  Army,"  that  is  doubly  true  for  chaplains. 

4.  Getting  out  from  behind  the  pulpit  and  immersing  himself  in  every  facet  of  the  military 

It  was  into  this  challenging  type  of  environment  that  Chaplain  Orris  E  Kelly  had  stepped  to 
become  the  Army's  fourteenth  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain  Will  Hyatt  retired  from  the  Army  on  July 
29,  1975 — on  the  200th  Anniversary  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy.  Chaplain  Kelly,  formerly  Hyatt's 
Executive  Officer,  was  promoted  from  Colonel  to  Major  General  on  July  1,  1975,  by  General  Walter 
T  Kerwin,  the  Vice  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army.  He  assumed  the  office  of  Chief  of  Chaplains  on 
August  1,  1975 

Chaplain  Kelly,  a  native  of  Montrose,  Kansas,  graduated  from  Kansas  Wesleyan  University. 
Upon  graduation  he  entered  the  Army  as  a  second  lieutenant  infantry  officer.  He  served  as  a  line 
officer  in  1945-46.  After  his  discharge  from  the  Army  he  entered  Garrett  Theological  Seminary  in 
Illinois,  and  graduated  in  1953.  In  June  of  that  year  he  was  ordained  a  Methodist  minister.  Chaplain 
Kelly  reentered  the  Army  as  a  chaplain.  He  served  at  Fort  Leonard  Wood,  in  Japan,  at  Fort  Riley,  at 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


the  Chaplain  School,  in  Germany,  in  Vietnam  and  at  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  as  Director 
of  Plans,  Programs  and  Policies  and  later  as  Executive  Officer.  He  graduated  from  the  Army  War 
College  resident  course  in  1973* 

In  his  first  letter  to  the  chaplains  in  the  field,  Chaplain  Kelly  emphasized  servant  ministry.  This 
became  a  major  theme  of  his  leadership.  He  wrote: 

The  Eternal  Word  of  God  provides  direction  with  new  goals  and  purposes  so  that  we 
can  place  rapid  change  and  crises  in  His  perspective  as  concerned  loving  human 
beings.  We  are  part  of  a  ministry  that  provides  faith  and  meaning  for  life  as  people 
seek  to  cope  with  their  human  conditions.  May  God  guide  our  eflForts.' 

While  Chaplain  Hyatt  had  been  a  planner.  Chaplain  Kelly  was  an  architect  and  builder. 
Generally  Hyatt  was  most  comfortable  in  the  world  of  ideas,  and  Kelly  was  most  at  home  in  the  world 
of  people.  On  numerous  occasions  Kelly  reminded  the  chaplaincy  that  the  chaplain's  best  work  is 
always  done  with  people  in  meaningful  relationships'"  This  philosophical  insight  formed  the 
background  for  some  of  Chaplain  Kelly's  greatest  innovations  and  achievements:  Forward  Thrust, 
Family  Life  Ministry,  Ministry  of  Presence,  and  Management  by  Objectives  for  Results. 

Chaplain  Kelly  was  gratefiil  for  the  excellent  structure  laid  by  his  predecessor.  He  saw  his 
mission  to  build  on  that  foundation,  to  refine  it,  implement  it  and  give  it  continuity  throughout  the 
Army."  Many  of  Hyatt's  ideas  were  still  in  their  infancy  and  needed  to  be  brought  to  fijll  maturity. 
Since  Orris  Kelly  was  a  part  of  the  origin  and  development  of  those  plans  and  programs,  it  was  logical 
that  he  should  see  them  through  to  completion.  Besides  that,  his  mission  was  to  prepare  the 
chaplaincy  for  a  very  difficult  future,  to  enhance  the  professionalism  of  chaplains  and  chaplain 
assistants,  and  to  be  a  prophetic  voice  to  the  leadership  of  the  institution  in  which  chaplains  serve.  His 
agenda  was  a  broad  one  that,  if  successful,  would  provide  a  solid  basis  for  broader  and  more 
meaningfiil  ministry  in  the  Army. 

Organizational  and  Systems  Ministry 

Many  challenges  faced  the  Army  in  the  years  1975-79.  The  Army  was  reorganizing,  or  as 
Chaplain  Kelly  described  it,  "redefining  itself"'"  It  was  preparing  for  a  smaller,  more  mobile  and  more 
lethal  force.  It  was  also  adapting  to  an  all  volunteer  force  and  adjusting  to  economical,  sociological 
and  cultural  changes.  The  chaplaincy  felt  the  impact  of  every  transition  the  Army  made. 

One  of  the  first  and  most  threatening  challenges  proposed  by  the  Department  of  Defense 
(DOD)  in  late  1975  called  for  a  reduction  in  the  officer  corps  of  4,400  officers.  The  objective  was  to 
go  back  to  the  level  that  existed  prior  to  the  war  in  Vietnam.  Originally  the  DOD  decreed  that  the 
reduction  would  come  from  other  than  line  officers.  Under  the  proposal  the  chaplaincy  stood  to  lose 
up  to  600  chaplain  positions.  If  that  happened,  the  chaplaincy  would  be  reduced  by  more  than  one 
third  of  its  professional  officers.  Chaplain  Kelly  was  concerned  about  the  threat  and  told  Chaplain 
John  Scott,  his  staff  action  officer,  that  he  could  not  accept  a  reduction  of  over  100  chaplains,  he 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


would  be  able  to  compromise  for  a  loss  which  amounted  to  less  than  one  hundred. 

In  December  1976,  the  Secretary  of  Defense  revised  the  total  reduction  to  1,100  officers. 
Further  negotiations  between  OCCH  and  the  Army  Staff  in  1977  resulted  in  a  reduction  of  only  84 
chaplains.  Some  senior  generals  insisted  that  no  cuts  should  be  taken  from  troop  units  (TOE). 
Chaplain  Kelly  argued  that  to  take  all  cuts  from  installations  (TDA)  would  seriously  cripple  the  ability 
of  chaplains  to  provide  ministry  on  installations  worldwide  A  compromise  was  reached  that  took 
some  reductions  from  each  category.  The  reductions  were  as  follows:'^ 

TTHS  -3 1  (Trainees,  Transients,  Holdees  and  Students) 

TDA  -21  (Table  of  Distribution  and  Allowance) 

TOE  -12  (Table  of  Organization  and  Equipment) 

Non  Divisional  TOE  -20 

Total  -84 

By  a  stroke  of  good  luck,  the  reduction  came  at  a  most  appropriate  time.  Because  the 
Chaplain  School  was  changing  the  Advanced  Course  to  two  21 -week  TDY  courses  from  a  39-week 
PCS  course.  Chaplain  Henry  Hilliard  determined  that  only  half  the  current  number  would  be  needed 
in  the  student  account  (TTHS).  This  meant  that  thirty-one  spaces  were  no  longer  needed.  Thus,  the 
actual  reduction  involved  only  53  spaces,  well  below  Chaplain  Kelly's  direction  to  Chaplain  Scott. 

Defining  Ethics 

The  Army  struggled  with  many  ethical  questions  in  the  mid  1970s.  Chaplain  Kelly  described 
the  movement  to  implement  ethics  training  as  slow  and  ponderous  "The  Army  was  feeling  its  way 
in  ethics  after  Vietnam.  The  whole  country  was  confused  about  who  we  were.  The  Army  had 
difficulty  defining  who  we  were  but  there  was  a  strong  feeling  among  Army  commanders  to  get  back 
to  ethics  "'^  Army  leadership  showed  a  deepening  interest  in  the  factors  influencing  ethical  decision- 
making The  Army's  interest  was  how  these  factors  impacted  on  organizational  leadership  and  the 
ethical  dimensions  of  leadership.  Kelly  pointed  out  that  one  of  the  best  indicators  of  the  Army  interest 
could  be  seen  in  the  increased  hours  of  instruction  included  in  the  Command  and  General  Staff 
College  curriculum.  He  wrote: 

Progress  has  been  made  in  raising  the  consciousness  of  decision-makers  But  much  more 
needs  to  be  done  ...  Chaplains  must  be  in  the  forefront  of  those  who  influence  the  ethical  dimensions 
of  military  life  and  mission. 

Commanders  at  all  levels  of  the  chain  have  a  right  to  honest,  courageous  and  responsible 
advice  when  the  effects  of  their  decisions  go  far  beyond  an  immediate  pragmatic  result. '^ 

Chaplain  Kelly  understood  the  expertise  many  chaplains  had  in  the  field  of  ethics.  Some  of 
these  chaplains  taught  at  service  schools,  but  there  were  many  others  in  troop  units  and  on 
installations  who  were  concerned  about  ethics  in  the  Army.  Some  senior  officers  felt  that  the 
chaplaincy,  because  of  its  professional  training,  should  be  the  proponent  for  ethics.  Chaplain  Kelly 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


resisted  and  finally  refused  that  role  since  it  would  appear  to  be  just  another  chaplain  program  and 
have  no  real  impact  on  the  Army.  He  felt  that  Army  command  leadership  should  be  responsible  and 
the  chaplains  could  lend  their  support.'*"  However,  he  did  make  Ethics/Moral  Integrity  a  matter  of 
priority  for  the  chaplaincy.  He  wrote  the  following  as  a  challenge  to  all  chaplains: 

We  ought  to  be  the  definers  and  proclaimers  of  ethics  and  morality  ...  I  believe  we 
should  be  committed  to  help  create  within  the  Army  an  atmosphere  of  ethical  and 
moral  consideration  based  on  personal  integrity  which  facilitates  responsibility. '^ 

The  emphasis  on  ethics  involved  many  different  activities.  Chaplain  instructors  were  already 
teaching  ethics  at  most  service  schools.  Perhaps  most  significant  was  the  selection  of  Chaplain  Joseph 
Beasley  to  teach  in  the  Department  of  History  at  the  U.S.  Military  Academy  in  1971 .  A  graduate  of 
the  University  of  Chicago,  among  other  institutions.  Chaplain  Beasley  was  the  first  chaplain  instructor 
assigned  to  the  Academy  in  the  twentieth  century.  Arriving  at  West  Point  shortly  after  compulsory 
chapel  was  abolished.  Chaplain  Beasley  found  a  ready  cadet  audience  for  his  courses  in  history,  world 
religions,  and  ethics.  He  was  soon  one  of  the  most  popular  lecturers  at  the  Academy,  where  he 
remained  as  a  permanent  Associate  Professor  until  he  retired  in  1980.  His  course  on  the  "History 
of  Western  Ethics"  looked  first  at  classical  ethical  theories  and  at  the  application  of  those  theories  "to 
evaluate  and  understand  moral  problems  concerning  race,  poverty,  politics  of  dissent,  the  sanctity  of 
life,  war  and  international  relations."'*  Chaplain  Beasley  believed  in  teaching  principles  rather  than 
rules,  "not  to  convert  cadets,  but  to  help  them  understand  our  predicament." 

At  the  U.S.  Army  War  College  ,  Carlisle  Barracks,  Pennsylvania,  Chaplain  Charles  Kriete, 
who  was  assigned  as  the  first  chaplain  faculty  member  in  1975-1976,  dealt  with  such  weighty  subjects 
as  the  moral  dimensions  of  strategic  planning.  After  two  years  of  brilliant  work  at  the  War  College, 
Chaplain  Kriete  was  selected  to  be  the  Commandant  of  the  US  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School 
at  Fort  Wadsworth,  New  York.  Chaplain  Ed  O'Shea,  who  was  assigned  to  the  faculty  in  1977,  taught 
a  number  of  outstanding  officers  who  led  the  Army  in  the  1 990s.  Among  the  members  of  the  Army 
War  College  Class  of  1978  were  future  Generals  Gordon  Sullivan,  Binford  Peay,  Gary  Luck,  and 
John  Shalikashvili.'"' 

The  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  (OCCH)  wanted  ethics  to  be  considered  in  everything 
chaplains  did  and  directed  that  their  ethical  responsibilities  be  clearly  stated  in  the  revised  Field 
Manual  16-5,  The  Chaplain.  Additionally,  OCCH  sponsored  annual  seminars  on  ethics.  In  April 
1976,  the  first  seminar  was  held  at  the  Chaplain  School.  Attendees  included  newly  designated 
commanders  (Lieutenant  Colonels  and  Colonels),  chaplains,  staff"  and  line  officers  and  resource 
persons.""  The  purpose  of  the  meetings  was  to  help  sensitize  new  commanders  to  ethical  dimensions 
of  leadership,  and  to  learn  from  them  and  each  participant  what  other  ethical  areas  needed  to  be 

Chaplain  Kelly  viewed  ethics  as  a  means  of  ministering  to  the  institution.  This  instrumentality 
involved  prophetic  ministry.  It  consisted  of  two  distinct  emphases;  support  and  confrontation. 
Chaplains  should  encourage  commanders  and  the  system  to  make  decisions  based  on  moral  principles 
which  contribute  to  the  welfare  of  the  soldier.  When  such  decisions  were  made,  the  chaplains  should 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


afFirm  and  support  them.  In  those  rare  instances  where  ethical  principles  and  soldier  welfare  were 
disregarded,  the  chaplain  must  have  the  moral  courage  and  fortitude  to  speak  out  to  commanders 
against  injustice  as  did  the  prophets  of  old  Only  when  chaplains  exercised  this  ministry  of  integrity 
could  they  hope  to  fulfill  their  calling  as  God's  representatives  to  the  soldier  and  the  Army. 

During  this  period,  the  department  of  the  Army  transferred  $300,000  to  U.S.  Army,  Europe 
to  support  a  Chaplain  Quality  of  Life  Program.  The  funds  were  used  to  conduct  Values  Clarification 
workshops  to  assist  soldiers  who  were  wrestling  with  their  own  values.  The  program  was  highly 
successful  in  spite  of  strong  criticism  later  from  some  chaplains,  commanders,  and  a  few  members  of 
Congress  who  viewed  the  program  as  a  tool  of  secular  humanists  to  conflise  the  values  of  our 

The  Panmunjom  Ax  Attack 

On  August  18,  1976,  two  U.S.  Army  officers  were  savagely  murdered,  and  nine  other  UN 
Command  personnel  injured  at  Panmunjom,  Korea,  when  they  were  attacked  by  thirty  North  Korean 
guards  wielding  axes,  ax  handles,  and  metal  pipes.  The  two  officers  were  the  first  fatalities  in  the 
Joint  Security  Area  since  the  1953  Armistice."'  Had  the  killings  taken  place  somewhere  along  the 
border  other  than  at  the  truce  site,  they  might  have  been  listed  as  one  of  many  serious  violations  of 
the  Armistice  Agreement.  Occurring  where  they  did  and  in  such  a  flagrant  manner  as  to  be  witnessed 
by  photographers,  they  caused  extreme  indignation  and  a  massive  demonstration  of  power  by  the 
United  States  forces." 

The  United  Nations  Command  soldiers  were  supervising  and  providing  security  for  five 
Korean  service  corps  personnel  trimming  a  poplar  tree  when  the  attack  occurred  "''  Early  in  August, 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Victor  S.  Vierra,  the  U.S.  Army  Support  Group-Joint  Security  Area  (USASG- 
JSA)  Commander,  had  decided  that  the  branches  of  the  40-foot  Normandy  poplar  tree  near  the 
Bridge  of  No  Return  obstructed  line-of-sight  visibility  between  the  UN  Command  Post  and 
Observation  Post  (OP)  5  Captain  Arthur  G.  Bonifas,  1st  Lieutenant  Mark  T.  Barrett,  and  ROK 
Army  Captain  Kim  Moon  Hwan  took  five  U.S.  enlisted  soldiers,  three  KATUSA  personnel,  and  five 
workers  to  the  site  at  1030  hours  on  August  18  to  cut  some  of  the  tree  branches  back.^* 

As  the  tree-pruning  detail  began  work,  a  party  of  nine  North  Korean  soldiers  commanded  by 
Lieutenant  Pak  Choi  arrived  in  a  truck.  Lieutenant  Pak  ordered  Captain  Bonifas  to  halt  the  trimming. 
The  UN  Officer  refused,  and  the  work  continued.  Approximately  20  additional  North  Korean 
soldiers  arrived  at  the  scene.  Lieutenant  Pak  then  "threatened  death  if  the  activity  was  not  halted."" 
Captain  Bonifas,  believing  these  statement  were  mere  threats,  ordered  the  trimming  to  resume  and 
turned  to  observe  the  workers. 

Lieutenant  Pak,  insulted  and  ignored  in  front  of  his  troops,  yelled  "Chook  yo!"  (Kill!),  and 
kicked  Captain  Bonifas,  signaling  an  all-out  attack  by  the  North  Korean  soldiers.  As  the  enemy 
troops  swung  clubs,  metal  pipes,  pick  handles  and  axes  seized  from  the  work  party,  both  Captain 
Bonifas  and  Lieutenant  Barrett  received  mortal  injuries.    For  four  minutes,  showing  remarkable 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


restraint,  the  work  force  attempted  to  break  contact,  extricate  their  members  and  evacuate  the  area. 
Captain  Bonifas'  body  was  recovered  and  the  UN  party  withdrew  by  truck  and  jeep."^  No  shots  were 
fired  by  the  UN  forces  although  all  combatant  troops  were  armed  with  pistols  "^ 

Upon  hearing  of  the  incident  while  on  a  trip  to  Japan,  General  Richard  Stillwell,  Commander 
in  Chief  of  the  United  Nations  Command,  returned  angrily  to  South  Korea.  On  August  19  the  Joint 
Chiefs  of  Staif,  in  coordination  with  the  Commander,  US  Forces  Korea,  declared  DEFCON  3  for  all 
U.S.  military  units.'** 

At  Camp  Greaves,  South  Korea,  Chaplain  Robert  Hutcherson  was  informed  that  there  had 
been  fighting  in  the  JSA  area  and  that  he  should  implement  the  chaplain  alert  plan.  Chaplain 
Hutcherson  visited  Camp  Kitty  Hawk,  the  garrison  area  of  the  troops  involved  in  the  JSA,  but  was 
able  to  get  no  closer  because  the  JSA  had  been  sealed  off"'' 

On  August  19,  Lieutenant  Colonel  Vierra  asked  Chaplain  Hutcherson  to  prepare  for  a 
memorial  service  the  next  day  at  Kimpo  Airport  in  Seoul  Chaplain  Hutcherson,  Chaplain  Bill  Harris, 
the  Third  Brigade  Chaplain,  2nd  Infantry  Division,  and  Chaplain  John  Weyand,  who  provided 
Catholic  coverage  for  the  Third  Brigade,  planned  two  services  The  first  was  conducted  under  the 
wing  of  a  C-130  aircraft,  which  was  to  fly  the  bodies  of  Bonifas  and  Barrett  to  Japan,  on  the  morning 
of  August  20,  by  General  Stillwell  and  Chaplain  Hutcherson  The  second  service  was  conducted  at 
Camp  Kitty  Hawk  by  General  Stillwell,  Chaplain  Weyand,  and  Chaplain  Hutcherson.  Chaplain  Harris 
was  at  the  second  service  and  joined  the  other  two  chaplains  in  visiting  with  soldiers  after  the 

Captain  AG.  Bonifas,  33,  and  Lieutenant  M.T.  Barrett,  25,  were  both  married.  Each  received 
the  Purple  Heart,  the  Bronze  Star  with  "V"'  device,  and  an  ROK  award  for  heroic  sacrifice.  Bonifas, 
on  the  selection  list  for  major,  was  promoted  posthumously.  He  was  buried  with  fijll  military  honors 
at  West  Point,  Barrett  at  Charieston,  South  Carolina.  Their  deaths  brought  the  number  of  Korean- 
based  US  military  personnel  killed  in  action  since  the  July  1953  Armistice  to  51." 

Following  the  US/ROK  shift  to  DEFCON  3  on  August  19,  the  North  Koreans  went  to  "a 
wartime  posture"  the  same  day,  the  first  time  since  1953  both  sides  had  placed  their  forces 
concurrently  in  an  advanced  readiness  condition.'"  General  Richard  Stillwell,  seething  at  the  incident 
and  all  of  its  results,  was  convinced  that  the  UN  Command  could  not  tolerate  denial  of  its  legitimate 
rights  in  the  JSA  or  DMZ  His  plan  "to  cut  the  damn  thing  down"  (the  poplar  tree)  was  dubbed 
Operation  Paul  Bunyan,  and  it  quickly  received  both  JCS  and  Presidential  approval  in  Washington." 

On  President  Ford's  orders,  in  the  early  morning  hours  of  August  21  a  110-man  UN 
Command  task  force  cut  down  the  infamous  poplar  tree.  During  the  hour-long  operation,  Guam- 
based  B-52  bombers  and  F-11 1  fighter-bombers  flew  overhead  while  a  300-man  US-ROK  Quick 
Reaction  Force  hovered  in  helicopter  gun  ships  South  of  the  DMZ.^^  Several  artillery,  aviation 
infantry,  and  armor  units  fi"om  the  2nd  Infantry  Division  were  in  direct  support  of  the  task  force. 
Before  the  day  was  over.  President  Kim  Il-sung  of  North  Korea  sent  a  message  of  "regret"  which  was 
accepted  by  the  UN  Command  on  August  22.^' 

Chaplain  Hutcherson,  who  had  moved  in  convoy  on  August  21  with  his  driver,  PFC  Walter 
Altic,  PFC  John  Davis,  and  KATUSA  Sergeant  Bae  Jae  Buk  toward  Panmunjom,  recalled  providing 
ministry  to  troops  "who  were  thoroughly  frightened,  anticipating  incoming  artillery  fire  from  North 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Korea  at  any  moment"^*'  Fortunately  no  fire  was  exchanged.  "My  only  contact  with  other  chaplains 
during  those  days  was  with  Chaplain  Paul  Forsberg,  2nd  Infantry  Division  Chaplain,  and  with 
Chaplain  John  Kowski,  Eighth  Army  Chaplain,"  Hutcherson  said.  "Chaplain  Kowski  was  a  great 
mentor  during  this  time,  offering  advice  and  giving  encouragement  to  a  thoroughly  frightened 
battalion  UMT.  He  and  Chaplain  Forsberg  were  both  real  assets  to  me  at  the  time."^^ 

After  the  tree  was  cut  down,  and  some  degree  of  normalcy  was  restored  to  the  area,  public 
affairs  officer  made  the  statement  that  no  chaplains  were  visible  during  or  after  the  incursion  into 
Panmunjom  to  cut  down  the  tree.  Both  Chaplains  Kowski  and  Forsberg  were  quick  to  state  that 
Chaplains  Harris,  Weyand  and  Hutcherson  were  exactly  where  they  were  supposed  to  be,  doing 
exactly  what  they  were  trained  to  do.'*  General  Stillwell  had  nothing  but  positive  impressions  of  the 
chaplains'  activities,  their  calm  ministries  of  encouragement  to  the  living  and  respect  for  the  officers 
who  had  given  their  lives  for  continued  peace  in  Korea. 

Affirmative  Actions 

The  pluralistic  reality  of  American  culture  was  increasingly  expressing  itself  in  diverse  ways 
in  1975.  The  clamoring  of  many  groups  for  recognition  and  status  was  finally  bringing  results  in  the 
courts  and  in  society.  Women  could  no  longer  be  ignored  as  equal  partners  in  the  workplace, 
especially  the  Army.  Minority  soldiers  including  Black,  Hispanic,  Asian  American,  Native  American 
and  others  also  were  seeking  to  be  recognized  as  full  members  and  equal  partners.. 

The  religious  climate  in  America  was  also  changing.  It  was  no  longer  just  the  "Big 
Three" — Protestant,  Catholic  and  Jewish.  Now  Buddhists,  Muslims,  Sikhs  and  a  host  of  other  sects 
or  religions  were  clamoring  for  recognition  in  powerful  ways.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  had  long  been 
concerned  about  these  issues  and  had  developed  plans  and  programs  to  address  them. 

In  the  mid  1970s  the  Army  began  to  develop  Affirmative  Action  Plans  (AAP)  to  ensure  that 
each  soldier,  regardless  of  race,  religion,  ethnic  origin  or  gender,  was  treated  with  dignity  and 
equality.  In  1976  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  submitted  his  first  AAP  to  the  Office  of  the  Deputy  Chief 
of  Staff  for  Personnel.  The  Plan  focused  primarily  on  recruiting  minority  and  female  chaplains.  By  the 
end  of  September  1976  there  were  82  blacks,  14  "other"  and  4  women  in  the  chaplaincy.  By  the  end 
of  FY  1979  the  numbers  had  increased  to  1 12  blacks,  33  "other"  and  9  women.  The  AAP  submitted 
for  1979  called  for  12.8  %  black  (180),  1.2  %  Hispanic  (17),  and  .05  %  women.  The  target  for 
women  had  already  been  exceeded." 

Affirmative  Action  activities  did  not  end  with  a  plan.  The  chaplaincy  instituted  several 
programs  designed  not  only  to  increase  awareness  of  the  need,  but  to  stimulate  actions  to  correct 
injustice  and  unfairness.  To  keep  the  need  before  the  chaplaincy,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  directed  that 
the  AAP  be  a  top  inspection  priority  for  members  of  his  staff  visiting  MACOMs  and  installations..*" 
He  established  Minority  Ministry  Conferences.  Initially  these  conferences  involved  only  black 
chaplains.  They  provided  a  forum  in  which  these  chaplains  could  express  their  frustrations  and  their 
needs  and  hopes  for  the  future  of  ministry  in  the  Army.  Later  the  conferences  were  expanded  to 
include  all  minorities,  as  well  as  Caucasians,  to  address  systemic  issues  and  make  recommendations 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

The  Minority  Ministry  Conference  in  1979,  under  the  leadership  of  Chaplain  Donald  Clark 
was  typical  The  theme  was  "A  Clear  Message  for  Changing  Times."  The  objectives  of  the  workshop 
were  to  develop  action  plans: 

-  To  enhance  recruitment  of  minorities 

-  To  address  priority  concerns  of  minorities 

-  To  address  issues  of  supervision.^' 

The  United  States  Army  Chaplain  Board  produced  two  recruiting  films  in  1976  for  recruiting 
minority  chaplains.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  also  let  a  contract  to  produce  "A  Handbook  for  Minority 

The  few  female  chaplains  in  the  Army  also  needed  support  to  deal  with  institutional  and 
personal  biases  they  faced  in  their  new  role.  Chaplain  Kelly  was  sensitive  to  these  needs  and 
established  a  female  network  under  the  supervision  of  Ms.  Ida  Butcher,  a  staff  person  in  OCCH.  A 
special  women's  conference  was  held  each  year  for  several  years.  Later  it  met  concurrently  with  the 
Minority  Chaplain  Conference  and  finally  was  merged  into  the  Minority  Ministries  Conference. 
Sexism  workshops  sponsored  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  were  held  on  TRADOC  and  FORSCOM 
installations  to  deepen  awareness  and  sensitivity  to  sexist  behaviors.'*^ 

Religious  groups,  particularly  Muslims,  were  pressing  for  recognition  by  the  Armed  Forces 
Chaplain  Board  so  that  they  could  endorse  a  chaplain  for  active  duty  Because  of  dietary  restrictions 
several  religious  groups  appealed  for  separate  rations. ^^  Many  of  these  and  other  requests  required 
staffing  within  the  chaplaincy  A  plethora  of  new  and  unfamiliar  religions  were  appearing  in  America 
and  in  the  Army.  The  Army  was  not  adequately  prepared  to  deal  with  the  new  requirements  presented 
by  these  groups.  Consequently,  OCCH  commissioned  a  study  to  produce  a  handbook  on  less  familiar 
religions.^'  Chaplain  Matthew  Zimmerman  was  the  OCCH  point  of  contact  for  the  study  Eventually 
two  Department  of  the  Army  Pamphlets  were  produced  and  distributed  to  commanders  and  chaplains 
in  the  field 

Relocation  of  the  Chaplain  School 

In  1975  the  proposed  relocation  of  the  Chaplain  School  became  a  serious  matter  of 
consideration.  In  anticipation  of  the  move,  the  Army  Chaplain  Board  left  Fort  Wadsworth  for  Fort 
Meade,  Maryland,  in  September  1975 

Two  simultaneous,  though  not  supporting,  actions  had  had  serious  implications  for  the 
Chaplaincy  The  first  was  that  the  Army  wanted  to  close  single  mission  posts  The  Chaplain  School 
was  the  only  activity  at  Fort  Wadsworth;  and  therefore  it  fit  that  criteria.  Chaplain  Kelly  did  not  agree 
with  Chaplain  Hyatt's  dream  of  the  Chaplain  School  positioned  on  its  own  post  and  therefore 
supported  the  relocation  *  His  requirements  were  that  the  School  be  located  near  a  large  urban  area 
where  institutions  of  higher  learning  would  be  available  for  chaplain  professional  educational 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


purposes.  His  recommendation  was  to  relocate  either  to  Fort  Monmouth,  New  Jersey,  or  Fort 
Devens,  Massachusetts 

The  second  major  action  was  prompted  by  the  House  Appropriations  Committee,  which 
raised  a  question  about  consolidating  the  separate  Army,  Navy  and  Air  Force  Chaplain  Schools  into 
one.  The  "InterService  Training  and  Review  Organization"  (ITRO)  was  established  by  DOD  to 
explore  the  feasibility  of  the  consolidation  recommendation.''^  Chaplain  Edward  O'Shea  represented 
the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  None  of  the  Services,  particularly  the  Army,  favored  the  proposal  to 
consolidate  or  to  collocate.  The  Army  Chaplaincy  felt  it  had  the  most  to  lose  under  the  proposal.  A 
summary  of  arguments  presented  by  the  Army  included  the  following: 

The  environment  in  which  ministry  took  place  diflFered  with  each  Service  (  Army  foxhole  vs. 
Navy  battleship).  The  level  at  which  chaplains  were  assigned  differed  (maneuver  battalion  vice  Air 
Force  base)  and  the  length,  intensity  and  curriculum  differed  as  well  At  that  time  the  Army  had  a 
one  year  resident  Advanced  course  versus  a  few  weeks  for  Navy  and  Air  Force.  The  Army  had  its 
own  school  staffed  and  run  by  chaplains.  That  was  not  entirely  true  of  the  Navy.^* 

After  hearing  all  the  arguments,  the  ITRO  recommended  that  the  Army  relocate  within  the 
Army  and  the  other  schools  remain  where  they  were.*'  On  March  25,  1977,  the  Office  of  the 
Secretary  of  Defense  recommended  to  Congress  that  the  Chaplain  School  relocate  internally  within 
the  Army  and  informed  Congress  that  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  preference  was  to  move  either  to  Fort 
Monmouth  (his  first  choice)  or  Fort  Devens.'**  Several  other  locations  were  suggested,  but  they  did 
not  meet  Chaplain  Kelly's  criteria.  Chaplain  Kelly  related  that  Fort  Rucker  had  a  strong  desire  for  the 
School  to  move  there  A  wealthy  individual  in  a  neighboring  town  oflFered  to  purchase  all  the 
fijmishings  to  make  the  School  a  first  class  institution  if  it  would  relocate  to  that  installation.  Chaplain 
Kelly  refused  the  oflFer.  " 

Meanwhile,  the  Army  was  struggling  with  the  decision  to  move  the  Chaplain  School.  The 
Army  selected  Fort  Monmouth,  but  political  considerations  continually  delayed  the  final  decision  and 
announcement  for  several  more  months.  When  the  Congressional  representatives  from  New  York 
(particularly  Staten  Island  and  Brooklyn)  heard  about  the  proposed  move  to  New  Jersey,  they  became 
indignant.  Staten  Island  wanted  to  retain  the  school,  while  the  Brooklyn  delegation  wanted  to  move 
it  back  to  Fort  Hamilton 

When  he  learned  that  the  final  announcement  of  the  move  to  Fort  Monmouth  was  imminent, 
Chaplain  John  Scott  called  Chaplain  Roy  Peters,  the  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School,  to  alert 
him.  Chaplain  Peters  decided  to  move  his  advance  party  to  Fort  Monmouth  immediately  following 
the  announcement.  He  relocated  them  the  day  the  announcement  was  made."  That  action  was 
perhaps  in  part  responsible  for  preventing  a  reversal  of  the  decision.  A  few  days  after  the  public 
announcement,  one  of  the  New  York  Congressmen  arranged  for  a  meeting  with  Chaplain  Peters  and 
the  Secretary  of  the  Army,  at  Fort  Drum,  in  upstate  New  York  His  apparent  intention  was  to  try  to 
force  a  reversal  of  the  Army  decision.  When  he  learned,  however,  that  Chaplain  Peters  had  already 
relocated  some  of  his  staff,  the  Congressman  decided  that  he  was  fighting  a  battle  he  could  not  win. 
Peter's  move  was  bold,  and  his  timely  action  proved  to  be  successful.  The  move  of  the  School  to  New 
Jersey  was  completed  by  the  end  of  1979, 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


The  Chaplain  as  a  Member  of  the  Commander's  Staff 

When  Chaplain  Hyatt  became  a  personal  staff  officer  to  the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  he 
saw  this  relationship  as  a  possibility  for  all  staff  chaplains.  Chaplain  Kelly  shared  his  predecessor's 
vision  and  sought  consistently  to  accomplish  that  goal.  He  viewed  the  subjugation  of  the  chaplain 
under  another  staff  section  as  preventing  the  Chaplaincy  from  having  its  rightful  status  and 

When  the  Army  announced  the  CONUS  Installation  Management  Study  (CIMS),  Chaplain 
Kelly  saw  it  as  an  opportunity  for  change  The  revision  of  Army  Regulation  5-3  "Installation 
Management"  was  unacceptable  to  Chaplain  Kelly  since  it  did  not  place  the  chaplain  on  the 
installation  commander's  personal  staff  nor  did  it  provide  for  a  separate  staff  office.  Chaplain  Kelly 
met  with  Major  General  Ursano.  They  agreed  to  incorporate  Chaplain  Kelly's  requirements  in  the 
revised  AR  5-3  '''  This  was  a  very  sensitive  issue  at  Department  of  the  Army  as  Chaplain  Scott 
learned  when  he  made  his  first  coordinating  visit  to  a  high  ranking  civilian  in  the  Army  Management 
Office.  He  was  greeted  with  open  and  vociferous  hostility.  It  was  only  through  the  intervention  of  a 
high  ranking  military  officer  that  a  rational  discussion  became  possible.  A  few  people  at  Department 
of  the  Army  did  not  like  chaplains  and  would  attempt  to  prevent  any  favorable  action 

It  was  later  decided  that  AR  5-3  would  be  combined  with  AR  10-10  and  that  the  Department 
of  the  Army  would  not  direct  how  field  commanders  should  organize  their  staffs.  The  Army 
distributed  AR  5-3  on  July  25,  1977  While  it  did  not  dictate  organizational  structure,  it  did  give 
"typical  examples"  showing  the  chaplain  as  a  personal  staff  officer.'^  While  it  was  not  all  Kelly 
wanted,  it  was  at  least  the  proverbial  foot  in  the  door.  The  chaplaincy  would  have  other  opportunities 
to  address  this  subject 

A  Hymn  Of  Blasphemy? 

The  Armed  Forces  Chaplain  Board  identified  the  need  for  a  new  Armed  Forces  Hymnal  for 
religious  services.  Several  contract  musicologists  recommended  hymns  and  other  worship  aids  for 
inclusion  in  the  hymnal.  The  intent  was  to  provide  materials  that  would  be  useful  to  a  wide  variety 
of  religious  groups.  One  of  the  hymns  selected  became  a  matter  of  strong  contention  with  civilian 
church  leaders  and  Congressmen. 

"It  Happened  on  a  Friday  Morning,"  or  Hymn  #286,  was  viewed  by  many  people  as 
blasphemous.  Chaplain  Kelly  estimated  that  his  office  alone  received  over  45,000  letters  on  this 
subject.  Just  responding  to  the  volume  of  letters  required  an  exorbitant  amount  of  time.''  The 
question  was,  however,  what  to  do  with  the  hymn.  Some  people  wanted  to  excise  the  hymn  from  the 
book.  One  chaplain  did.  Chaplain  Kelly  wrote  to  Representative  W.  C.  Daniel  that  the  hymn  was 
widely  respected  and  reflected  the  pluralism  and  religious  diversity  in  the  United  States.  He  also 
stressed  that  because  of  that  diversity  the  hymnal  offered  broad  choices.""  The  Armed  Forces 
Chaplain  Board,  composed  of  the  three  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  resisted  any  drastic  action.  The  AFCB 
did  not  want  to  be  put  into  the  position  of  being  told  what  could  be  included  in  its  book  of  worship. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Questions  of  free  exercise  must  be  balanced  with  those  of  propriety.  It  was  finally  agreed  that  the 
hymn  would  be  removed,  but  only  with  the  publication  of  a  new  issue. 

Chaplain  to  the  Cadets 

Civilian  ministers  served  on  the  staff  of  the  United  States  Military  Academy  at  West  Point  for 
over  one  hundred  years.  Various  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  for  many  years  desired  to  assign  military 
chaplains  to  that  prestigious  institution  In  the  1977  time  period,  following  considerable  turmoil  at 
the  Academy,  the  Army  considered  a  number  of  changes.  Chaplain  Kelly  determined  that  it  was  a 
propitious  time  to  recommend  the  assignment  of  military  chaplains  to  replace  their  civilian 

Chaplain  Kelly  discussed  the  possibility  of  making  this  change  with  General  Bernard  Rogers. 
With  General  Rogers'  approval  Kelly  went  to  the  Academy  to  talk  to  General  Andrew  Goodpaster, 
the  Superintendent  of  the  Academy.  After  some  discussion  General  Goodpaster  agreed  to  go  half 
way  with  Chaplain  Kelly.  The  Academy  would  have  50%  civilian  chaplains  and  50%  military."  This 
change  broke  precedence  with  over  a  century  of  Military  Academy  history.  The  agreement  included 
the  provision  that  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  would  nominate  potential  chaplains  for  the  Academy  and 
the  Superintendent  would  make  the  final  selection.  A  Roman  Catholic  chaplain  was  assigned  almost 
immediately  to  minister  in  the  Catholic  Chapel  which  was  owned  by  the  Catholic  Archdiocese  of  New 
York.  Chaplain  Colin  Kelly  III,  son  of  a  famous  World  War  II  hero,  was  the  first  Protestant  Army 
Chaplain  to  be  assigned  under  this  agreement^* 

During  the  same  time  period,  Jewish  leaders  desired  to  construct  a  Jewish  Chapel  at  West 
Point.  President  Jimmy  Carter  had  a  vital  interest  in  this  project  and  met  with  Chaplain  Kelly  and  a 
Jewish  fijnd  raiser  to  inaugurate  the  program  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  committed  the  Chaplaincy  to 
assign  a  Jewish  chaplain  to  West  Point  upon  completion  of  the  chapel." 

Selection  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 

Since  the  1950s,  a  pattern  had  evolved  that  for  each  two  Protestant  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  there 
was  one  Roman  Catholic  Chief  Merit  was  not  the  sole  determinant  Denomination  was  also  a  factor. 
Lieutenant  General  DeWitt  Smith,  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel  (DCSPER),  questioned 
whether  this  policy  was  appropriate  or  if  it  was  discriminatory.** 

The  Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General  examined  the  precedent  and  determined  that  it  was 
in  fact  discriminatory.  The  decision  that  ensued  determined  that  selection  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 
should  be  made  solely  based  on  merit.  However,  it  was  also  allowed  that  denomination  could  be 
considered  as  a  factor,  but  not  a  deciding  criteria.  The  Vice  Chief  of  Staff,  a  Roman  Catholic  layman, 
agreed  with  the  decision. 

The  civilian  Roman  Catholic  leadership  was  upset  by  the  legal  opinion.  They  had  a  strong 
desire  to  have  a  senior  Catholic  chaplain  in  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  and  the  decision 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


meant  that  that  situation  might  not  always  be  true  in  the  fijture.  They  feh  they  were  downgraded, 
especially  when  a  Protestant  deputy  was  selected  to  serve  with  a  Protestant  Chief.  As  a  result  of  the 
change,  two  Protestant  chaplains  in  a  row  served  as  Chiefs  of  Chaplains,  and  each  had  a  Catholic 

Cardinal  Cooke,  Military  Vicar,  and  head  of  the  Military  Ordinariate,  expressed  grave  concern 
about  the  change  in  policy.  He  expressed  his  sentiments  in  a  pastoral  letter  to  Catholic  Army 

While  I  recognize  that  the  Protestant  Chaplain  selected  for  Deputy  is  an  outstanding 
minister,  I  was  very  disturbed  at  the  major  shift  in  policy  which  this  selection 
represents  In  light  of  this  development,  I  have  requested  Archbishop  Ryan  and  the 
staff  of  the  Military  Ordinariate  to  conduct  a  thorough  review  of  the  current  situation 
of  our  Catholic  Chaplains  in  the  Armed  Forces  and  the  denominational  balance 
portrayed  in  leadership  positions,  especially  in  the  Army  Chaplaincy.*' 

Archbishop  Joseph  T.  Ryan,  Coadjutor  Bishop,  met  with  the  Secretary  of  the  Army,  Mr. 
Clifford  Alexander,  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Army,  and  the  DCSPER  to  determine  leadership 
positions  occupied  by  Catholic  chaplains  In  order  to  correct  the  perceptions  that  not  enough  senior 
Catholic  chaplains  served  in  senior  leadership  positions,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  agreed  to  fill  one  of 
the  three  Colonel  positions  in  his  office  with  a  Catholic  Chaplain.  Chaplain  John  J  Cunniffe  reported 
to  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  in  early  January  1979  to  serve  as  a  Special  Projects  Officer  to 
research  the  Catholic  issues  under  discussion."" 

Within  one  year  Chaplain  Patrick  J.  Hessian,  a  Catholic,  was  promoted  to  Brigadier  General 
and  selected  to  become  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains  Four  years  later  he  received  a  promotion  to  Major 
General  and  became  the  sixteenth  Chief  of  Chaplains. 


The  Army  during  the  1970s  began  to  look  at  how  it  operated  on  the  battlefield.  New  doctrine 
concerning  the  composition  of  divisions  and  corps  came  into  existence.  The  AirLand  Battle  concept 
was  established  which  focused  on  the  massing  of  forces  and  high  mobility  on  the  battlefield  It  was 
time  for  the  chaplaincy  to  review  and  revise  its  operational  doctrines  as  well  in  order  to  support  the 
changes  made  by  the  Army. 

Chaplain  Kelly  initiated  the  doctrine  of  Forward  Thrust  for  the  Chaplaincy.  During  the  war 
in  Vietnam,  and  after,  chaplains  were  assigned  at  brigade  level  and  provided  coverage  to  battalions 
Battalion  Commanders  wanted  their  own  chaplains,  not  merely  someone  who  provided  coverage  as 
possible.  Chaplain  Kelly  also  felt  that  chaplains  ought  to  be  assigned  close  to  the  troops.  He  therefore 
emphasized  that  chaplains  be  assigned  to  battalions  in  order  to  be  more  effective  in  dealing  with 
people."  Chaplain  Kelly  met  with  General  Donn  Starry,  commander  of  TRADOC,  and  won  his 
approval  to  move  ahead  with  the  concept.''^  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne  and  other  members  of  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Combats  Developments  Directorate  (USACHCS)  presented  the  written  doctrine  for  Forward  Thrust 
to  Chaplain  Kelly  on  December  8,  1978.  It  was  forwarded  to  TRADOC  and  approved  for 
implementation.  Chaplain  Kuehne  went  to  the  major  Army  centers  to  brief  the  new  doctrine  and  its 
implementation  in  the  revision  of  TOEs. 

In  Europe  in  the  mid  to  late  1970's,  the  major  emphasis  was  on  "Interoperability."  While  the 
concept  initially  involved  weapons  systems  and  troops,  the  chaplain  programs  also  became  involved. 
The  objective  was  "to  relate  USAREUR's  religious  program  to  the  Bundeswehr  and  Federal 
Republic's  civilian  clergy."'''  This  was  in  effect  a  continuation  of  policies  that  Chaplain  Ettershank 
and  earlier  staff  chaplains  had  implemented  in  building  relations  with  their  German  counterparts.  The 
chief  obstacles  in  Interoperability  for  chaplains  was  the  barrier  of  the  language  used  to  conduct 
religious  services. 

Upgrading  Field  Grade  Positions 

As  part  of  its  reduction  process,  the  Army  also  initiated  a  program  to  downgrade  many  officer 
positions.  Most  of  these  actions  took  place  during  "TDA  Scrubs."  This  meant  that  garrison  positions 
were  most  vulnerable.  Since  most  chaplain  field  grade  authorizations  were  in  garrisons,  they  suffered 
disproportionately.  Additionally,  many  commanders  adopted  the  philosophy  that  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains  would  assign  field  grade  chaplains  even  though  they  were  not  authorized.  Consequently 
many  commanders  offered  up  chaplain  positions  for  reduction  rather  than  line  positions.  By  1975, 
even  though  the  Program  Budget  Guidance  allowed  over  100  colonel  positions,  there  were  only  53 
authorized  in  official  TAADS  documents.  Because  the  Army  was  moving  toward  allowing  only  those 
positions  authorized  in  ofScial  documents  to  be  filled,  the  chaplaincy  was  threatened  with  a  reduction 
of  over  50  colonel  positions  and  proportionate  numbers  of  other  field  grade  positions. 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  tasked  his  staff  to  determine  what  could  be  done  to  salvage  chaplain 
field  grade  strength.  This  important  issue  involved  more  than  appearances.  Loss  of  the  authorizations 
would  seriously  affect  supervision  and  career  advancement.  Thus,  it  was  not  only  a  technical  issue, 
it  was  a  morale  issue  as  well. 

After  extensive  coordination  with  the  office  of  the  DCSPER,  Chaplain  Scott  drafted  a  letter 
for  the  DCSPER's  signature.  Major  General  Joseph  P  Kingston,  the  Assistant  DCSPER,  signed  the 
letter  and  distributed  it  to  all  MACOMs.  The  letter  addressed  the  shortage  of  chaplain  field  grade 
authorizations  as  a  result  of  TDA  scrubs  and  other  manpower  actions.  He  provided  an  exception  to 
the  Standards  of  Grade  Authorizations  and  stated  that  chaplain  grades  would  not  be  counted  against 
other  field  grade  levels  He  asked  commanders  to  align  chaplain  grades  with  those  contained  in  the 
Program  Budget  Guidance.  As  a  result  of  the  outstanding  staff  work  by  Chaplain  Jerry  Autry  at 
FORSCOM,  and  Chaplain  Max  Wilk  at  TRADOC,  by  the  end  of  1977  the  figures  stood  as  follows:** 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 




Lieutenant  Colonels 


August  1975 




December  1977 




By  1 980,  US AREUR  succeeded  in  upgrading  its  field  grade  positions  to  a  level  where  the 
chaplain  authorization  documents  reflected  the  total  for  the  Army  allowed  by  the  Program  Budget 

The  United  States  Army  Chaplain  Board 

The  Army  Chaplain  Board,  under  the  direction  of  Chaplain  Wendell  Wright,  received  a  new 
mission  statement  from  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  The  Board's  mission  would  be  to  execute  programs, 
collect  and  disseminate  information,  provide  consulting  services  and  assist  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  in 
developing  concepts  of  ministry  *'  Among  its  many  responsibilities  were  research  and  development, 
religious  education,  parish  development,  family  life  ministry,  production  of  films  and  publication  of 
the  Military  Chaplains'  Review. 

The  Board  also  took  a  leading  role  in  developing  activides  for  the  Bicentennial  of  the  Chaplain 
Corps  which  was  celebrated  on  July  29,  1975.  Among  actions  taken  were  hosting  a  formal  dinner, 
sponsoring  a  hymn  contest  and  designing  a  commemorative  plate  depicting  the  history  of  the 

The  Military  Chaplain  Review,  established  by  Chaplain  Hyatt,  had  several  editors  during  the 
decade  of  the  1970's:  Chaplains  John  Hoogland,  Joseph  Galle,  and  Rodger  Venzke  The  quarterly  was 
distributed  to  all  chaplains,  to  military  and  civilian  libraries,  and  to  chaplains  in  the  Navy  and  the  Air 
Force.  It  was  consistently  rated  highly  by  chaplains  of  all  Services. 

Production  of  films  under  the  leadership  of  Chaplain  David  Boyce  reached  a  high  level  of 
excellence.  In  1976  ninety-three  percent  of  all  chaplain  films  (447  out  of  481)  appeared  on  the  Army's 
"Hit  Parade"  list.**  Films  were  obtained  through  the  creative  efforts  of  the  Board  as  well  as  from 
commercial  sources 

In  July  1976,  a  Religious  Resource  Center  (similar  in  purpose  to  the  Army  Chaplain  Board), 
was  established  in  Munich,  Germany.  Its  mission  was  "to  provide  advanced  professional  leadership 
and  training  to  support  the  command's  religious  program.'""'  The  first  director  of  the  Center  was 
Chaplain  Donald  K.  Adickes.  The  USAREUR  Religious  Bookstore  was  moved  to  Munich  to  be 
collocated  with  the  Religious  Resource  Center 


The  Army  began  using  new  financial  methods  for  planning  and  budgeting  that  greatly 
increased  the  resources  available  to  the  chaplaincy.  The  program  that  "most  directly  affected  chaplains 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


was  the  Army's  first  multicominand  and  multifunctional  computer  system  (BASOPS).  BASOPS 
became  the  major  process  for  delivering  Congressionally  authorized  and  appropriated  dollars  for 
commanders'  religious  programs."'"  The  fijnds  available  to  the  religious  program  quadrupled  as  a 
result  of  the  BASOPS  system 

Chaplain  input  into  the  Planning,  Programming,  Budgeting  and  Execution  System  (PPBES) 
began  with  the  Command  Master  Religious  Program  (CMRP).  This  document  included  all  aspects 
of  chaplain  ministry,  training  and  facilities/"  Information  in  the  CMRP  was  based  on  information 
provided  by  posts,  camps  and  stations  in  each  MACOM  Program  money  made  available  to  the  Chief 
of  Chaplains  during  the  period  1975  to  1979  is  reflected  in  the  following  chart: 

Fiscal  Year 









Chapels  had  existed  in  the  Army  since  the  days  of  General  George  Washington  ("The  Temple 
of  Virtue"  at  Newburgh,  New  York,  first  used  in  February  1782).'^  The  oldest  active  chapel  was 
located  at  West  Point  (1837).  Eleven  chapels  built  before  1900  were  still  in  use.  Of  953  chapels  in 
the  inventory,  323  were  "temporary"  structures  built  during  World  War  II.  Chapel  construction  was 
a  high  priority  for  the  Chaplaincy.  It  was  time  to  begin  replacing  temporary  buildings.  During  the 
1970s  the  Army  constructed  an  average  of  two  new  chapels  per  year.'^  If  that  rate  persisted,  it  would 
take  more  than  150  years  to  replace  all  the  temporary  structures  In  1976  a  program  of 
standardization  of  design  was  developed  to  ensure  that  construction  conformed  to  Army 
requirements.  In  1979  a  chapel  design  guide  was  distributed  to  the  field. '^ 

Chaplain  Timothy  Tatum  in  1978  wrote  an  article  on  the  advantages  of  computers  which 
triggered  the  beginning  of  the  age  of  automation  for  the  Chaplaincy  Later  Tatum  was  assigned  to 
the  OCCH  and  tasked  with  the  development  of  a  reporting  system  for  the  Chaplaincy.  His  automated 
information  management  plan  was  called  the  Chaplain  Administrative  Religious  Support  System 
(CARRS)."  This  system  allowed  the  chaplaincy  to  begin  managing  information  in  the  same  way  the 
rest  of  the  Army  did  and  to  prepare  it  for  the  21st  century. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Chaplain  Personnel 

Under  the  direction  of  two  Directors  of  Personnel,  Chaplains  Harold  Lamm  and  Clifford 
Weathers,  the  Chaplaincy  entered  into  an  era  of  automation  and  new  techniques  for  managing 
chaplains  worldwide  Part  of  the  change  was  in  the  use  of  ASI  and  SSI  as  management  tools.  The 
definition  of  identifiers  for  the  new  management  process  began  with  Chaplain  Richard  Tupy.  The  final 
recording  of  identifiers  and  implementation  of  the  program  was  completed  by  Chaplain  Henry 
Hilliard  As  chaplains  were  trained  in  specific  skills,  the  information  was  verified  and  transferred  to 
DACH  where  appropriate  notations  were  entered  into  personnel  records  Although  the  Chaplaincy 
was  never  managed  exclusively  by  ASI/SSI,  the  information  was  helpful  in  matching  chaplains 
assigned  with  skills  required. 

A  major  improvement  in  chaplain  evaluations  came  through  a  change  to  the  regulation  on  the 
Officer  Evaluation  Reporting  System  Chaplain  Tupy  staffed  a  proposal  to  encourage  inclusion  of 
a  chaplain  supervisor  in  the  rating  chain.  When  approved,  this  allowed  chaplains  for  the  first  time  to 
be  involved  in  rating  other  chaplains  It  also  ensured  that  a  perspective  on  ministry  was  included  in 
the  report. 

During  the  downsizing  of  the  Army,  the  chaplaincy  was  forced  to  manage  year  groups  for  the 
first  time  This  management  included  controlling  the  number  of  people  brought  on  active  duty  to 
ensure  that  year  groups  were  somewhat  symmetrical  and  that  promotion  opportunity  remained 
essentially  equal  for  all  chaplain  personnel.'* 

The  personnel  composition  of  the  chaplaincy  began  to  change  perceptibly  during  the  late 
1970's.  Part  of  the  change  was  due  to  a  general  reduction  in  the  Department  of  the  Army  Some  of 
the  change  resulted  fi-om  shortages  in  some  faith  groups,  and  some  occurred  as  a  result  of  new  faith 
groups  represented  in  the  Army. 

Denominational  Distribution 
































The  distribution  chart  for  1975-1979  indicated  a  total  reduction  of  35  spaces.  More 
significantly,  the  trend  of  losses  in  the  Catholic  category  was  pronounced — a  reduction  of  48 
chaplains  in  five  years.  That  was  only  the  beginning  of  a  major  downturn  in  the  number  of  priests 
available  in  the  Army  The  loss  of  five  Jewish  chaplains  also  was  indicative  of  a  growing  shortage  of 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


rabbis  One  can  see  also  that  the  shortages  of  some  faith  groups  meant  more  chaplains  for  other 
groups,  particularly  Protestants  At  this  time  the  rule  of  thumb  was  one  chaplain  for  each  100,000 
civilian  constituents  whhin  a  particular  denomination."  Denominations  that  had  less  than  100,000 
members  banded  together  to  form  umbrella  organizations  such  as  the  National  Association  of 
Evangelicals.  The  military  chaplaincy  attempted  to  mirror  the  civilian  population  in  its  faith 

The  increasing  shortage  of  Roman  Catholic  chaplains  was  of  great  concern  to  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains.  He  assigned  Chaplain  John  J.  Cunniffe  to  DACH  to  do  a  special  project  on  chaplain 
shortages  in  the  Army.""  The  study  included  all  chaplains,  but  was  specifically  aimed  at  priests. 
CunniflFe  compiled  an  83 -question  survey  that  was  completed  by  240  Protestant,  207  Catholic  and 
7  Jewish  chaplains  The  results  of  the  survey  were  used  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  to  develop  policies 
and  programs  aimed  at  recruiting  and  retaining  Catholic  chaplains. 

Heavy  emphasis  was  placed  on  education  in  the  Army  and  in  the  Chaplaincy.  Many  officers 
felt  that  to  be  competitive  for  promotion  they  must  be  continually  involved  in  professional 
development  courses.  The  Chaplaincy  also  stressed  education  not  solely  as  a  means  of  career 
progression,  but  as  an  enhancement  for  ministry.  Many  chaplains  were  involved  in  full  time  and 
nonresident  military  or  civilian  education. 































*lncludes  Reservists 

The  chaplaincy  identified  141  positions  that  were  validated  as  requiring  special  advanced 
civilian  education.  Each  year  some  chaplains  were  trained  to  fill  some  of  these  positions.  Since  a 
normal  tour  of  duty  was  three  years,  a  person  would  be  trained  for  each  position  every  three 
years.  The  following  identifies  some  of  the  positions  for  which  chaplains  were  trained  between 
1976  and  1979;'*' 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 



Discipline  FY  76       FY  77       FY  78       FY  79 

Religious  Education 





Pastoral  Counseling 





Church  Management 





Educational  Psychology 










Cultural  Foundations 





Education  General 





Motion  Picture 











Educational  Technology 





TOTALS  28  17  19  27 

Other  disciplines  not  listed  above  included  Audio  Visual  Education,  Social  Psychology, 
Experimental  Psychology  and  Instructional  Psychology. 

Miscellaneous  System  Issues: 
Exchange  Program  with  Columbia 

The  Army  maintained  oificer  exchange  programs  with  many  different  nations  In  1978  the 
Army  wanted  to  establish  such  a  program  with  Colombia,  South  America.*"  Staff  officers  in  the 
Pentagon  felt  that  exchanging  chaplains  might  be  the  way  to  begin  that  program.  One  of  the  points 
in  favor  of  that  view  was  that  Colombia  was  a  strongly  Catholic  nation.  Contacts  started  between  the 
two  armies  and  some  preliminary  plans  were  made.*^  Chaplain  John  Scott  was  appointed  as  the  Chief 
of  Chaplains  liaison  officer. 

Problems  began  to  arise  when  the  Colombians  discovered  that  they  did  not  have  sufficient 
funds  to  underwrite  the  program  Additionally,  there  was  a  diflFerence  of  opinion  as  to  how  chaplains 
should  be  assigned.  The  United  States  wanted  Colombian  chaplains  and  ours  to  be  assigned  to  units 
so  that  all  soldiers  could  benefit  from  the  exchange.   Chaplains  of  both  countries  would  provide 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


direct  ministry  to  the  soldiers  of  the  host  army.  The  Colombian  Army,  on  the  other  hand,  wanted  to 
assign  their  chaplains  to  the  School  of  the  Americas  at  Fort  Benning,  Georgia,  where  ministry  would 
be  provided  to  their  own  or  other  Hispanic  soldiers  attending  the  school  That  arrangement  was  not 
satisfactory  to  the  United  States.  Since  no  funds  existed  in  Colombia  for  the  program,  negotiations 
were  curtailed.  An  opportunity  was  missed  that  might  have  enriched  both  nations. 

A  Five  Volume  Chaplain  History 

Before  his  retirement.  Chaplain  Hyatt  directed  that  a  history  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy  be 
produced  for  the  200th  Anniversary  in  1975.  Chaplain  Kelly  observed  that  Chaplain  Hyatt  had  a  great 
sense  of  history  and  wanted  the  work  of  the  chaplaincy  to  be  preserved  He  also  wanted  to  ensure 
that  his  accomplishments  were  chronicled  for  future  chaplains."^  The  work  began  in  1973  and  was 
completed  in  1979.  A  total  of  five  volumes  was  produced.  The  Government  Printing  OflFice  printed 
1,500  copies  which  were  distributed  to  MACOMs,  installations,  military  and  civilian  libraries  , 
seminaries  and  universities.  ^^ 

Authors  and  titles  of  the  volumes  were: 

From  Its  European  Antecedents  to  1791:  The  United  Stales  Army  Chaplaincy, 
by  Chaplain  Parker  C.  Thompson. 

Struggling  for  Recognition:  The  United  States  Army  Chaplaincy  1791  -  1865, 
by  Chaplain  Herman  A.  Norton  (USAR). 

Up  From  Handymen:  The  United  States  Army  Chaplaincy  1865  -1920, 
by  Chaplain  Earl  F.  Stover. 

77?^  Best  and  The  Worst  of  Times:  The  United  States  Army  Chaplaincy  1920  -  1945, 
by  Chaplain  Robert  L.  Gushwa. 

Confidence  in  Battle,  Inspiration  in  Peace:  The  United  States  Army  Chaplaincy  1945  -1975, 
by  Chaplain  Rodger  R.  Venzke. 

Fees  For  Chaplain  Services 

The  Department  of  the  Army  Inspector  General  received  an  inquiry  in  FY  1976  regarding  fees 
charged  by  chaplains  for  performance  of  religious  rites  and  sacraments  ^^  Chaplains  on  some 
installations  were  charging  for  their  own  services  as  well  as  those  of  other  chapel  personnel.  In  some 
instances  persons  also  were  charged  a  rental  fee  for  use  of  the  chapel  or  religious  facility.  Chapel 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


organizations  on  some  installations  also  published  fee  schedules  that  were  given  to  persons  requesting 
services  such  as  weddings. 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  established  a  policy  that  no  fees  would  be  paid  to  chaplains,  chaplain 
assistants,  or  paid  for  the  use  of  facilities.  Fees  required  to  pay  for  a  civilian  organist,  or  for  janitorial 
services,  were  to  be  paid  either  by  the  individual  requesting  the  services  or  from  the  Nonappropriated 

The  Proposed  Civilianization  of  the  Chaplaincy 

In  1976,  there  was  a  limited  movement  aimed  at  changing  the  Chaplaincy  from  military 
chaplains  to  civilian  chaplains.  The  movement  was  initiated  by  the  United  Church  of  Christ  in 
response  to  its  unhappiness  with  the  war  in  Vietnam.  Other  denominations,  such  as  the  United 
Methodist  Church,  also  raised  the  issue  at  a  later  date.**  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  did  not  perceive  this 
as  a  major  threat  since  it  would  have  been  economically  impossible  for  churches  to  bear  the  expense 
of  a  civilian  chaplaincy  The  Wisconsin  Evangelical  Lutheran  Synod  had  tried  using  civilian  chaplains 
in  Vietnam  and  in  Europe  with  very  limited  success  Transportation,  logistics,  access  to  military 
personnel  and  personal  support  needs  made  it  almost  impossible  to  provide  effective  ministry, 
particularly  in  a  combat  environment.  This  issue  arose  again  in  1979  in  a  court  case  questioning  the 
Constitutionality  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy. 


Planning  ministry  for  the  future  became  a  high  interest  item  for  the  chaplaincy  The  world  was 
changing  at  a  rapid  pace  and  it  was  necessary  to  think  about  how  ministry  would  look  ten  to  twenty- 
five  years  later  Several  workshops  were  held  in  the  late  1970s  to  help  chaplain  leadership  plan  for 

From  May  9  to  11,  1977,  a  "Future  Ministries  Workshop"  was  held  at  Newark,  New  Jersey. 
The  concept  for  the  conference  originated  with  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  but  the  sessions  were 
conducted  by  the  Chaplain  Board  under  the  supervision  of  Chaplain  Wendell  Wright.  The  goal  of  the 
workshop  was  "identifying  and  planning  for  fijture  ministries  in  the  military  chaplaincy."*'  Five 
modules  were  presented  by  guest  resource  leaders: 

Ethnic  Pluralism  and  Future  Forms  of  Ministry  —  by  Dr.  Grant  Shockley 
Parish  Pli4ralism  and  Future  Forms  of  Ministry  —  by  Bishop  Paul  Moore 
Social  Issues  and  Future  Forms  of  Ministry  —  Sister  Rosemary  Duncan 
The  Religioning  Process  and  Future  Forms  of  Ministry  —  by  Dr.  Earl  D  C  Brewer 
Spiritual  Discipline  and  Future  Forms  of  Ministry  —  by  Dr.  John  E  Biersdorf 

The  data  gained  from  the  workshops  often  became  a  part  of  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  Goals  and 


See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Chaplaincy  Ministry  to  Soldiers  and  Their  Families: 
Chief  of  Chaplain's  Management  Philosophy 

As  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Chaplain  Kelly  accepted  all  of  Chaplain  Hyatt's  management  concepts, 
but  he  also  expanded  them  and  gave  them  his  own  twist.  After  his  first  year  in  office  he  encapsulated 
his  philosophy  of  management  as  it  affected  relationships  at  MACOMs  and  what  he  expected  from 
management  practices  in  the  field  These  principles  found  their  way  into  almost  everything  the 
Chaplaincy  did  during  those  years.  His  management  philosophy  consisted  of  six  guidelines  for  relating 
to  MACOMs '" 

1  Lfnderskinding  our  Purpose  and  Environment .   To  minister  in  ways  that  fulfill  our 
vocation  and  expand  its  meaning  and  purpose. 

2  Determining  our  Responsibilities.  Avoid  overlapping  and  conflict 

3.  Reflecting  MACOM  Areas  of  Freedom .  DACH  will  not  impose  arbitrary  decisions. 

4.  Fulfilling  Responsibilities.  Listening  to  each  other. 

5.  Exercising  Authority  and  Resolving  Conflicts.  Solutions  based  on  mutual  respect  and 
constructive  conflict. 

6.  Management  Style.  Free  to  enable,  nurture  and  empower. 

In  order  for  chaplains  to  be  able  to  perform  ministry  effectively.  Chaplain  Kelly  stated  the 
goals  for  supervisory  management.  Every  chaplain  should  be: 

-  assigned  clear  responsibilities 

-  given  the  opportunity  to  sponsor  significant  ministry 

-  allowed  the  freedom  to  fail 

-  encouraged  to  use  unique  creative  gifts  of  God's  grace.*" 

Leadership  and  effective  chaplaincy  are  synonymous  Chaplain  Kelly  developed  a  model  of 
leadership  that  he  emphasized  strongly  wherever  he  met  with  or  spoke  to  chaplains  Leadership  in  his 
view  consisted  of  three  interlocking  circles: 

The  first  circle  (Professional  Core)  represented  who  the  chaplain  was  as  a 
professional.  The  Relationship  circle  represented  what  those  relationships  meant  as 
a  personal  role  The  third  circle  indicated  how  one  understands  and  operates  within 
the  system  (Army)  Each  of  these  was  related  to  the  other  and  impacted  on  the  other. 
Without  all  three,  ministry  would  not  be  complete. 

The  goal  of  Kelly's  management  was  to  provide  as  many  tools  as  possible  to  all  chaplains  so 
that  they  could  do  their  ministry  efficiently  and  professionally  One  of  the  main  processes  he  used  was 
Management  by  Objectives  for  Results.  He  also  sought  to  incorporate  long  range  planning  into  his 
management  process.  He  felt  that  eight  years  of  continuous  programming  ought  to  be  done  in  order 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


to  provide  continuity  and  to  impact  the  system.'^  Anything  less  than  that  would  prove  ineffective. 

Management  by  Objectives  for  Results  (IMBOR) 

Although  the  concept  of  MBOR  was  introduced  during  Chaplain  Hyatt's  tenure  as  Chief  it 
did  not  come  to  fruition  until  Chaplain  Kelly  succeeded  him.  The  first  official  use  of  MBOR  in  the 
Army  Chaplaincy  began  in  1976.'^'  Within  fifteen  days  of  assuming  the  position  of  Chief  of  Chaplains, 
Chaplain  Kelly  distributed  his  "Chief  of  Chaplains  Four  Year  Planning  Guidance  (FY  77-79)."'* 
Included  in  the  guidance  were  the  goals  and  objectives  that  resulted  from  negotiations  at  installations 
and  the  MACOMs  that  were  passed  forward  to  OCCH.  All  of  the  guidance  was  discussed  also  at  the 
Annual  Command  Chaplains'  Conference  MBOR  was  seen  as  a  decentralized  and  participatory  form 
of  management.  Each  MACOM  and  installation  was  fi^ee  to  modify  the  guidance  to  meet  its  own 
specific  needs  Management  was  by  planning  at  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  level,  by  objectives  at  the 
MACOM  level,  and  by  results  at  the  installation  level 

The  purpose  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Planning  Guidance  was  to  provide  "information  and 
guidance  toward  common  goals  for  ministry  in  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplaincy."''  The  guidance  consisted 
of  three  parts:  the  Total  Army  Goals;  general  directions  to  the  Major  Commands  including  which 
programs  will  be  monitored  by  OCCH;  and  the  OCCH  Key  Results  Areas  (KRA). 

The  Total  Army  Goals  formed  the  basis  for  Chief  of  Chaplains  planning.  In  1978  The  Total 
Army  Goals  were: 

THE  READINESS  GOAL  prepare  the  Total  Army  for  rapid  transition  to 


THE  HUMAN  GOAL  provide  highly  eflFective,  morally  responsible 


THE  MATERIEL  GOAL  develop,  field,  maintain  balanced  war  fighting 


THE  STRATEGIC  DEPLOYMENT  GOAL         improve  deployment  capability 

THE  FUTURE  DEVELOPMENT  GOAL  improve  equipment,  concepts,  technology 

THE  MANAGEMENT  GOAL  use  resources  more  efficiently 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  eleven  Key  Results  Areas  in  FY  1978  were:  Religious  Sen>ices; 
Pastoral  Concerns;  Religious  Education:  Professional  Development;  Research  and  Development; 
Administration  and  Management;  Manpower  a)id  Procurement;  Women's  Issues;  Chaplain  Support 
Activities;  Force  Development  and  Manpower  Management;  and  Reser\'e  Components.^ 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 



Each  KRA  consisted  of  a  description,  a  list  of  objectives  with  resources  needed,  a  method  of 
evaluation,  the  point  of  contact  and  the  Army  Goal  to  which  the  KRA  related.  An  example  of  the 
KRA  IV,  "Professional  Development,"  follows" 

Professional  Development 

Provides  an  integrated  system  for  the  professional  development  of  active  duty  and  reserve 

component  chaplains,  staff  specialists,  enlisted  assistants,  and  DA  civilians. 


1 .  To  ensure  that  all  AERB  chaplain  spaces  are  reflected  by  code  on  TAADS  by  30  Sept. 


OCCH  Resources:  50  hours;  $1,000.00 

Evaluation:  Project  Completed.      POC:  Ch  Jernigan 

2.  To  insure  that  TAADS  reflects  all  chaplain  positions  by  SSUASL 
OCCH  Resources:     50  hours,    $1,000.00 

Evaluation:  Current  files  completed  by  30  September  1978         POC:  Ch  Hilliard 

3.  To  provide  support  and  professional  assistance  to  the  Academic  Board,  USACHCS, 
M  ACOMs  and  installations  on  the  implementation  and  evaluation  of  the  Professional 
Development  Plan. 

OCCH  Resources:    275  hours;  $20,475.00 

Other  Resources:      380  hours 

Evaluation:  Implementation  and  improvements  to  the  Professional  Development  Plan. 

POC:  Ch  Scott 

4.  To  develop  a  plan  for  improving  the  supervisory  process  for  chaplain  personnel  within 
the  Army  structure  at  all  supervisory  levels  through  the  conduct  of  two  OCCH 
sponsored  conferences 

OCCH  Resources:    1 50  hours;  $500.00 

Evaluation:  Plan  completed  and  approved  by  Chief  of  Chaplains  by  30  September 

1978.  Potential  leadership  is  developed  in  all  career  stages  which  will  improve 

supervisory  skills  appropriate  to  the  needs  at  various  staff  levels.     POC:  Ch  Lamm 

MBOR  provided  the  means  by  which  the  chaplaincy  could  identify  (1)  what  needed  to  be 
done,  (2)  what  resources  were  required  and  (3)  how  successful  the  effort  was  It  identified  only  those 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


few  critical  issues  that  needed  to  be  highlighted  rather  than  many  trivial  actions  required  to  perform 
ministry  in  the  field. 

Chaplain  Professional  Development  Plan 

One  of  Chaplain  Kelly's  greatest  achievements  in  his  leadership  as  Chief  of  Chaplains  involved 
the  enhancement  of  chaplain  professional  development.  The  Chaplain  School  was  under  the 
supervision  and  control  of  the  Training  and  Doctrine  Command,  and  the  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  had  little 
opportunity  to  influence  the  curriculum.  Both  other  professional  schools.  The  Judge  Advocate 
General  School  and  the  Academy  of  Health  Sciences,  enjoyed  more  autonomy  and  control 

Soon  after  assuming  the  position  of  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Chaplain  Kelly  requested  that 
Chaplain  Albert  Ledebuhr,  the  TRADOC  Staff" Chaplain,  arrange  a  meeting  with  General  DePuy,  the 
TRADOC  Commander  Chaplain  Kelly  did  not  expect  an  easy  time  in  convincing  the  commander  that 
he  needed  to  exercise  more  control  over  the  curriculum  at  the  School.  Within  six  minutes  after  Kelly 
began  his  presentation,  General  DePuy  agreed  to  his  recommendations  not  to  run  the  School,  but  to 
influence  the  curriculum.'"'  General  DePuy  understood  Chaplain  Kelly's  inability  to  lead  the  Chaplain 
Branch  without  some  influence  on  what  chaplains  were  trained  to  do 

Chaplain  Kelly  directed  his  Executive  Oftlcer,  Chaplain  Warren  Truer,  to  send  a  letter  to  the 
entire  Chaplaincy  requesting  ideas  for  organization  and  training  at  the  Chaplain  School.  The  responses 
received  resulted  in  a  "radical  piece  of  paper"'*''  that  later  formed  the  basis  for  the  Chaplain 
Professional  Development  Plan  (PDP)  An  Ad  Hoc  Study  Group  at  OCCH  composed  of  Chaplains 
Truer,  O'Shea,  Tupy,  Lamm  and  others  was  appointed  in  August  1975,  "to  collect  more  information, 
look  at  total  ministry  and  put  together  a  comprehensive  plan  covering  the  period  fi"om  commissioning 
to  retirement."'""  Chaplain  Kelly  wanted  maximum  involvement  in  developing  the  PDP  A 
"Strawman"  was  sent  to  the  field  and  suggestions  were  incorporated  into  the  plan.  The  PDP  was 
finalized  on  31  August  1976,'"'  with  implementation  set  for  July  1977.  A  copy  of  the  final  plan  was 
sent  to  General  Depuy  on  7  September  1976.  Chaplain  Kelly  included  a  list  of  the  significant  changes: 

Chaplain  Professional  Development 

-  C-20  Course. 

The  residential  portion  of  the  course  would  be  reduced  from  nine  to  six  weeks,  with 

additional  reading  requirements  transferred  to  the  field.  During  the  first  year  a  minimum  of 

four  hours  weekly  will  be  spent  in  the  field  in  peer  groups  with  a  training  supervisor  using  the 

actual  job  environment  and  tasks,  along  with  the  chaplain's  job  performance,  as  the  basis  for 


See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


-  C-22  Course 
Will  be  reduced  significantly  and  two  courses  will  be  conducted  annually. 

The  course  will  focus  on  professional  development  and  be  tailored  individually  for  each 
chaplain.  It  will  also  include  an  assessment  process  prior  to  and  after  arrival  at  the  School 

Skill  training  will  be  done  through  "SSI/ASI  producing  short  courses"  in  place  of  the  en 
masse  skill  training  currently  provided. 

The  current  graduate  degree  program  will  be  eliminated  in  favor  of  accreditation  of 
USACHCS  courses  for  use  in  external  degree  programs  initiated  at  USACHCS  and  completed  at  the 
next  duty  assignment. 

-Chaplain  School. 

The  USACHCS  responsibility  will  broaden  While  still  concerned  with  residential  training,  it 
will  focus  more  attention  on  the  development  of  criteria  and  standards,  as  well  as  support 
material,  for  use  in  the  installation  program. 

Chaplain  Edward  O'Shea  was  charged  with  responsibility  for  implementing  the  program.  Upon 
his  reassignment  in  June  1977,  he  was  replaced  in  that  responsibility  by  Chaplain  John  Scott  who 
continued  the  implementation  process. 

The  assumptions  made  in  developing  the  PDP  included  the  following:'"' 

-  Spiritual  Development  is  a  major  concern  of  the  chaplain 

-  Pastors  and  parishioners  are  involved  together  in  ministry 

-  Major  emphasis  will  be  on  relationships 

-  Change  is  inevitable,  but  does  not  need  to  be  random 

-  Persons  are  effective  to  the  degree  of  their  awareness 

Leadership  formed  a  critical  center  for  the  Professional  Development  Plan  The  environment 
in  which  ministry  takes  place  was  characterized  by  the  leader's  ability  and  willingness  to: 

-  Provide  personal  support 

-  Be  receptive  to  the  ideas  of  others 

-  Expect  realistic  and  high  performance  of  persons 

-  Build  a  team 

-  Aid  others  in  doing  their  work 

-  Involve  others  in  decisions  that  affect  them'"' 

The  PDP  was  a  very  innovative  document  which  called  for  some  very  revolutionary  changes 
in  chaplain  education.  It  identified  four  specific  phases  of  training:  Basic  Training,  Advanced  Training, 
ASI/SSI  Training,  and  Continuing  Education  The  decision  was  made  that  training  provided  by  the 
chaplaincy  would  be  given  only  when  actually  required  by  a  chaplain  to  perform  current  or  imminent 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 



duties.  The  Chaplain  Advanced  Course,  formerly  39  weeks  long,  was  shortened  to  21  weeks. 

The  Chaplain  School  Advanced  Course  was  modified  to  include  three  specific  phases.'"'*  The 
first  three  weeks  involved  self-assessment  Chaplains  identified  their  strengths  and  weaknesses. 
Several  psychological  instruments  were  used  to  accomplish  this,  and  resource  persons  were 
contracted  to  provide  leadership.  This  period  also  required  chaplains  to  develop  a  plan  for  working 
on  their  strengths  or  weaknesses  in  ministry  The  second  phase  required  chaplains  to  pursue  training 
in  the  areas  identified  in  the  self-assessment  plan  This  training  could  be  done  through  civilian 
seminaries  or  universities,  through  military  courses  and  in  some  cases  through  individually  self- 
directed  programs.  The  third  part  of  the  Advance  Course  training  centered  on  Army-required  military 
subjects.  The  School  interspersed  this  training  throughout  the  2 1  weeks 

The  Chaplain  Basic  Course  also  was  revised  Basic  training  consisted  of  three  parts:  the  Pre- 
commissioning  Phase,  the  resident  9  week  Basic  Chaplain  Course,  and,  lastly,  the  Installation  Training 
(Phase  III).  Part  time  training  would  be  done  for  the  next  two  years  on  the  installations  to  which 
chaplains  were  assigned  after  completing  the  course.  This  phase  of  training,  called  Phase  III  Training, 
comprised  the  most  innovative  part  of  the  PDP.  Each  new  chaplain,  after  graduating  from 
USACHCS,  attended  classes  conducted  by  experienced  senior  chaplains.  The  new  policy  required 
that  training  be  done  at  the  time  and  place  where  it  would  most  likely  be  used 

Chaplains  specifically  trained  to  become  training  managers  on  the  installations  were  identified 
by  the  ASI  7E.  A  training  program  was  developed  in  early  1977  at  the  Chaplain  School  by  Chaplains 
John  Snyder  of  USACHCS,  Gordon  Prout  fi"om  Fort  Carson,  Roy  Mathis  fi^om  Fort  Bragg  and  John 
Scott  representing  OCCH.  Chaplain  Mathis  had  been  using  a  similar  program  at  Fort  Bragg,  and 
provided  valuable  insights  to  the  committee.  Phase  III  training  on  installations  began  in  September 

Chaplain  Roy  Mathis  envisioned  the  7E  Trainer  as  an  orchestrator  of  training  rather  than  one 
who  conducted  all  the  training  himself  The  PDP  identified  many  skills  that  must  be  trained  at  the 
installation,  but  it  also  allowed  discretion  to  meet  local  training  needs.  At  Fort  Bragg,  in  one  eight 
month  period,  the  following  training  workshops  were  "orchestrated"  by  Chaplain  Mathis:'"* 

Marriage  and  Family  Counseling 

Race  Relations 

Rape  Crisis  Counseling 

Suicide  Prevention 

Drug  and  Alcohol  Counseling 

Serendipity  Groups 

Religious  Education 

-  Death  and  Dying  Classes 

-  Preaching 

-  Personal  Effectiveness  Training 

-  Child  Abuse 

-  Marriage  and  Family  Enrichment 

-  Mid-Life  Crises 

Chaplain  Frank  Jopp,  the  7E  Training  Manager  at  Fort  Carson,  Colorado,  had  four  to  six  new 
chaplains  under  his  supervision  for  Phase  III  training.  He  led  the  trainees  through  the  mandatory 
training  subjects  and  shared  his  own  chaplain  experiences  with  them.  Chaplains  were  provided  an 
opportunity  to  raise  questions  that  they  encountered  as  they  carried  on  their  ministry.  All  of  the 
chaplains  in  the  program  were  gratefiil  for  the  opportunity  to  learn  in  an  atmosphere  that  was 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


nonthreatening  to  them.  Brigade  supervisory  chaplains  retained  responsibility  for  providing  day-to- 
day training  and  guidance.  Where  the  system  worked  best,  the  Training  Manager  and  the  Supervisory 
Chaplain  established  a  collaborative  and  supportive  relationship. 

Training  managers  often  arranged  ad  hoc  on-site  training.  If  a  wedding  was  being  conducted, 
the  trainees  gathered  at  the  chapel  to  observe  a  military  wedding.  They  assembled  likewise  for  a 
funeral  or  for  other  special  occasions.  When  chaplains  accompanied  their  units  to  the  field,  they 
practiced  skills  such  as  conducting  field  services  which  they  had  learned  from  the  Training  Manager. 

All  chaplain  training,  whether  done  at  the  School,  on  the  installation,  in  hospitals  or  at  civilian 
centers,  became  a  part  of  the  all-encompassing  PDP.  Chaplain  Kelly  described  professional 
development  in  the  following  words: 

First,  chaplain  professional  development  at  its  best  involves  a  realization  that  learning 
and  development  take  place  over  a  wide  spectrum  of  activities.  It  is  not  confined  to 
formal  schooling,  but  occurs  as  we  interact  with  supervisory  chaplains,  commanders, 
peers  and  subordinates  in  each  assignment.  It  also  occurs  as  chaplains  grow  in  their 
understanding  of  the  needs  of  their  own  families  and  as  they  become  involved  with 
innovative  approaches  of  ministry  to  meet  the  specific  needs  of  our  troops  and  their 
families.  It  occurs  as  chaplains  learn  to  allow  time  for  rest  and  reflection  to  explore 
the  roots  of  their  own  faith.  Professional  development  should  occur  in  all  parts  of  the 
chaplain's  life  and  should  continue  throughout  his  or  her  life.  The  process  cannot  be 
merely  identified  with  the  development  of  any  one  set  of  skills  or  knowledge.  It  must 
involve  the  whole  person.'"' 

Chaplains,  often  by  virtue  of  their  calling  to  be  servants,  do  not  feel  that  they  can  be  away 
from  their  parishioners  for  too  long  a  time  and  without  good  reason.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains 
recognized  that  the  ongoing  nature  of  professional  development  required  permission  for  chaplains 
to  receive  training  each  year.  He,  therefore,  established  a  policy  that  every  chaplain  would  be  required 
to  have  a  minimum  of  two  weeks  TDY  each  year  for  special  training  or  a  theological  update  ""*  The 
Chief  of  Chaplains  did  not  prescribe  what  kind  of  training  would  be  received,  or  where.  He  simply 
stated  that  each  chaplain  should  comply  with  the  policy. 

Since  professional  development  included  all  training  received  by  chaplains,  there  needed  to 
be  a  means  of  assessing  the  effectiveness  of  the  training  and  to  make  recommendations  for  changes 
to  meet  new  needs.  An  Academic  Board  was  established  that  met  twice  annually  under  the  leadership 
of  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains  (Chaplain  Thaddeus  Malinowski  and  later  Chaplain  Kermit 
Johnson).  Membership  on  the  Board  consisted  of  chaplains  from  the  Chaplain  School,  the  field  and 
from  OCCH.  Three  civilian  consultants  involved  in  education,  spiritual  formation  and  psychotherapy 
served  as  members  of  the  Board.  Meetings  were  held  in  various  locations  in  order  to  observe  actual 
training  needs,  training  provided  and  to  forward  recommendations  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Ministry  to  Families 

Training  chaplains  in  civilian  graduate  schools  for  family  ministry  began  in  the  early  1970s 
However,  specific  utilization  of  these  chaplains  in  positions  where  their  skills  could  impact  did  not 
begin  until  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly  became  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain  Kelly  noted  that  Family  Life 
Center  ministry  began  as  an  outgrowth  of  the  fact  that  chaplains  were  spending  50%  of  their  time  in 
counseling  families  and  individuals  '"''  Family  Life  Centers  were  established  on  several  installations 
to  provide  full-time  counseling  opportunities  by  qualified  chaplains  as  well  as  to  offer  educational 
programs  aimed  at  prevention. 

Not  all  commanders  approved  of  the  program.  Some  thought  chaplains  should  spend  all  their 
time  with  soldiers,  not  with  members  of  their  families.  One  commander  in  Panama  forcefully  opposed 
the  assignment  of  a  chaplain  to  family  life  ministry.""  He  failed  to  see  that  family  relationships  directly 
afTected  a  soldier's  morale  and  job  performance.  By  1977,  twenty-one  Family  Life  Centers  were 
located  on  installations  in  CONUS  and  "over  1 00,000  persons  were  being  impacted  by  their  ministry 
programs  every  year."'"  In  1979,  there  were  38  Family  Life  Centers,  and  nearly  70  chaplains  had 
been  trained  in  this  ministry."-  The  Chief  of  Chaplain's  goal  was  to  establish  ten  new  centers  in  FY 

The  Army  was  beginning  to  identify  child  abuse  as  a  serious  problem,  just  as  it  was  in  civilian 
communities.  Department  of  the  Army  established  a  Child  Advocacy  Program  to  report  and  deal  with 
child  abuse.  The  Chaplaincy  supported  this  initiative  by  the  Army.  This  meant  increased  responsibility 
for  the  Family  Life  Center  Chaplains  Chaplain  Kelly  wrote: 

During  the  International  Year  of  the  Child,  as  proclaimed  by  the  United  Nations,  we 
can  capitalize  on  our  own  spiritual  heritage  to  touch  the  lives  of  people,  build  support 
systems  and  provide  proactive  and  problem  preventive  actions  through  our  family  life 

Increased  emphasis  on  retreats  for  families  and  soldiers  added  a  flin  dimension  to  ministry. 
One-day  "Duty  Day  With  God"  retreats  were  held  throughout  CONUS  on  a  regular  basis.  These 
short  programs  were  generally  held  in  the  unit  area  or  in  one  of  the  installation  chapels  In  USAREUR 
and  Korea,  single  soldier  and  family  retreats  were  coordinated  by  the  command  and  conducted  in 
designated  religious  retreat  centers  In  1976  approximately  10,000  persons  attended  retreats  at 
Berchtesgaden.  Another  3,000  persons  participated  in  the  International  Pilgrimage  to  Rome."^ 

Clinical  Pastoral  Education 

Chaplain  Hyatt  had  established  a  policy  that  every  chaplain  should  complete  one  quarter  of 
Clinical  Pastoral  Education  (CPE).  Chaplain  Kelly  revoked  that  policy  when  he  became  Chief  of 
Chaplains  because  he  realized  that  not  every  chaplain  would  benefit  from  the  training.  Additionally, 
some  chaplains  opposed  CPE  training  on  theological  grounds.  Kelly  felt  that  every  chaplain  should 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


be  looked  at  individually  and  training  should  be  provided  to  help  those  interested  to  be  most  effective 
in  what  they  perceived  as  their  call  to  ministry.  Since  then,  the  Army  provided  training  only  on  a 
volunteer  and  "as  needed"  basis. 

There  was  also  a  perception  on  one  hand  that  CPE  was  the  "in"  thing  and  perhaps  a  road  to 
success.  On  the  other  hand,  CPE  chaplains  complained  that  they  were  not  being  considered  fairly  for 
promotion.  This  became  a  serious  problem  for  CPE  supervisors  who  served  in  repetitive  supervisory 
positions.  Some  commanders  did  not  understand  CPE  or  anything  that  was  not  a  part  of  the 
operations  system  and  therefore  rated  CPE  chaplains  lower  than  others."^  Several  years  of  hard  work 
by  staff  action  officers  in  OCCH,  particularly  Chaplains  Richard  Tupy  and  Henry  Hilliard,  led  to 
inclusion  of  an  appendix  in  the  Officer  Evaluation  Report  regulation  and  guidance  to  promotion 
boards  that  drew  attention  to  the  critical  need  of  this  ministry  in  the  Army. 

In  1976,  13  CPE  training  centers  operated  in  the  Army.  They  were  located  at  USACHCS, 
4  Medical  Centers  (Walter  Reed,  Brooke,  Fitzsimmons  and  Letterman),  7  CONUS  installations,  and 
one  in  USAREUR.  In  CONUS,  creative  ministry  was  being  introduced  at  Walter  Reed  Army  Medical 
Center,  by  Chaplain  Carl  Stevens.  Stevens  won  the  support  of  the  commander  and  began  working 
with  the  doctors  and  hospital  staff  to  provide  holistic  ministry  for  patients.  The  first  CPE  training  in 
USAREUR  was  held  in  September  1975,  at  the  Heidelberg  CPE  Center.  Five  students  completed  one 
unit  of  CPE  Training  Centers  were  also  established  at  Stuttgart,  Nuremburg,  and  Frankfurt,  where 
training  began  in  1976  Three  day  workshops  on  PET  were  also  conducted  throughout  USAREUR 
by  the  USAREUR  Chaplain  Counseling  Teams."* 

In  the  late  1970s,  Chaplain  Danny  Burttram  reported  to  OCCH  as  an  action  officer.  One  of 
his  major  challenges  was  to  evaluate  the  current  CPE  centers  and  determine  the  actual  training  needs 
of  the  system.  Until  his  assignment  at  OCCH,  general  supervision  was  provided  by  the  Chaplain 
School.  As  a  result  of  Burttram's  recommendations  several  centers  (including  those  at  two  Medical 
Centers)  were  closed.  The  Community  Model  CPE  became  the  main  means  for  training  chaplains  for 
other  than  hospital  ministry. 

Organizational  Development  and  Parish  Development 

Chaplains  first  used  Organizational  Development  under  Chaplain  Hyatt.  The  chaplaincy  was 
the  first  branch  in  the  Army  to  use  this  management  methodology.  Hyatt  recognized  that  chaplains 
often  avoided  administration  and  management,  yet  these  were  critical  to  making  ministry  work."' 
The  terms  Organizational  Development  and  Parish  Development  were  often  used  interchangeably 
even  though  there  was  a  different  focus  for  each 

The  effectiveness  of  the  program  caught  the  attention  of  Army  leadership  as  well  as 
commanders  in  the  field.  They  particularly  saw  the  value  in  terms  of  leadership  competencies  and  the 
team  concept.  General  Bernard  Rogers,  the  Chief  of  Staff,  saw  the  possibilities  of  OD  for  training 
officers  and  noncommissioned  officers.  He  adopted  the  program  and  renamed  it  "Organizational 
Effectiveness  (OE).""*  The  Army  established  an  OE  school  at  Fort  Ord,  California,  and  provided 
training  for  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers  for  many  years.  Chaplains  normally  served  on  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


staff  and  faculty  of  the  School    Chaplains  Gaylord  Hatler  and  Cecil  Ryland  were  among  the  first  to 
be  trained  and  utilized  in  this  speciality. 

Ministries  on  the  Edge 
Sinop,  Turkey:  The  Lost  Detachment 

When  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Orris  E.  Kelly  assumed  office  on  1  August  1975,  as  the 
Army's  14th  Chief  of  Chaplains,  most  of  the  attention  given  to  overseas  deployments  centered  on 
Europe  and  the  Pacific.  Yet  from  August  through  December  of  that  year  rather  dramatic  diplomatic 
initiatives  by  Secretary  of  State  Henry  Kissinger  helped  keep  Turkey,  on  the  southern  flank  of  NATO, 
securely  within  the  Western  alliance  When  Turkey  had  invaded  Cyprus  the  previous  year.  Congress 
voted  to  curtail  all  military  aid  to  Turkey.  In  retaliation,  the  Turkish  government  ordered  operations 
to  cease  on  most  of  the  American-Turkish  bases  The  American  soldiers  and  their  chaplains  at  Sinop, 
Turkey,  some  8,000  miles  away  from  the  United  States,  followed  the  developments  closely  in  the 
Stars  and  Stripes  as  the  newspapers  were  flown  in  from  Germany  For  a  week  they  felt  like  "a  lost 
detachment"  on  the  Black  Sea.  No  one  dreamed  at  the  time  that  it  would  be  eight  years  before  the 
issues  over  Cyprus,  Greece,  and  Turkey  would  finally  be  stabilized. 

President  Ford,  Senator  Mike  Mansfield,  and  Secretary  of  State  Kissinger  successfully 
persuaded  Congress  in  October  to  reconsider  its  position  on  aid  to  Turkey."'  The  terms  Congress 
set  for  the  agreement  included  allowing  Turkey  to  buy  up  to  $185  million  in  arms  "as  long  as  the 
cease  fire  in  Cyprus  held  "'""  On  December  12,  Secretary  Kissinger  and  Turkish  Foreign  Minister 
Ihsan  Sabri  reached  an  agreement  in  principle  in  Brussels  which  permitted  the  reopening  of  the  26 
joint  Turkish- American  bases.'"'  The  date  for  the  restoration  of  mission  status  for  the  bases  was  to 
be  determined  later. 

Christmas  on  the  Hill 

By  mid-December  the  people  of  Sinop  were  on  much  better  terms  with  the  soldiers  on  the  hill 
at  Diogenes  Station.  The  labor  disputes  between  the  Turkish  workers  had  been  resolved,  the  United 
States  had  agreed  to  supply  Turkey  with  arms,  and  there  was  free  movement  and  resupply  for  the 
installation.  As  a  sign  of  good  will,  the  Turkish  people  brought  30  Christmas  trees  to  the  Chapel  and 
a  truckload  of  evergreen  wreaths  to  decorate  the  post.  Christmas  dinners  were  served  in  the  town  by 
the  Mayor  of  Sinop  for  the  American  Commander,  Lt.  Col.  John  Norris,  and  his  staff.  Local  officials 
were  reciprocally  entertained  at  the  Diogenes  Station  Officers  Open  Mess  Club  (DOOM  Club)  on  the 

The  chapel  services  at  Christmas  featured  a  great  deal  of  cooperation  between  the  Protestant, 
Roman  Catholic,  Jewish,  and  Latter  Day  Saints  congregations.  Chaplain  Paul  Haefner,  a  Roman 
Catholic  chaplain  of  the  Franciscan  Order,  had  replaced  Chaplain  Logue,  who  was  reassigned  to  Fort 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Hood,  Texas.  Both  of  the  Roman  Catholic  chaplains  played  key  roles  in  organizing  religious  support 
at  Sinop,  for  they  were  not  only  the  senior  chaplains,  but  also  the  personal  chaplains  for  Lt.  Col. 
Norris  who  was  Roman  Catholic 

In  order  to  present  a  special  Christmas  music  program.  Chaplain  Haefner  and  Chaplain 
Brinsfield  recruited  everyone  who  could  help  regardless  of  faith  group.  The  Christmas  choir  was 
comprised  of  Protestants,  Roman  Catholics,  Latter  Day  Saints,  and  some  soldiers  who  did  not  know 
what  they  were  The  choir  director.  Specialist  Tom  Harris,  was  Roman  Catholic.  The  pianist  was  a 
member  of  the  Jewish  congregation  who  volunteered  to  help  the  Christians  celebrate.  All  of  the 
Jewish  people  (four  in  number)  were  invited  to  the  Christmas  program,  and  all  of  the  Christians  were 
invited  to  celebrate  Hanukkah.  During  most  of  the  rehearsals  and  during  the  performance  itself,  the 
congregation  was  filled  not  only  with  American,  but  also  with  Turkish  friends  who  came  to  enjoy  the 

By  Christmas  week  the  chapel  was  fijlly  decorated.  A  cross  and  a  tablet  marked  the  door.  A 
statue  of  Mary  and  the  baby  Jesus  stood  just  inside.  Christmas  trees  lined  the  walls  and  the  front  of 
the  sanctuary.  Even  those  who  missed  their  families  came  to  the  Chapel  as  a  place  of  warmth,  love 
and  hope.  It  was  too  small  a  post  to  draw  hard  and  fast  denominational  lines;  and,  anyway,  there  was 
not  much  else  to  do. 

A  Tragedy  and  Support  on  Christmas  Eve 

Late  on  Christmas  Eve,  after  almost  everyone  except  the  MPs  had  gone  to  bed,  a  Red  Cross 
message  came  in  for  a  soldier  named  B.G.  The  Red  Cross  Officer  who  received  the  message  found 
Chaplain  Brinsfield  and  asked  him  to  notify  the  soldier  The  message  said  that  B.G.'s  wife  and  infant 
daughter  had  both  been  killed  the  night  before  in  an  automobile  accident  on  icy  roads  in  the  United 
States.  Chaplain  Brinsfield  and  Chief  Warrant  Officer  Crosson,  the  Red  Cross  Officer,  alerted  the 
pilots  at  the  nearby  airfield  for  an  emergency  flight  to  Istanbul.  Then  they  went  to  B.G.'s  barracks 
to  tell  him.  B.G.  was  in  deep  sleep,  but  after  he  understood  the  message  and  had  prayer  with  the 
chaplain,  he  went  to  the  chapel  to  try  to  call  his  in-laws  in  the  United  States.  "It  was  the  hardest  job 
I  had  to  do  in  the  chaplaincy,"  Chaplain  Brinsfield  recalled,  "for  we  walked  with  our  arms  around 
B.G.'s  shoulders  to  the  chapel,  past  the  statues  of  Mary  and  the  Infant  Jesus,  to  try  to  get  through 
on  the  phone.  B.G.  told  me  his  whole  family  was  gone.  He  was  an  orphan.  His  wife  and  daughter 
were  his  family." 

After  the  painfial  call  was  made,  B.G.,  Chaplain  Brinsfield  and  Mr.  Crosson  started  out  of  the 
chapel  to  get  a  duffel  bag  and  meet  the  pilots  for  the  flight  to  Istanbul.  There  was  about  an  inch  of 
snow  on  the  ground  and  the  night  was  totally  dark.  Nevertheless,  when  the  chapel  door  opened,  all 
of  the  soldiers  of  Detachment  4,  Diogenes  Station,  lined  both  sides  of  the  sidewalk.  They  came  to 
attention  as  B.G.  and  the  chaplain  walked  down  the  line.  Some  whispered  words  of  encouragement, 
some  saluted.  It  was  a  beautifial  tribute. 

Thirty  days  after  B.G.  left  on  emergency  leave,  he  returned  to  Sinop.  He  could  have  been 
stationed  in  the  States,  but  he  wanted  to  return  to  Diogenes  Station  because  "that's  where  my  friends 
were."  B.G.'s  courage  and  dedication  provided  a  clear  example  of  "the  stuff  our  soldiers  were  made 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


of."  It  was  the  right  stuff. 

The  Women  of  the  Chapel:  Other  Ministries  of  Grace  and  Encouragement 

One  of  the  most  active  groups  in  the  chapel  at  Diogenes  Station  was  the  Women  of  the 
Chapel.  Perhaps  a  third  of  the  population  on  the  installation  was  comprised  of  female  soldiers,  and 
wives  of  civilian  contractors,  principally  from  the  Boeing  Company.  The  Women  of  the  Chapel  met 
weekly  to  sponsor  the  two  Turkish  orphanages,  plan  chapel  dinners,  recruit  people  for  religious 
retreats  and  tours  throughout  Turkey,  and  perform  other  ministries  involving  the  Chapel  Council,  the 
choirs,  and  worship.  Mrs.  Lois  Cole,  a  Boeing  spouse,  was  the  President. 

During  a  visit  to  the  Girls'  Orphanage  in  downtown  Sinop,  some  of  the  Protestant  women 
noticed  the  Turkish  children  slept  in  large  rooms  with  the  windows  open  and  with  but  one  blanket 
for  each  two  girls.  Even  though  the  girls  slept  together,  the  women  were  sure  they  must  be  cold. 
There  were  frequent  gale  winds  from  the  Russian  side  of  the  Black  Sea  which  blew  directly  against 
the  buildings  of  Sinop.  Plainly,  the  girls  needed  more  blankets. 

At  the  next  Chapel  Council  meeting  a  series  of  special  offerings  and  fund  raising  projects  were 
proposed  and  approved  to  buy  the  orphans  more  blankets.  The  Post  Exchange  fiarnished  all  the 
blankets  they  had  at  the  cheapest  price.  After  three  weeks  the  Women  of  the  Chapel  had  purchased 
30  blankets.  The  blankets  were  delivered  to  the  directors  of  the  two  orphanages  who  received  them 
with  polite,  but  puzzled  thanks. 

On  the  next  trip  downtown  the  women  visited  the  orphanages  to  see  how  the  children  were 
doing.  The  blankets  were  in  a  closet.  The  children  still  had  only  one  blanket  for  each  bed.  When 
asked  to  explain,  the  director  said  proudly,  "You  see  we  have  children  who  become  close  brothers 
and  sisters  even  though  they  have  no  real  family  here.  If  they  share  everything  including  their  blankets, 
they  must  think  of  their  brother  or  sister  as  they  think  of  themselves.  Also,  the  air  is  good  for  them. 
They  have  no  sickness."  The  Chapel  Council  and  the  chaplain  learned  a  great  deal  from  the 
Orphanage  Project. 

An  Unusual  Ministry  for  Turkish  Families 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Norris  was  anxious  to  extend  every  courtesy  to  the  Turkish  people  since 
part  of  his  mission  was  to  work  harmoniously  with  allies.  One  day  in  the  Spring  of  1976  a  Turkish 
man  came  to  Diogenes  Station  asking  for  a  priest  and  an  American  doctor  to  come  to  his  home  and 
removed  a  spell  which  he  thought  had  been  placed  on  his  daughter  She  had  become  paralyzed,  he 
said,  and  must  have  an  evil  spirit.  Lieutenant  Colonel  Norris  approved  the  request.  Chaplain 
Brinsfield  was  the  only  chaplain  on  post  so  he  and  Captain  Robert  Love,  the  Army  doctor,  rode  down 
into  the  village  to  see  the  man's  daughter.  Fortunately,  they  took  an  interpreter.  Chaplain  Brinsfield 
also  took  some  candles,  a  cross,  incense,  a  big  Bible,  a  robe,  and  a  prayer  book.  Although  he  was  not 
accustomed,  as  a  United  Methodist,  to  conduct  exorcisms,  neither  was  he  forbidden  to  try  somehow 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


to  heal  the  woman's  spirit.  Had  Chaplain  Brinsfield  been  more  experienced,  it  is  doubtful  that  he 
would  have  even  remotely  considered  such  an  attempt 

When  Dr.  Love  and  Chaplain  Brinsfield  reached  the  home,  they  found  ten  or  twelve  family 
members  and  neighbors  around  the  cot.  The  woman,  about  30  years  of  age,  refijsed  to  open  her  eyes. 
She  was  ftiUy  clothed  but  had  not  gotten  up  in  two  days.  Her  mother  told  the  interpreter  that  she  had 
gone  to  bed  when  her  father  forbade  her  to  marry  and  leave  home.  After  Dr.  Love  took  her  blood 
pressure  and  temperature,  he  decided  that  she  was  possibly  throwing  a  tantrum.  Accordingly,  he  told 
the  family  he  could  not  do  any  more  unless  she  could  be  transported  to  the  Diogenes  Clinic  for  blood 

Next  it  was  Chaplain  Brinsfield's  turn  Given  the  circumstances  of  her  "illness"  and  recalling 
that  devout  Muslims  believe  that  Allah's  will  is  irresistible.  Chaplain  Brinsfield  set  up  a  big  brass  cross, 
put  on  a  black  robe,  set  fire  to  the  incense,  read  from  the  Prayer  Book  and  the  Bible,  spent  several 
moments  in  silent  (and  sincere)  prayer  for  the  woman,  her  family,  and  for  Dr  Love  and  himself  if 
anything  went  wrong.  He  told  the  interpreter  to  say  in  a  loud  voice,  "Woman,  Allah  wills  you  to  be 
happy!!!"  With  that,  the  exorcism  was  over.  The  woman  did  not  move,  but  the  Turkish  father  seemed 
very  thankfijl  and  pensive.  It  seems  that  it  was  not  the  daughter's  spirit  that  was  changed,  but  rather 
the  father's  Dr.  Love  and  Chaplain  Brinsfield  returned  to  their  "regular"  duties  with  the  hope  that 
things  would  turn  out  for  the  best. 

Two  days  later  the  Turkish  interpreter  brought  a  message  fi'om  the  town.  The  stricken  woman 
had  fully  recovered  after  her  father  promised  to  let  her  get  married.  When  Lt.  Col.  Norris  was  briefed 
on  all  that  had  take  place,  he  looked  at  Dr.  Love  and  Chaplain  Brinsfield  and  said  with  a  grin,  "I  had 
heard  that  the  people  in  Sinop  held  our  doctor  in  high  esteem.  Now  it  appears  they  have  added  our 
chaplains  to  their  list.  Thanks,  guys!"'" 

Athletics  and  a  Revival  for  Jesus 

As  the  summer  of  1976  approached,  many  of  the  soldiers  began  to  get  more  restless.  They 
had  been  sitting  "on  the  hill"  for  almost  a  year,  suffered  through  water  and  food  shortages,  irregular 
mail  deliveries  and  boredom.  A  renewed  interest  in  the  consumption  of  alcohol  was  creating  discipline 
problems.  At  one  time  there  were  at  least  nine  bars  set  up  in  the  clubs  and  in  the  barracks. 

Several  constructive  alternatives  were  proposed  to  the  Commander  by  the  Morale  Support 
Officer  and  the  Post  Chaplain.  For  some  reason,  Morale  Support  had  received  hundreds  of  colorfijl 
windbreakers  to  give  away  as  prizes  to  the  soldiers.  Therefore,  a  series  of  tournaments  featuring  a 
wide  range  of  competitive,  but  healthy,  sports  seemed  in  order.  The  Chapel  community  sponsored 
one  team,  the  Officers  Club  sponsored  another,  and  the  various  work  sections  sponsored  others. 
Activities  included  tennis,  basketball,  racquetball,  volleyball,  chess,  checkers,  soccer,  and  track.  The 
chapel  also  opened  a  coffee  house  with  freshly  baked  cookies  provided  by  one  of  the  female  chaplain 

The  highlight  of  the  sports  season  was  a  touch  football  tournament  The  DOOM  Club 
recruited  the  most  players,  including  an  excellent  pass  receiver.  The  Chapel  recruited  mostly  MPs  and 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Navy  detachment  personnel  When  time  ran  out,  the  score  was  tied,  but  the  decision  was  given  to  the 
DOOM  Club  because  the  Chapel  had  committed  too  many  penalties! 

On  the  spiritual  side,  the  Chapel  Council  sponsored  a  revival  complete  with  altar  calls  and  any 
"old  familiar  hymns."  The  principle  text  for  the  week-long  meeting  was,  "You  must  be  born  again  " 
Sergeant  Jim  Little,  an  ordained  Lutheran  pastor,  shared  the  services  with  Chaplain  Brinsfield.'^^ 
Many  of  the  soldiers  enjoyed  the  experience  of  a  revival  on  an  isolated  site.  Five  MPs  were  baptized 
in  the  Black  Sea  in  a  reaffirmation  of  faith  ''^ 

Diplomatic  Fixes:  Turkey  Remains  in  NATO 

At  the  end  of  the  summer  of  1976,  replacements  arrived  for  both  Protestant  and  Catholic 
chaplains.  Most  of  the  soldiers  who  had  served  through  the  long,  hot  summer  of  1974,  and  winter  of 
1975,  left  before  or  with  the  chaplains. 

Negotiations  between  the  United  States  and  the  Republic  of  Turkey  dragged  on  for  3  years 
until  Sinop  was  restored  to  fijll  mission  status  in  1978.  In  Washington,  President  Gerald  Ford 
presided  over  the  200th  anniversary  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  While  soldiers  who  served 
at  Sinop  did  not  know  much  about  the  celebration  until  mail  finally  came,  they  had  performed 
exceptionally  meritorious  duty  for  their  country —  a  fitting  200th  Birthday  gift.  The  7,000  American 
military  personnel  in  Turkey  had  stood  watch  while  the  diplomats  repaired  the  NATO  alliance  and 
relationships  with  some  key  allies.  Like  their  counterparts  in  Korea,  Panama,  and  West  Germany,  they 
learned  the  meaning  of  "selfless  service."  Without  exception,  the  chaplains  who  were  there  said  it  was 
a  blessing  and  a  privilege  to  serve  with  them. 

Deaths  in  Guyana: 
Ministry  to  Medical  Personnel 

Chaplain  Terry  Dempsey  was  still  very  new  to  the  Army  when  he  reported  to  his  assignment 
with  the  44th  Medical  Brigade  at  Fort  Bragg,  North  Carolina,  in  June  of  1978.  He  knew  that  the 
medics  were  always  subject  to  deployment,  but  neither  he  nor  they  were  prepared  for  the  mission  they 
would  be  given  in  Jonestown,  Guyana,  just  before  Thanksgiving 

The  Reverend  Jim  Jones,  leader  of  the  People's  Temple,  had  moved  400  members  of  his 
congregation  fi^om  San  Francisco  to  a  remote  village  site  in  Guyana,  a  nation  on  the  northeast  coast 
of  South  America,  in  1977.'-'  The  People's  Temple,  with  a  total  aggregate  membership  of  10,000 
people,  had  been  active  not  only  in  evangelical  programs,  but,  according  to  reports  in  The  New  York 
Times,  had  been  active  in  Marxist  political  activism  as  well.'^*"  Indeed,  Mr.  Jones  viewed  Mao  Tse- 
tung  as  one  of  his  principal  heroes.'-' 

Ministering  to  many  economically  disadvantaged  families  in  the  Fillmore  section  of  San 
Francisco,  Jim  Jones  seemed  to  be  a  religious  and  political  messiah.  With  "hypnotic  charisma,"  Jones 
was  skillfijl  at  mobilizing  his  congregation  to  protest,  to  picket,  or  to  vote  as  a  bloc  on  many 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


municipal  issues.''* 

In  the  summer  of  1977,  however.  New  West  Magazine  printed  an  attack  on  Mr.  Jones, 
charging  that  he  "performed  spurious  miracles  that  were  outright  trickery,  that  physical  and  mental 
anguish  were  used  to  enforce  compliance  with  his  orders  and  that  members  were  encouraged  to  turn 
over  all  they  owned  to  the  Temple."''^  Mr  Jones  denied  all  these  allegations  The  District 
Attorney's  Oflfice  in  San  Francisco  could  find  no  chargeable  offenses,  but  almost  immediately  Mr. 
Jones  and  1,000  of  his  parishioners  applied  for  passports.'^"  The  Temple  was  moving  to  Guyana. 

After  more  than  400  of  these  people  had  departed,  and  after  8  months  with  but  a  few  letters 
to  their  relatives  in  the  United  States,  U.S.  Representative  Leo  J  Ryan  decided  to  make  a  trip  to 
South  America  to  inspect  the  village  of  "Jonestown."'"  On  November  19,  1978,  Mr.  Ryan  flew  to 
Georgetown,  the  capitol  of  Guyana,  where  he  met  with  Richard  Dwyer,  the  second  highest  official 
in  the  U.S.  Embassy.  Mr  Dwyer,  Mr.  Ryan,  and  17  staff  members  then  flew  to  Port  Kaltura  where 
they  got  a  truck  to  take  them  to  Jonestown. 

Met  by  Jim  Jones  and  assured  that  all  was  in  order,  Mr.  Ryan  and  his  party  toured  the 
commune  that  afternoon.  As  they  were  preparing  to  leave,  with  nine  sect  members  who  wanted  to 
go  with  them,  a  man  with  a  knife  rushed  toward  Mr.  Ryan  and  put  the  knife  to  his  throat.  The 
assailant  was  disarmed  by  Mr.  Ryan's  aides,  but  then  there  was  a  rush  by  the  diplomatic  party  to 
reach  the  airstrip  at  Port  Kaltura  as  more  hostile  sect  members  appeared 

As  the  group  of  28  arrived  at  the  airfield,  their  two  small  charter  planes  were  blocked  by  a 
flat-top  trailer  truck  pulled  by  a  tractor  from  the  Jonestown  commune.  As  the  party  began  boarding 
the  planes,  one  of  the  sect  members  accompanying  them  pulled  out  a  pistol  and  began  firing  into  the 
group.  More  armed  men  jumped  from  the  trailer-truck  and  began  firing.  The  tires  on  one  plane  were 
shot  out  and  flattened  Representative  Ryan  was  shot  in  the  face  and  killed  Four  other  staff" 
members  were  murdered,  and  nine  wounded  before  the  second  plane,  loaded  with  terrified  people, 
was  able  to  take  off"'" 

The  Guyanese  Government  promised  a  fijll  investigation  and  expressed  regret  over  the 
incident.  The  next  message,  however,  called  for  support  from  the  United  States.  One  settler  from 
Jonestown  had  walked  30  miles  to  report  a  mass  suicide  of  at  least  200  people  in  the  village. '^^ 

At  Fort  Bragg  the  44th  Medical  Brigade  was  alerted  on  November  2 1  to  prepare  for  a  medical 
support  mission  in  South  America  involving  US  citizens.  The  status  of  security  in  the  village  of 
Jonestown  was  unknown  It  would  be  assumed  that  there  were  men  in  the  woods  near  the  settlement 
who  were  armed  and  fanatically  dangerous.'^"* 

The  soldiers  of  the  44th  were  not  graves  registrafion  personnel,  nor  were  they  combat  troops. 
There  was  concern  among  the  medics,  as  they  prepared  to  depart,  that  they  might  be  under  fire  while 
they  were  trying  to  save  an  unknown  number  of  injured  American  citizens 

With  the  arrival  of  the  order  to  execute  the  mission,  the  soldiers  began  boarding  three  planes 
at  Green  Ramp,  the  site  for  deployments  at  Pope  Air  Force  Base  near  Fort  Bragg.  Chaplain  Demp.sey 
was  on  the  third  plane  which  developed  engine  trouble  and  was  forced  to  shut  down.  The  medics 
would  go  to  Jonestown  without  their  chaplain 

In  addition  to  his  frustration  at  being  left  behind.  Chaplain  Dempsey  was  concerned  about  the 
welfare  of  his  troops.  He  resolved  never  again  to  miss  a  chance  to  be  on  the  lead  plane. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


For  a  week  the  medical  personnel  stayed  in  Jonestown  placing  bodies  in  body  bags.  There 
was  no  ambush,  but  more  than  300  people,  including  women  and  children,  had  committed  suicide 
rather  than  submit  to  whatever  imaginary  threat  Jim  Jones  had  persuaded  them  to  believe.  Poison  had 
been  placed  in  paper  cups  and  consumed  with  a  cheap  truit  punch.  Mothers  had  given  the  concoction 
to  their  children  first,  then  taken  the  rest  themselves.  Bodies  left  for  hours  in  the  sun  were  black  and 
bloated.  The  stench  was  everywhere 

When  the  medics  returned  to  Fort  Bragg,  Chaplain  Dempsey  visited  each  soldier  daily  to  help 
them  process  their  feelings  Horrible  experiences  bottled  up  inside  often  spelled  trouble  for  soldiers 
later  The  troops  spoke  of  finding  not  Bibles  but  Soviet  propaganda  in  Jonestown.  There  were 
decaying  bodies  of  children  and  babies  which  tore  at  the  hearts  of  the  soldiers  who  were  fathers. 
Chaplain  Dempsey  listened  to  every  word,  prayed  with  the  troops,  and  in  some  cases  formed  groups 
to  share  intentionally  their  experiences  and  their  support  for  one  another. 

Chaplain  Paul  H.  Vruwink,  the  1  st  Corps  Support  Command  Chaplain  at  Fort  Bragg,  and 
Chaplain  Philip  Silverstein,  the  Jewish  Chaplain,  lent  their  support.  Eventually  fewer  soldiers  needed 
to  talk;  the  nightmares  went  away.  Prayer,  presence,  and  time  had  done  their  healing  work  with  those 
who  had  performed  this  mission  of  sadness  and  mercy. 

Black  Gold: 

North  to  Alaska 


Alaska,  called  "the  last  frontier"  in  America,  was  a  land  of  great  extremes;  first  among  the 
states  in  area,  last  in  population,  coldest  state  in  winter  and  potentially  richest  in  mineral  resources. 
One  of  the  nation's  biggest  bargains  since  1867  when  Secretary  of  State  William  H.  Seward  purchased 
it  from  Russia  at  less  than  two  cents  per  acre,  Alaska  a  hundred  years  later  was  a  region  of  gold, 
grizzlies,  and  oil."' 

Construction  on  the  $4  5  billion  Trans-Alaska  pipeline  project,  first  proposed  in  1969,  was 
finally  begun  in  1974  In  June  1977  oil  began  to  flow  from  Prundhow  Bay  on  the  Arctic  Ocean 
through  the  799-mile,  48  inch  hot-oil  pipeline  to  the  Gulf  of  Alaska  port  of  Valdez.'""  With  elevated 
prices  for  oil  in  1977,  Alaska  was  enjoying  an  economic  boom.  The  pipeline  was  a  state  and  national 

The  mission  of  the  1 72nd  Infantry  Brigade,  whose  Deputy  Commander  was  Colonel  H. 
Norman  Schwarzkopf,  was  to  defend  Alaska  and  most  particularly  the  oil  pipeline.'"  The  4,500 
soldiers  of  the  1 72nd,  known  as  the  "Snowhawks,"  trained  in  the  winter  to  fight  as  ski  troops,  in  the 
summer  as  mountain  troops.  One  of  their  most  famous  yearly  exercises  usually  took  place  in 
February  and  was  entitled  appropriately,  "Operation  Jack  Frost.""* 

The  defense  of  Alaska,  as  conceptualized,  involved  more  than  one  infantry  brigade,  of 
course."'  The  Joint  U.S.  Alaska  Command,  headquartered  at  Fort  Richardson  near  Anchorage,  was 
commanded  by  a  lieutenant  general.  The  position  was  usually  filled  by  the  Air  Force  or  by  the  Army. 
The  land  force,  commanded  in  1977  by  Brigadier  General  Otis  Lynn,  was  U.S.  Army  Alaska 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


(USARAL)  and  had  its  command  headquarters  at  Fort  Richardson  as  well."''*'  Army  units  were  posted 
at  Forts  Richardson,  Wainwright  (near  Anchorage),  and  Greely  (at  Delta  Junction). 

Religious  support  for  the  soldiers  and  family  members  in  Alaska  was  managed  and 
coordinated  as  in  other  major  commands  (MACOMs)  Chaplain  Robert  B.  Howerton  was  the  US 
Army  Alaska  Command  Chaplain,  succeeded  by  Chaplain  Trevor  Turner  in  1978.  The  MACOM 
Chaplain's  Office  was  at  Fort  Richardson,  which  was  staffed  for  direct  religious  support  of  that 
installation  by  the  garrison  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  Among  the  chaplains  at  Fort 
Richardson,  supporting  the  MACOM  and  garrison  soldiers,  were  Chaplains  Irwin  Loud  (Methodist), 
David  Peterson  (Presbyterian),  John  Sittler  (Lutheran),  Leonard  Lee  (Baptist),  and  Martin  Fleming 
(Roman  Catholic).'^'  At  Fort  Wainwright,  over  the  course  of  two  years.  Chaplains  Clement 
Marcantonio  (Roman  Catholic),  Jimmy  L.  Young  (Methodist),  Don  L.  Gardella  (United  Church  of 
Christ)  and  Andrew  A.  Shimek  (Roman  Catholic)  covered  the  pluralistic  religious  needs  of  the 
garrison  and  particularly  of  the  222nd  Aviation  Company,  which  frequently  had  difficult  and 
dangerous  missions  flying  in  Alaska's  weather 

Fort  Greely,  technically  a  sub-post  of  Fort  Richardson,  was  the  home  of  the  172nd  Infantry 
Brigade  when  it  was  in  the  field  With  approximately  700  soldiers  and  400  military  families.  Fort 
Greely  was  105  miles  from  Fairbanks.  Located  at  Fort  Greely  were  the  Northern  Warfare  Training 
Center  (NWTC),  a  FORSCOM  activity  training  soldiers  to  operate  and  survive  in  Arctic  conditions, 
and  the  Arctic  Regions  Test  Center,  an  Army  Material  Command  activity,  which  tested  equipment 
such  as  the  Apache  helicopter  and  the  Multiple  Launch  Rocket  System  (MLRS)  for  dependability  in 
temperatures  of -40  and  -50  degrees  Fahrenheit. 

Support  for  the  soldiers  and  family  members  was  provided  at  Fort  Greely  by  a  small  garrison 
which  included  two  doctors,  two  dentists,  two  chaplains  and  one  JAG  officer  for  legal  matters. 
Chaplain  William  L.  Hufham  was  the  Protestant  chaplain,  and  Chaplains  Ken  J  Gilly  and  Alfred  S. 
Arvay  were  the  Roman  Catholic  chaplains  for  the  172nd  Brigade  from  1976-1978.'" 

The  religious  program  at  Fort  Greely  was  well  attended  by  the  command,  soldiers,  and 
families.  The  post  chapel  seated  350  people  and  supported  a  Protestant  congregation  of 
approximately  250  active  parishioners,  a  slightly  larger  Catholic  congregation,  and  a  combined  choir 
(at  times)  of  70  choir  members.  Jewish  support  for  holy  days  was  provided  from  Fort  Lewis, 

In  addition  to  the  worship  services,  choir  ministry,  Sunday  Schools,  and  Christian  women's 
and  men's  groups,  there  was  a  Soldier  Fellowship  scheduled  each  Friday  night  to  offset  the 
temptation  by  many  soldiers  in  the  remote  and  lonely  area  to  spend  the  evening  at  a  bar.  Chaplain 
Gilly  covered  many  of  the  field  exercises  conducted  by  the  172nd  Brigade,  while  Chaplain  Hufham 
provided  services  and  counseling  support  for  the  Test  Center  and  for  the  Northern  Warfare  Training 
Center  (NWTC).''*''  While  ministering  to  the  soldiers  in  the  NWTC,  Chaplain  Hufham  took  and 
passed  the  training  courses  in  winter  survival,  river  crossing,  glacier  traverse  techniques,  and 
mountain  climbing.''" 

The  dangers  of  living  in  Alaska  without  common  sense  survival  preparation  were  apparent 
daily.  Armored  vehicles  attempting  to  cross  rivers  on  ice  bridges  occasionally  fell  through  the  ice, 
drowning  some  soldiers  and  creating  serious  frostbite  for  others.  Avalanches  buried  troops  on  skis. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Aircraft  crashed  into  snow-covered  mountains  and  were  lost  until  the  Spring  thaw.  Drivers  ran  out 
of  gasoline  and  froze  to  death  in  their  vehicles.  Airborne  Rangers  from  Fort  Stewart,  Georgia,  while 
jumping  into  training  areas,  suffered  broken  legs  when  they  hit  the  perma  frost.  Even  at  the  Fort 
Greely  dump,  aggressive  black  and  grizzly  bears  could  be  a  hazard.'^' 

In  general,  however,  most  soldiers  found  their  tours  challenging  and  interesting.  Chief  of 
Chaplains  Orris  E.  Kelly,  Deputy  Chief  Thaddeus  Malanowski,  and  FORSCOM  Staff  Chaplain  Kermit 
D.  Johnson,  who  visited  Alaska  in  1977-78,  found  morale  high. 

Life  for  ministry  team  members  was  very  similar  to  that  of  frontier  preachers  a  hundred  years 
before  In  addition  to  their  normal  religious  support  duties,  many  chaplains  and  assistants  voluntarily 
assumed  jobs  to  make  positive  contributions  to  the  quality  of  life  at  their  posts.  Chaplain  William 
Hufham  at  Fort  Greely  was  the  Scoutmaster  and,  with  his  wife's  help,  supported  the  Bowling  League, 
the  Little  League  Baseball  Program,  and  the  activities  at  the  Youth  Recreation  Center  For  all  of  his 
work  beyond  normal  duty  requirements.  Chaplain  Hufham  was  named  military  "Man  of  the  Year"  for 
Alaska  in  1978  by  the  Commander,  U.S.  Army  Alaska.'''*  Such  efforts  were  always  commendable, 
but  they  also  underscored  the  valuable  assets  commanders  had  in  their  chaplain  and  chaplain  assistant 
teams  in  support  of  soldiers  and  family  members  in  remote  locations. 

Retirement  and  Tribute: 
Realizing  the  Best  of  Times 

After  many  years  of  fruitful  ministry.  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly  retired  as  Chief  of  Chaplains  on 
June  30,  1979.  His  successor.  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Kermit  D.  Johnson  wrote  the  following 
tribute  to  Chaplain  Kelly: 

Chaplain  Kelly's  contributions  to  the  Army  and  the  chaplaincy  will  long  be 
remembered.  We  will  associate  his  name  with  the  Professional  Development  Plan, 
Management  by  Objectives  for  Results,  Family  Life  Centers,  Staff  and  Parish 
Development,  Division  Restructuring,  Phase  III  Basic  Chaplain  Training,  and 
Affrrmative  Action  and  Minority  Recruiting  This  partial  list  serves  to  remind  us  not 
only  of  his  leadership,  but  of  him  as  a  person,  his  sincerity,  warmth  and  openness.  He 
has  set  for  us  an  example  for  our  ministry  individually  and  together.'*^ 

Chaplain  Kelly  himself  was  optimistic  both  for  his  own  future  ministry  with  the  Division  of  Chaplains 
of  the  United  Methodist  Church  as  well  as  for  the  Army  Chaplaincy  as  a  whole.  He  noted  in  a 
forward  entitled,  "The  Best  and  the  Worst  of  Times,"  which  appeared  in  the  fall  issue  of  theM///7ary 
Chaplains  Review  : 

By  maintaining  our  trust  in  God  and  each  other,  by  cherishing  the  vision  of  what  we 
are  capable  of  becoming  and  by  cherishing  the  development  of  the  same  in  others,  by 
enjoying  life  long  intellectual  and  spiritual  growth,  by  cultivating  the  capacity  to  feel 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


and  express  love  and  joy,  tragedy  and  grief,  and  by  viewing  humanity  as  one  while 
respecting  diversity... tomorrow  [we]  might  be  able  to  say.  These  are  the  best  of 
times. '^* 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 



1 .  Department  of  the  Army,  Historical  Summary  Fiscal  Year  1976,  (Washington,  DC:  1977), 

2.  Department  of  the  Army,  Historical  Summary  Fiscal  Year  1979,  (Washington,  DC:  1979), 

3.  John  L    Romjue,  Susan  Cadedy  and  Anne  W    Chapman,  Prepare  the  Army  for  War:  A 
Historical  Overview  of  the  Army  Training  and  Doctrine  Command  1973-1993,  (Fort  Monroe, 
Virginia:  1993),  p  7. 

4.  Ibid,  p.23. 

5.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Wayne  Kuehne,  June  16,  1995. 

6.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Joseph  Stock  (Ret),  November  15,  1994. 

7.  "The  Challenges  of  the  Chaplaincy",  by  General  Bernard  W.  Rogers,  Military  Chaplains 
/?fV7eH',  Fall  1977,  p.l-fF 

8.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains'  Historical  Review  1975-76,  p.  1 . 

9.  Ibid.,p.S 
\0  Ibid 

11.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Orris  E.  Kelly,  USA  retired,  March  30,  1994. 

13.  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  January  1,  1977,  p. 29. 

14.  Oral  Interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

15.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Historical  Review  1978-1979,  p.  19. 

16.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

17.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains //w/o/-/ca/7?ev/w  1975-1976,  p.22. 

1 8.  Joseph  H.   Beasley,  Implication  of  Teaching  Ethics:  The  West  Point  Experience,  (University 
of  North  Carolina  -  Chapel  Hill,  Ph.D.  Dissertation,  1985),  p.214. 

19.  Telephone  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Edward  O'Shea,  Fernandina  Beach,  Florida,  17  July 
1995.  Note:  Chaplain  Kriete  was  assigned  to  the  non-resident  Strategic  Studies  faculty.  Chaplain 


O'Shea  the  Personnel  Management  faculty  from  1977  -  1979. 

20. /A/cy.,p.23. 

2L  Lee  Suk  Bok,  The  Impact  of  US  Forces  in  Korea  (Washington,  D.C.:  National  Defense 
University  Press,  1987),  p.69. 

22.  U.S.  Forces  Korea,  Annual  Historical  Report,  1976-77,  p.  9    Declassified  December  31, 
1985.  Copy  in  the  Center  for  Military  History. 

23.  Lee  Suk  Bok,  Op.  cit.,  p.  69. 

24.  US  Forces  Korea,  Annual  Historical  Report,  1966-67,  p.  12.  Declassified  December  31,  1985. 

25.  US  Forces  Korea,  Annual  Historical  Report,  1976-77,  p   13. 

26.  Ibid. 

27.  JhiJ,  p.  15. 

29.  Chaplain  (Col.)  Robert  Hutcherson,  letter  to  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Brinsfield,  January  24, 
1995.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

30.  Ibid 

31.  US  Forces  Korea,  Annual  Historical  Report,  1976-77,  p  15. 

32.  Ibid.,  p. \S 

33.  Ibid 

34.  Lee  Suk  Bok,  Op.cit.,  p.69. 

35.  Ibid.,  pp.69-70 

36  Chaplain  Hutcherson,  letter  to  Chaplain  Brinsfield,  January  24,  1995. 

37.  Ibid. 

38.  Ibid 

39.  Chief  of  Chaplains  Historical  Review  1978-1979,  p.  16. 

40.  Ibid,  p. U. 


4L  Ihid.^pAl. 

42.  Chief  of  Chaplains  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  1976,  p. 21. 

43.  Chief  of  Chaplains  Historical  Review  1975-1976,  p.27. 

44  Chief  of  Chaplains  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  1979,  p.l  1. 

45  Chief  of  Chaplains  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  1976,  p.22. 

46  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

47  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Historical  Review,  1975-1976,  p. 16 

48.  Ibid 

49.  Ibid,  p. \6. 

50.  Chief  of  Chaplains  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  1977,  p.  24. 

51 .  Oral  interview  with  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994 

52  In  later  years  this  action  came  to  be  known  as  "The  Midnight  Move"  of  the  Chaplain  School. 

53.  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  July  1,  1976,  p. 34. 

54.  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  January  1,  1978,  p.22. 

55.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

56.  Chief  of  Chaplains  Historical  Review  1975-76,  p.  44 

57.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

58  West  Point  graduates  who  have  served  in  the  Army  as  chaplains  include  Martin  Parks,  Curry 
Vaughn,  Thomas  McMinn,  Ed  Manning,  Colin  Kelly  III,  Samuel  Lamback,  Kermit  Johnson,  Scott 
Davies,  Michael  Raymo,  Charies  Debney  and  George  Pejakovich.  Chaplain  Joseph  Beasley 
taught  history  for  9  years.  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield  taught  history  there  for  4  years    Bishop 
Leonidas  Polk  was  a  graduate  but  served  later  as  a  Confederate  general. 

59.  Ibid   Chaplain  (Lt.  Col )  Marc  Abramowitz  raised  the  fijnds  for  the  Jewish  Chapel  at  West 
Point  in  the  early  1980's  and  was  the  Jewish  Chaplain  at  the  time  it  was  completed.  Chaplain 
Abramowitz  was  promoted  to  Colonel  before  his  retirement. 

60.  Ibid 


6L  Letter  from  Terence  Cardinal  Cooke,  Military  Vicar,  to  Catholic  Chaplains,  May  23,  1978. 
Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

62.  Letter  from  Archbishop  Joseph  T    Ryan,  to  Catholic  Chaplains,  November  8,  1978. 

63.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

64.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne,  December  16,  1993. 

65.  USAREUR  Chaplain  Annual  Historical  Review,  1977,  p. 402. 

66.  Chief  of  Chaplains  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  January  1,  1978,  p. 26-27. 

67.  Chief  of  Chaplains  Historical  Review  1975-1976,  p. 65. 

68  Chief  of  Chaplains  Active  Duty  Fact  Book  July  1,  1976,  p.  20. 

69.  USAREUR  Chaplain  Annual  Historical  Review,  1970-80,  p.  3 18. 

70.  Chaplain  (Col.)  Gary  Councell,  Resourcing  the  Chaplaincy  in  the  Post-Vietnam  Years  1973 
thru  1993,  unpublished  directed  Army  War  College  Study,  p.  13. 

71.  Ihid.,p.\5. 

72  Change  of  Fiscal  year  from  July  1  to  October  1  (one  extra  quarter  in  1976) 

73.  Councell,  p.  D-1. 

74.  Parker  C.   Thompson,  Prom  Its  European  Antecedents  to  1791,  The  United  Slates  Army 
Chaplaincy,  (Washington,  D.C.:  Department  of  the  Army,  1978),  p. 207. 

75  Councell,  p. 35. 

76.  Ihid.,  p  36. 

77.  Ibid,  p.\9. 

78.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Harold  Lamm,  November  10,  1994. 

79.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

80  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Historical  Review  October  1.  1978  -  September  30,  1979, 

81 .  Chief  of  Chaplains  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  January  1,  1978,  p.  8. 

82.  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Annual  Historical  Review,  1978-1979,  p.24. 


83.  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Active  Duty  Fact  Boot:,  July  1979,  p.  16. 

84.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

85.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Historical  Review,  1975-76,  p.28. 

86.  Ibtd.,  p.33. 

87.  Ibid.,  p. 34. 

88  Oral  interview  with  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

89.  After  Action  Report,  "Future  Ministries  Conference,"  1977,  p.  1 .  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps 

90.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Historical  Review,  October  76  -  September  77,  p  15. 

92.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 
97,.  Ibid. 

94.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Historical  Review,  1975-76,  p.  19. 

95.  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Planning  Guidance,  FY  1978,  HQDA,  p.l. 

96.  Ibid 

97.  Ibid.,  pp.  111-6-111-7. 

98.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

99.  Ibid 

100  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Historical  Review,  1975-76,  p.24. 

101 .  Letter  from  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly  to  General  William  E.  DePuy,  DACH-PPD,  September 
7,  1976 

102.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Historical  Review,  1978-79,  p.  5 1-52. 

104.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

105.  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  January  1,  1978,  p.23. 


106.  Roy  Mathis,  "The  'Seven  Echo'  Chaplain,"  Military  Chaplains  Review^  Summer  1978,  p. 94. 

107.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Historical  Review,  October  1978  -  September  1979,  p.  13. 

108.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

109.  Ibid. 
WO  /hid 
111  /hid 

1 12.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Historical  Review,  October  68  -  September  79,  p.  54. 

\\3  /hid.  p  55. 

1 14  USAREUR  Annual  Report,  1978,  p.387. 

115.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 

1 16  USAREUR  Annual  Report,  1978,  p  385.  Copy  in  the  Center  for  Military  History. 

117.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Orris  E.  Kelly,  March  30,  1994. 


119.  The  New  York  Times,  August  21,  1975,  as  cited  in  The  New  York  Times  Index,  1975,  p. 2471. 

120.  The  New  York  Times,  October  2,  1975,  as  cited  in  The  New  York  Times  Index,  1975,  p.2472. 

121.  I  he  New  York  Times,  December  12,  1975,  as  cited  in  The  New  York  Times  Index,  1975, 

122.  Personal  memoirs  of  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield,  Protestant  Chaplain,  Sinop,  Turkey,  1975-76. 

123.  A  few  years  later  Chaplain  James  Little  came  on  active  duty  as  an  Army  Chaplain. 

124.  Note:  Baptisms  in  the  Black  Sea  seem  to  have  a  tradition  stretching  back  almost  2,000  years 
to  the  story  of  St.  Andrew's  baptisms  during  his  missions  to  Asia  Minor  (Turkey)  and  perhaps  to 
Scythia  (Russia).  Many  of  the  Army  chaplains  assigned  to  Diogenes  Station,  including  Chaplains 
John  Brinsfield  and  John  Stake,  continued  the  tradition  by  baptizing  Army,  Navy  and  Air  Force 
personnel  by  immersion  on  the  "American  beach"  near  the  installation. 

125.  The  New  York  Times,  November  20,  1978,  p.  A- 17. 
U6.  Ibid. 


127.  Ibid. 

128.  Ibid. 
\29. Ibid 
130.  Ibid 
\3\  Ibid 

132.  The  New  York  Times,  November  20,  1978,  p.l-ff. 
\ 3 3.  Ibid. 

134.  Interview  with  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  Terry  Dempsey,  April  18,  1995 

135.  Martin  A.  Bachelier,  ed..  The  1979  Hammond  Ahnauac  (Maplewood,  NJ:  Hammond 
Alamanac  Inc.,  1978),  p. 355. 

\36.  Ibid. 

137.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  W.  L.  Hufham,  March  31,  1995. 

138.  H.  Norman  Schwarzkopf,  //  Doesn  't  Take  A  Hero  (New  York;  Bantam  Books,  1992), 

139.  The  6th  Infantry  Division  in  Alaska  had  not  yet  activated  in  1978. 

140.  Interview  with  Chaplain  (Colonel)  William  L.  Hufham,  March  31,  1995. 

141 .  Charles  F  Kriete,  Commandant,  US  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  Ft.  Wadsworth, 
New  York,  US  Army  Active  Duty  Chaplain  Rosier,  October  1,  1978,  pp.  1-35.  Copy  on  loan 
from  Chaplain  (Col.)  Calvin  Sydnor,  TRADOC,  Ft.  Monroe,  Virginia. 

142.  Interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  William  L.  Hufham,  March  31,  1995. 

143.  Interview  with  Chaplain  Hufham,  March  31,  1995.  As  late  as  June  of  1993  the  Northern 
Warfare  Training  Center  was  requesting  their  own  chaplain  due  to  the  dangerous  field  training 
they  conducted. 

144.  Ibid. 

145.  Ibid. 

146.  Ibid 


147.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Annual  Historical  Review,  October  1,  1978  -  September 
30,  1979,  DA,  Washington,  DC,  p  4. 

148.  Military  Chaplains'  Review,  DA  Pam  165-1 10,  p  ii-iii. 




Perhaps  the  central  issues  M'hich  dominated  the  three  years  Chaplain  Kermit  D.  Johnson 
was  Chief  of  Chaplains  centered  on  defining  the  Army  Chaplaincy  as  a  valid  and  legal  ministry 
to  soldiers  of  many  faiths  under  the  U.S.  Constitution  and  reaffirming  the  prophetic  role  of 
chaplains  in  the  Army.  Yet  there  were  other  pioneering  initiatives  during  this  period  as  well 
which  must  not  be  obscured  by  the  debates  that  evoked  national  publicity.  Chaplain  Johnson 
reminded  the  Corps,  throughout  his  tenure  as  Chief  that  "the  soldier  is  our  first  priority.  "  That 
one  theme  was  a  constant  not  only  in  the  Johnson  Years,  but  also  throughout  the  modern  history 
of  the  ministry  in  the  Army. 


Defense  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy  as  a  Constitutional  Ministry  to  Soldiers 

Strengthening  Chaplain  and  Chapel  Activity  Specialist  Teamwork 

Emphasis  on  Catholic  Chaplain  Recruitment 

Raising  the  Ethical  Consciousness  of  the  Army 

Affirmation  of  Multi-cultural  Ministries  for  a  Pluralistic  Army 

Initiatives  in  Homiletics,  Parish  Development,  and  Family  Life  Programs 

Mobilization  and  Army  Reserve  Coordination 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter.  1 1 3 


Ministries  of  Courage,  Commitment  and  Compassion 

Army  chaplains  are  an  essentia!  element  of  the  Army 's  morale  an<J  welfare  activities.  They 
administer  a  variety  of  programs  which  offer  soldiers  and  their  families  the  opportunity  for  religious 
worship  and  religious  activities.    This  is  the  primaiy  responsibility  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy. 

General  Edward  C.  Meyer 
Chief  of  Staff 
May  1982 

The  Cold  War  Heats  Up 

By  mid- 1979,  the  campaign  for  the  Presidency  of  the  United  States  already  was  picking  up 
momentum  The  race  was  between  the  incumbent  Democratic  President,  Jimmy  Carter,  and  his 
conservative  Republican  challenger,  and  former  Governor  of  California,  Ronald  Reagan.  This 
election  would  dramatically  change  the  direction  of  the  United  States,  for  it  marked  a  swing  toward 
a  harder  line  against  the  perceived  Communist  threat  world-wide.  This  profound  reorientation  would 
be  felt  in  international  affairs,  in  national  strategy,  and  would  subsequently  affect  both  the  Army  and 
its  Chaplaincy 

During  his  four-year  term  in  the  White  House,  President  Carter  had  begun  to  move  the 
country  toward  wider  social  programs  domestically  and  reduced  confrontationalism  in  foreign  affairs. 
He  placed  great  emphasis  on  human  rights  issues  around  the  globe  '  He  had  already  agreed  to  the 
new  Panama  Canal  Treaty  which  was  ratified  by  a  single  vote  in  1980."  His  policies,  like  those  of 
many  predecessors,  were  not  always  popular  with  the  American  public.  Many  citizens  expressed  deep 
concerns  about  the  combative  threats  of  the  Soviet  Union,  and  the  Communist  influence  in  Central 
America  Inflation,  high  unemployment,  and  skyrocketing  oil  prices  were  of  greatest  public  interest. 
Carter  had  sought  to  reduce  the  military  presence  in  Korea  and  Europe  but  without  success.  On  4 
November  1979,  a  mob  seized  the  American  Embassy  in  Tehran,  Iran,  and  held  66  Americans 
hostage.  A  rescue  attempt  five  months  later  ended  in  tragedy  in  the  desert  near  Tehran.^  The 
humiliation  of  American  citizens  and  the  country's  seeming  inability  to  do  anything  about  it,  played 
a  significant  role  in  the  election  campaign  and  perhaps  in  the  defeat  of  the  incumbent  first-term 

Few  of  the  current  policies  or  conditions  endeared  themselves  to  citizens  who  were  becoming 
more  conservative  politically  and  socially.^  The  Religious  Right  was  beginning  to  flex  its  muscle, 
particularly  the  Moral  Majority,  led  by  the  Reverend  Jerry  Pal  well.  It  came  as  no  surprise,  then,  that 
Jimmy  Carter  was  defeated  by  the  famous  actor  and  avid  conservative,  Ronald  W.  Reagan 

The  Reagan  Presidency  put  greater  stress  on  fighting  communism  and,  to  meet  that  objective, 
increased  spending  for  the  military.  In  Central  America  as  well  as  in  Europe  and  Asia,  the  Reagan 
administration  confronted  any  perceived  threat  to  United  States  sovereignty  or  to  the  equilibrium  of 
the  Western  hemisphere  Reagan's  main  concern  in  foreign  policy  was  to  contain  and  tame  the  Soviet 
Union.  He  saw  Communism  as  "godless  and  immoral."'  Army  Secretary  John  O.  Marsh,  Jr.,  defined 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


the  Army's  mission  as  those  measures  necessary  "to  deter  any  threat  to  our  National  Interests  and, 
failing  deterrence,  to  fight  and  win  on  terms  favorable  to  the  United  States."* 

To  ensure  deterrence,  the  Army  began  a  monumental  program  of  modernization.  In  order  to 
man  and  equip  the  Army  to  fiiifiil  its  mission,  total  Army  allocations  rose  to  $82  billion  in  FY  1982. 
Among  the  many  considerations  and  expenditures  was  the  development  of  new  weapons  systems  and 
particularly  delivery  systems  for  nuclear  warheads.  These  initiatives  increased  the  anxiety  of  many 
Americans  who  were  fearful  of  nuclear  proliferation,  and  many  entertained  visions  of  a  nuclear 
holocaust.  Fears  increased  on  March  28,  1979,  when  an  accident  at  the  Three  Mile  Island  nuclear 
plant  in  Pennsylvania  released  15,000  gallons  of  heavy  water  from  its  core,  "causing  hundreds  of  fuel 
rods  to  melt  and  triggering  the  release  of  radioactive  isotopes  "'  Many  citizens  were  forced  to  move 
away  from  their  homes,  for  there  was  great  uncertainty  as  to  the  long  range  effects  of  the  disaster. 

The  Army,  moreover,  was  still  struggling  to  meet  recruiting  needs  following  the  cessation  of 
the  draft.  On  July  6,  1979,  the  Army  announced  that  it  would  accept  17  year  old  non-high  school 
graduates  in  order  to  meet  its  personnel  requirements  Problems  with  drugs  and  alcohol  abuse 
continued  to  plague  the  Army  as  did  a  high  rate  of  disciplinary  problems  among  soldiers.  In  spite  of 
that,  there  were  many  hopeful  signs  on  the  horizon  for  the  recovery  of  the  Army  following  the  still 
lingering  effects  of  Vietnam 

A  New  Chief  of  Chaplains 

On  2  July  1979,  Chaplain  (Brigadier  General)  Kermit  D.  Johnson  was  promoted  to  Major 
General  and  appointed  Chief  of  Chaplains  by  Army  Chief  of  Staff,  General  Edward  C.  Meyer. 
Chaplain  Johnson  was  born  in  Minneapolis,  Minnesota.  In  June  1947,  he  entered  the  United  States 
Military  Academy  at  West  Point,  and  graduated  with  a  Bachelor  of  Science  degree  in  the  class  of 
1951.  He  was  commissioned  as  a  second  lieutenant  in  the  Infantry  After  completing  the  Infantry 
Officer  Basic  Course  and  Airborne  training,  he  was  assigned  to  the  82d  Airborne  Division,  Fort 
Bragg,  North  Carolina  He  later  served  during  the  Korean  War  as  a  platoon  leader  and  company 
commander  in  the  2d  Infantry  Division  In  October  1954,  he  resigned  his  active  duty  commission  and 
went  to  the  Orient  where  he  spent  two  years  as  a  lay  missionary.  In  1957,  he  entered  Princeton 
Theological  Seminary  and  graduated  with  a  Master  of  Divinity  degree  in  1960.  He  was  ordained  a 
minister  in  the  United  Presbyterian  Church,  USA  Reverend  Johnson  reentered  the  Army  as  a  chaplain 
and  was  assigned  consecutively  to  Fort  Benning,  to  Germany,  and  as  the  Post  Chaplain  at  West  Point. 
He  attended  Command  and  General  Staff"  College  in  1969,  after  which  he  was  sent  to  the  Defense 
Language  Institute  to  study  the  Vietnamese  language.  He  was  then  assigned  as  Senior  Advisor  to  the 
Vietnamese  Armed  Forces'  Chiefs  of  Chaplains.  He  graduated  from  the  Army  War  College  in  1976, 
and  became  the  United  States  Army  Forces  Command  Chaplain  (FORSCOM),  at  Fort  McPherson, 
Georgia.*  In  June  1978  he  was  promoted  to  Brigadier  General  and  appointed  Deputy  Chief  of 
Chaplains.  One  year  later  he  became  the  Army's  fifteenth  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


President    Jinmy  Carter 

and  Chaplain   Johnson 

salute   fallen   soldiers 

from    the    Iran 

Rescue  Mission 


Chaplain   Robert   Bendick 

and  Chaplain   Johnson    visit 

soldiers   in    Italy 


Chaplain  Patrick  J.  Hessian,  a  Roman  Catholic  priest  (also  from  Minnesota),  was  promoted 
to  Brigadier  General  in  July  1979  as  well  and  became  Chaplain  Johnson's  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains 
Immediately  preceding  his  promotion  Chaplain  Hessian  had  served  as  the  Command  StatT  Chaplain 
for  U  S.  Army  Europe  and  Seventh  Army/* 

A  Salt  and  Pepper 
View  of  the  Chaplaincy 

The  Chief  of  Chaplain's  view  of  the  Chaplaincy  was  formed  out  of  his  own  experience, 
training  and  educational  pursuits.  His  view  of  the  Chaplaincy  was  in  response  to  what  he  determined 
were  the  two  basic  questions:  What  kind  of  Chaplaincy  do  we  want?  What  kind  of  chaplains  do  we 
want  to  be'^'" 

Previously  in  his  career.  Chaplain  Johnson  had  produced  several  important  studies  which 
impacted  on  his  analytic  vision  of  the  ministry  of  chaplains.  While  at  Command  and  General  Staff 
College  in  1969,  he  wrote  "A  Study  of  Various  Role  Expectations  for  the  US.  Army  Chaplain."  This 
was  a  valuable  work  on  role  identification  and  role  conflict  It  looked  at  how  roles  are  perceived  by 
commanders,  chaplains  and  endorsing  agents.  He  wrote  a  second  study  while  he  was  a  student  at  the 
US.  Army  War  College,  "Factors  Influencing  Job  Satisfaction  Among  Army  Chaplains,"  in  May  of 
1976.  Both  of  these  studies  provided  Johnson  insights  into  the  Chaplaincy  that  few  people  had.  As 
Command  Staff  Chaplain  at  Forces  Command,  he  assigned  his  deputy.  Chaplain  Paul  Forsberg,  to 
complete  a  command-wide  study  on  soldier  perceptions  and  expectations  for  the  Army's  religious 
programs.  More  than  4,500  soldiers  were  polled  with  14  key  survey  conclusions."  Among  these 
were  the  following  observations: 

1.  Young   soldiers  are  a  highly  diverse  and  mobile  group  seeking  identity  and 

2.  Young  soldiers  overwhelmingly  support  the  military  Chaplaincy  but  question  the 
chaplain's  understanding  of  their  religious  needs  and  problems. 

3.  Young  soldiers  will  rarely  be  found  in  the  traditional  chapel  setting.'" 

Chaplain  Johnson  brought  all  these  insights  to  his  position  as  Chief  of  Army  Chaplains. 

His  vision  for  the  fijture  was  a  Chaplaincy  that  operated  as  a  team,  not  one  in  which  the  senior 
chaplain  made  all  of  the  decisions  alone.  He  directed  the  Chaplain  Board  to  develop  models  for  team 
ministry.  Later  he  wrote  in  an  introduction  to  an  issue  of  the  Military  Chaplains  Review,  "we  have 
started  to  bring  people  to  workshops,  and  we  have  been  training  chaplains  and  chapel  activity 
specialists  and  lay  persons  together — like  salt  and  pepper  in  the  same  shaker."" 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Setting  The  Course  For  The  Future 

Three  weeks  after  his  installation  as  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Chaplain  Johnson  sponsored  his  first 
Command  Chaplain  Conference,  July  15-19,  1979.  The  theme  of  the  conference  was  "Reaching 
Today's  Soldier."  In  his  written  preface  to  the  meetings  Chaplain  Johnson  addressed  the  participants: 

As  1  enter  into  my  first  year  as  Army  Chief  of  Chaplains,  I  am  filled  with  gratitude  to 
God  for  the  outstanding  dedication  and  accomplishments  of  chaplains  throughout  the 
world.  Your  commitment  to  the  Church  and  to  the  Army  has  resulted  in  religious 
ministry  which  is  truly  spiritual,  professional  and  effective  I  am  proud  of  each  of 
you!  The  theme  for  our  conference  this  year  is  "Reaching  Today's  Soldier"  This  is 
a  highly  appropriate  theme  because  the  soldier  is  our  highest  priority  for  ministry  ... 
Ministry  always  begins  with  persons — not  programs.  There  is  no  substitute  for 
genuinely  caring  the  Spirit  continues  to  work  in  preparing  both  the  Chaplaincy  and 
young  soldiers  for  creative  encounters  in  ministry.  The  opportunity  awaits  our 

Chaplain  Johnson  did  not  envision  any  immediate  policy  or  program  changes  during  his  first 
year  as  Chief  in  fact,  he  continued  all  the  major  programs  that  had  been  implemented  before  he  took 
office.''  He  favored  change  only  when  it  was  necessary  to  meet  the  needs  of  soldiers  and  the  system, 
not  simply  for  change  sake  His  view  of  the  Chaplaincy  was  that  it  was  an  ever-changing  institution 
with  challenges  to  be  met  by  chaplains  fiilly  empowered  as  preachers,  pastors  and  prophets  and  by 
chapel  activity  specialists  empowered  to  make  important  individual  contributions. 

Roman  Catholic  Issues 

The  first  major  issue  facing  the  new  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  the  concern  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  hierarchy  about  the  selection  of  the  third  consecutive  Protestant  Chief  of  Chaplains  The 
ecclesiastical  leaders  made  it  clear  that  their  displeasure  was  not  with  Chaplain  Johnson,  but  with  the 
system  that  failed  to  select  a  priest  and  with  the  impression  that  priests  were  not  receiving  equitable 
treatment.  The  perception  persisted  that  not  enough  Roman  Catholic  chaplains  were  being  selected 
for  high  level  staff  and  leadership  positions 

In  order  to  ameliorate  the  situation,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  met  with  Cardinal  Francis  Cooke 
in  New  York  and  later  wrote  to  the  Most  Reverend  Joseph  T.  Ryan,  Coadjutor  Archbishop  of  the 
Military  Ordinariate,  on  July  16,  1981.  He  pointed  out  that  he  was  prepared  to  assist  the  Military 
Ordinariate  in  recruiting  priests.  In  October  1979,  the  Army  had  1,434  chaplains  on  active  duty.'* 
There  were  only  242  Catholic  chaplains  on  duty  compared  to  the  desired  goal  of  506.  Chaplain 
Johnson  proposed  the  following  based  in  part  on  an  extensive  survey  of  Catholic  ministry  issues  by 
Chaplain  John  J    Cunniffe:" 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


►  An  enhanced  Chaplain  Candidate  Program 

►■  A  Catholic  chaplain  assigned  to  visit  all  Bishops  to  recruit  priests  for  the  Army 

►  A  raise  in  the  age  limit  for  incoming  Catholic  chaplains  to  age  50  (normally  age  32) 

►  A  continuation  on  duty  for  Catholic  chaplains  not  selected  for  promotion 

►  A  change  in  Army  Regulations  2 1 0- 1 6  and  210-50,  to  allow  priests  to  qualify  for  two 
bedroom  quarters 

►  Institution  of  a  Ministry  to  Priest  Program 

•-  Development  of  a  recruiting  brochure  to  be  mailed  to  42,000  priests  across  the 

nation  '^ 

Additionally,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  approved  the  design  of  a  "hometown  procurement 
program  for  catholic  Chaplains,  greater  use  of  auxiliary  and  contract  chaplains;  acceptance  of 
ordained  deacons,  if  approved  by  the  Military  Ordinariate;  and  an  educational  program  for 
commanders,  chaplains  and  laity  to  inform  them  about  the  severity  of  the  Catholic  shortage  and  its 
deleterious  impact  on  ministry  to  Catholic  soldiers  and  their  families."'* 

In  late  August  1979,  Chaplain  Johnson  and  his  Deputy,  Chaplain  Hessian,  made  a  video  tape 
that  was  distributed  to  the  field.  The  tape  conveyed  22  priority  issues  of  the  new  leadership  team.-" 
The  major  emphases  were: 

►■  The  need  for  collegiality  among  chaplains. 

*■  The  Roman  Catholic  priest  shortage  and  the  need  to  recruit  and  retain  more  Catholic 


»■  The  need  to  shore  up  chapel  activity  specialist  job  satisfaction  The  71M  MOS  had 

one  of  the  lowest  retention  rates  in  the  Army  at  that  time.  There  was  a  need  to  show 
personal  interest  in  the  contributions  of  CAS  team  members. 

►  The  need  to  make  the  chaplain  more  visible  to  the  soldier. 

►  Enhancing  spirituality  as  the  "depth  dimension  of  our  lives." 
*■  Encouraging  training  of  the  laity 

►■  Recognition  of  the  importance  of  Management  by  Objectives  for  Results  (MBOR)  as 

the  means  of  "linking  programs  to  fijnding  " 

Most  of  these  priorities  had  been  noted  by  previous  Chiefs,  but  the  specific  circumstances 
surrounding  them  continued  to  present  new  challenges 

Prophetic  Witness  As  An  Ethical  Imperative 

Chaplain  Johnson  exercised  perhaps  more  personal  interest  in  ethical  and  political  matters  than 
any  of  his  successors.  This  was  evident  in  the  extent  of  his  discussions  of  Central  American  and 
nuclear  policy  issues  during  the  Reagan  Administration's  first  two  years.  His  prompting  in  these 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


matters  came  from  several  directions.  First,  he  had  a  deep  commitment  and  involvement  in  ethical 
issues  that  may  have  had  their  origin  in  the  Honor  Code  practiced  at  West  Point,  and  later  as  a  result 
of  his  theological  training  at  Princeton  Theological  Seminary  Secondly,  he  received  information  on 
conditions  in  Central  Ainerica  from  non-governmental  and  church  organizations  in  direct  contact  with 
missionaries  and  indigenous  persons  who  resided  there  at  the  time."'  Finally,  in  the  early  1980s  the 
churches  were  speaking  out  on  nuclear  warfare  and  reassessing  Just  War  theory  as  well  as  raising 
questions  concerning  United  States  counterrevolutionary  activity  against  the  Sandinistas  and  other 
Latin  American  insurgency  forces.  All  of  these  seemed  to  converge  and  propel  Johnson  to  take  strong 
positions  which  he  felt  to  be  correct  and  which  often  strained  relationships  with  those  who  disagreed 
with  him. 

An  example  of  Chaplain  Johnson's  openness  in  discussing  ethical  issues  impacting  on  national 
policy  appears  to  be  a  chance  meeting  with  the  former  Vice  President,  Walter  F.  Mondale.  On 
February  3,  1982,  the  two  men  were  on  the  same  Eastern  Airlines  Flight  1 85,  during  which  time  they 
discussed  several  topics  of  mutual  interest  Johnson  gave  a  handwritten  note  to  the  Vice  President 
while  continuing  with  his  tlight  Among  the  concerns  he  raised  with  respect  to  Administration 
policies  in  his  note  to  Mondale  were  the  following 

►  The  $25  billion  in  arms  sales  world-wide  by  American  companies. 

►  The  new  federalism  that  may  "encourage  inequity,  injustice  and  racism." 

►  The  rape  and  desecration  of  the  land  for  commercial  profit. 

►■  The  widening  gap  between  the  rich  and  the  poor.  "Trickle  Down  Economics    is 

precisely  opposite  to  the  Biblical  concept  of  Justice." 

►  Sponsorship,  support  and  perpetuation  of  military  dominated  regimes,  especially  in 
El  Salvador  and  Guatemala. 

►  Signs  that  we  are  considering  strategic  and  tactical  nuclear  warfare  as  possible  or 

The  former  Vice  President  sent  a  two  page  response  to  Chaplain  Johnson  on  March  1,  1982.^^ 
He  thanked  Johnson  for  his  "very  thoughtftil  letter,"  and  concluded  by  stating,  "1  am  pleased  to  see 
that  someone  in  your  position  cares  so  much  about  the  direction  in  which  our  country  is  headed." 

A  Constitutional  Challenge 

The  relative  calm  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy  was  abruptly  disturbed  on  November  23,  1979, 
when  two  Harvard  University  law  students  filed  a  lawsuit  challenging  the  constitutionality  of  the 
Chaplaincy  as  an  establishment  of  religion."'  The  action  producing  this  disruption  caused. the 
Chaplain  Corps  to  look  deeply  into  its  soul.  A  questioning  of  the  constitutionality  of  the  Army's 
religious  program  affected  the  Chaplaincy  for  several  years.  In  many  fundamental  ways  the  Army's 
spiritual  care  system  would  never  again  be  the  same. 

The  two  Harvard  Law  School  seniors,  Joel  Katcoff  and  Allen  M.  Wieder,  filed  suit  in  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


District  Court  for  the  Eastern  District,  in  Brooklyn,  New  York.  Their  suit  against  the  Army  named 
Clifford  L.  Alexander,  then  Secretary  of  the  Army  et.  ciI.,  as  the  defendants.  The  suit  alleged  that  the 
Chaplaincy  violated  the  First  Amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States.  The  shock  waves 
of  this  lawsuit  quickly  reached  the  most  remote  military  outposts  and  caused  chaplains  at  every  level 
of  the  Army  to  scrutinize  all  religious  programs  and  activities,  as  well  as  their  own  motivation  for 
ministry  in  the  military. 

This  was  the  first  time  the  constitutionality  of  the  military's  religious  program  was  questioned 
in  a  formal  legal  procedure  In  the  middle  of  the  19th  century  some  Southern  states  had  petitioned 
Congress  to  eliminate  chaplains.  These  "Memorials,"  were  not  acted  upon  favorably  by  the  Congress, 
consequently  they  were  never  introduced  as  cases  to  be  heard  in  court  Other  challenges  dealing  with 
state  support  for  religion  in  general  arose  periodically  and  were  decided  in  a  series  of  court  cases 
ranging  from  local  state  to  Supreme  Court  levels.'^ 

Initially  the  motivation  of  the  students  for  filing  their  suit  was  unclear.  Some  legal  officials 
felt  the  suit  was  initiated  to  impress  a  law  professor  or  to  get  classroom  credit  In  the  November  30, 
1979  issue  oi'  The  Han'ard  Crimson  both  Katcoff  and  Wieder  commented  on  the  case  but  aside  from 
observing  that  "The  state  should  not  take  money  from  its  citizens  to  support  religion,"  they  had  no 
comment  on  why  they  filed  the  suit  ■'  Joel  Katcoff  wrote  later: 

As  best  I  can  recall,  the  issue  first  came  up  after  Allen  Wieder  and  I  took 
Constitutional  Law  as  2L's.  The  existence  of  a  governmentally  financed  Chaplaincy 
appeared  to  us  to  be  inconsistent  with  the  principles  we  had  just  learned  in 
Constitutional  Law.  We  raised  the  topic  with  a  number  of  law  professors,  but  did  not 
get  a  satisfactory  justification  for  taxpayer  financing  of  religious  practice. 
Coincidentally,  Allen  and  I  were  doing  some  research  and  brief-writing  (on  non- 
constitutional  issues)  for  a  public  interest  organization  whose  director  was  a  visiting 
professor  at  the  Law  School  Perhaps  this  is  what  gave  us  enough  confidence  to  try 
to  be  litigators  despite  our  dearth  of  experience.  In  addition,  the  topic  itself  was 
sufficiently  interesting  to  drive  us  forward  during  the  third  year  of  law  school  and 
beyond,  notwithstanding  the  considerable  amount  of  work  involved."*^ 

There  may  have  been  one  other  factor  more  clearly  tied  to  the  Harvard  Law  School.  In  order 
to  graduate  from  Harvard  with  a  Doctor  of  Jurisprudence  (J.  D.)  Degree  rather  than  a  Bachelor  of 
Laws  (LL.  B  )  degree,  third  year  law  students  (3  L's)  had  to  present  a  research  paper  or  brief  to  the 
faculty  demonstrating  their  ability  to  contribute  to  the  academic  study  of  the  law  According  to  Tlie 
Hanwd  Crimson  (November  30,  1979)  and  the  Harvard  Lom'  Record  (December  7,  1979),  Katcoff 
and  Wieder  had  begun  research  on  the  Army  Constitutionality  issue  in  the  Spring  of  1979.-^  They 
reviewed  cases  and  opinions  by  Justices  William  Brennan  and  William  O.  Douglas  who  was  "on  the 
record  as  saying  the  Chaplaincy  is  unconstitutional "'"  They  corresponded  with  Chaplain  Cliff 
Weathers,  Director  of  Plans,  Programs  and  Policies,  Office  of  the  Army  Chief  of  Chaplains,  early  in 
the  Summer  requesting  the  number  of  chaplains  then  on  duty  and  other  seemingly  innocuous 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


information.  By  November  23  they  had  prepared  their  brief  and  filed  the  case.  Two  weeks  later,  in 
December,  they  secured  approval  by  the  Harvard  faculty  granting  "third-year  paper  credit  for  the 

While  there  may  have  been  many  motives  for  challenging  the  constitutionality  of  the  Army 
Chaplaincy,  including  intellectual  curiosity,  there  was  at  least  one  clear  benefit  for  Joel  Katcoflf  and 
Allen  Wieder  Both  graduated  fi"om  Harvard  with  J.  D.  degrees  which  were  awarded  in  part  for 
approved  work  on  the  Army  case.  One  might  wonder  if  the  status  of  the  students  as  "aggrieved 
taxpayers"  was  not  overstated.  One  might  also  wonder  if  the  students'  legal  ethics  were  not  a  bit 
bizarre.  They  opposed  in  theory  the  tax  support  for  religious  activities  of  benefit  to  a  million  soldiers, 
but  they  accepted  indirect  Federal  tax  support  for  an  expensive  legal  case  which  dragged  on  for  6 
years  which  was  of  principal  benefit  to  only  two  ambitious  students. 

The  Argumentation 

The  plaintiffs  (Katcoff  and  Wieder)  in  the  1979  case  stipulated  that  the  Army  Chaplaincy 
violated  the  First  Amendment  to  the  Constitution:  "Congress  shall  make  no  law  respecting  an 
establishment  of  religion  or  prohibiting  the  free  exercise  thereof..."  The  official  court  document 

This  is  a  civil  action  for  declaratory  and  injunctive  relief  brought  by  federal  taxpayers 
challenging  the  constitutionality  of  the  United  States  Army's  religious  support 
program.  Plaintiffs  seek  (I)  a  judgment  declaring  that  the  Chaplaincy  program 
constitutes  an  establishment  of  religion  in  violation  of  the  First  Amendment  of  the 
United  States  Constitution,  and  (ii)  an  injunction  restraining  the  defendants  from 
approving  or  otherwise  providing  ftmds  or  support  in  any  respect  to  religious 
activities  in  the  Army.'" 

Allegations  of  unconstitutionality  included:  expenditure  of  government  fiands  for  chaplains' 
salaries,  for  religious  facilities,  programs  and  materials,  as  well  as  the  actual  conducting  of  religious 
programs,  religious  education  and  pastoral  care.  The  plaintitTs  stated  that,  "The  United  States 
government  by  design  and  appearance  lends  its  prestige,  influence  and  power  to  organized  religion 
by  granting  commissions,  rank  and  uniform  to  Army  Chaplains  ""  They  fijrther  alleged  that 
denominational  involvement  in  the  selection  of  chaplains  "constitutes  excessive  entanglement  between 
church  and  state."  Katcoff  and  Wieder  stated  that  rather  than  enhancing  the  free  exercise  of  religion, 
".  .  the  Army  Chaplaincy  program  serves  to  inhibit  that  free  exercise."''  This  argument  rested  on 
the  fact  that  chaplain  representation  did  not  include  every  possible  denomination  or  faith  group  — 
regardless  of  size  or  desire.  The  plaintiffs  also  cited  the  fact  that  the  commander,  not  the  chaplain, 
is  ultimately  responsible  for  the  Army's  religious  program  (Army  Regulation  165-20,  "Duties  of 
Chaplains  and  Commanders'  Responsibilities").  The  "fi'ee  exercise"  argument  did  not  play  a  major  role 
for  the  plaintiffs  in  future  proceedings     In  ensuing  months,  the  plaintiffs  would  argue  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Establishment  Clause  while  the  defendants  argued  the  Free  Exercise  Clause. 

In  place  of  the  current  Chaplaincy  system,  the  plaintiffs  advocated  an  "alternative  Chaplaincy 
program  which  is  privately  fianded  and  controlled."'^  The  students  presented  no  studies  or  other 
evidence  that  supported  their  contention  that  civilian  clergy  could  feasiblely  carry  on  military 
ministry  The  one  illustration  offered  (Wisconsin  Evangelical  Lutheran  Synod)  proved  to  be  highly 
unsuccessfijl  in  providing  ministry  to  soldiers  of  that  denomination  The  denomination's  own  leaders 
attested  to  the  insurmountable  problems  encountered  that  led  to  inconsistency  and  often  times 
ineffectiveness  in  providing  ministry.  Studies  done  by  the  Chaplaincy  and  other  denominational 
groups  all  pointed  to  the  impossibility  of  providing  effective  ministry  through  a  civilian  clergy 
program.  The  government  effectively  argued  that  the  military  environment  and  demands  on  clergy 
is  exceedingly  different  from  the  civilian  environment  and  pastoral  responsibilities  It  also  reminded 
the  court  that  civilian  clergy  serving  in  the  military  would  not  enjoy  the  protections  granted  to  military 
chaplains  under  the  provisions  of  the  Geneva  Conventions  regarding  treatment  of  prisoners  of  war 
and  detainees. 

The  lawsuit  included  one  hundred  and  twenty-three  interrogatories  and  requests  for 
production  of  documents  The  interrogatories  were  extensive  and  indicated  that  the  plaintiffs  had 
invested  considerable  effort  in  trying  to  understand  the  Chaplaincy  system.  Actually,  the  plaintiffs 
received  most  of  the  information  they  used  in  filing  the  suit  from  the  Office  of  The  Chief  of  Chaplains. 
Over  a  period  of  several  months  they  made  "Freedom  of  Information  Act"  (FOIA)  requests.  The 
materials  requested  were  not  unusual  and  it  was  assumed  they  were  intended  for  a  research  project 
at  Harvard  Law  School.  The  Chaplaincy  thus,  in  conforming  with  the  law,  provided  the  very 
documents  that  formed  the  basis  of  the  suit  against  it 

In  many  instances,  the  interrogatories  and  requests  for  reproduction  were  so  burdensome  that 
the  Army  could  not  reasonably  provide  the  documents  demanded.  To  provide  specific  answers  to 
each  interrogatory  would  require  the  Army  to  search  worldwide  for  information  that  in  many  cases 
was  decades  old  Interrogatory  #77,  for  instance,  requested  "a  detailed  description  of  the  Army's 
operation  of  devotional  programs  and  dissemination  of  religious  news  and  information  through  radio, 
TV  and  news  media  .  Produce  and  permit  plaintiffs  to  inspect  and  copy  the  transcripts  of  all  such 
devotional  programs"'^  The  government  delayed  its  response  for  almost  two  years  Finally,  materials 
were  provided,  but  for  only  about  one  third  of  the  requests  Other  answers  followed  at  later  dates. 

Responsibility  for  defending  the  government's  interests  resided  in  the  Assistant  United  States 
Attorney,  Mr.  Richard  P.  Caro  The  office  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the  Army  (OTJAG)  had 
primary  responsibility  to  represent  the  Department  of  Defense.  Colonel  Arnold  Melnick,  Lt.  Col. 
Scott  Magers,  and  Major  Roy  Dodson  initially  managed  the  case.  Major  Michael  J.  Nardotti,  Jr., 
(later  Major  General  and  The  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the  Army)  succeeded  Major  Dodson  in 
1981  The  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Major  General  Kermit  D.  Johnson,  assigned  Chaplain  John  C.  Scott 
to  be  his  agency's  representative  for  all  matters  related  to  the  court  case.  Chaplain  Scott  coordinated 
directly  with  the  Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General  (OTJAG)  to  determine  materials  and  support 
needed  to  defend  the  Chaplaincy.  A  task  force  established  in  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 
(OCCH)    included  Chaplain  Wayne  E.  Kuehne,  Chaplain  Sanford  Dresin  and  Chaplain  Ivan  Ives 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


(succeeded  later  by  Chaplain  James  Edgren)  Task  force  members  were  responsible  to  provide 
information  related  to  their  directorate  area  of  interest  in  response  to  allegations,  interrogatories  and 
requests  made  by  the  OTJAG.  Army  Reserve  Chaplains,  temporarily  called  to  active  duty,  conducted 
historical,  sociological  and  legal  studies,  and  literature  searches  Chaplain  scholars,  notably  Chaplain 
Cecil  Currey,  a  reserve  officer  and  professor  of  history  in  Florida,  devoted  weeks  to  culling 
documents  from  the  Library  of  Congress,  historical  archives  and  university  libraries  These  studies 
provided  an  important  perspective  on  the  Chaplaincy  Chaplain  Scott  analyzed  the  materials  provided 
by  the  task  force,  prepared  them  for  approval  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  and  forwarded  them  to 
OTJAG  to  become  a  part  of  the  government's  first  response  to  the  plaintiffs  in  January  1980.  The 
seventy-six  page  document  submitted  by  the  Army  outlined  the  history  of  the  Chaplaincy  from  its 
origins  It  also  provided  a  succinct,  but  extensive  and  articulate  summation  of  the  legal  basis  and 
current  statutory  authority  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy." 

Early  in  the  proceedings  the  government  also  raised  the  questions  of  "standing,"  and  "political 
interest."  They  argued  that  the  plaintiffs  "have  not  shown  requisite  personal  stake  in  the  outcome  of 
the  controversy  herein  to  grant  standing,  but  merely  rely  on  their  status  as  past  taxpayers."^*  The 
crux  of  the  issue  was  whether  or  not  the  plaintiffs  were  taxpayers  when  they  filed  suit.  The  plaintiffs 
responded  that  they  were  and  would  continue  to  be  taxpayers  That  answer  did  not  satisfy  the 
defendants  and  the  issue  remained  a  point  of  contention  until  the  case  ended  in  1986.  The  government 
sought  to  invoke  the  two  prong  test  ofFIast  v.  Cohen,  (a)  a  logical  link  between  taxpayer  status  and 
the  "legislative  enactment  attacked,"  and  (b)  "a  nexus  between  that  status  and  the  precise  nature  of 
the  constitutional  infringement  alleged.""  The  political  argument  cited  numerous  legal  opinions  that 
chaplains  have  "historically  been  viewed  to  be  authorized  by  the  First  Amendment  "'* 

The  legal  opinions  offered  by  the  government  identified  modern  examples  of  support  for  the 
Chaplaincy  and  the  interdependency  and  complementary  nature  of  the  two  clauses  of  the  First 
Amendment  (establishment,  and  free  exercise).^'  There  had  been  times  when  one  part  of  the  First 
Amendment  had  to  give  way  to  the  other  in  spite  of  appearances  of  conflict.  For  instance,  it  has  been 
considered  essential  to  provide  for  the  free  exercise  of  religion  for  soldiers — no  one  questioned  that. 
In  order  to  accomplish  that,  however,  there  may  have  been  the  appearance  of  a  violation  of  the 
Establishment  Clause.  The  government  contended  that,  like  any  other  citizens,  soldiers  are  entitled 
to  fi"ee  exercise  of  religion  The  means  by  which  the  Congress  has  decided  to  provide  for  free  exercise 
of  religion  is  the  military  Chaplaincy  The  government  also  argued  that,  "The  Institution  and 
Maintenance  of  the  Chaplains  Corps  is  Important  to  the  National  Defense,  and  is  a  Valid  and 
Necessary  Exercise  of  Congressional  War  Power  "^^  Government  attorneys  argued  that  the  Congress 
has  the  duty  to  raise  and  support  armies.  In  many  cases  courts  have  shown  deference  to  the  military 
because  of  its  unique  needs  Some  Supreme  Court  Justices  at  least  obliquely  implied  that  the 
Chaplaincy  would  pass  constitutional  muster  if  it  were  to  meet  the  free  exercise  needs  of  the  lonely 
soldier  at  an  isolated  outpost  The  defendants  also  argued  that  the  Chaplaincy  met  the  three  prong 
test  o^  Lemon  v.  Kiirlzman*^  Finally,  the  defendants  argued  that  the  plaintiffs'  claims  were  not 
"reviewable  by  this  court  because  the  substantive  questions  they  raise  constitute  political  questions 
under  the  standards  set  forth  in  Baker  v.  Carr"*'  It  was  argued  later  that  Congress,  as  an 
independent  arm  of  government,  is  not  subject  to  the  courts  in  these  matters.  The  Congress,  since 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


1 775,  demonstrated  that  in  significant  and  minuscule  matters  it  continually  approved  and  monitored 
the  Chaplaincy.  It  fixed  manpower  ceilings,  authorized  pay,  appropriated  fijnds  for  programs  and 
facilities,  and  often  involved  itself  in  matters  regarding  the  welfare  of  a  single  chaplain  or  local 
religious  program. 


During  the  remainder  of  1 980,  numerous  documents  were  submitted  to  the  Court  by  both  the 
plaintiffs  and  the  defendants  Much  of  the  maneuvering  revolved  around  the  questions  of  "Standing," 
"Production  of  Documents,"  and  requests  for  summary  judgment  by  the  plaintiffs  and  the  defendants. 
On  March  7,  1980,  Judge  Jacob  Mishler  conducted  the  first  hearing  of  the  case.  Joel  KatcoflF  argued 
that  there  should  be  no  military  chaplains  at  all — under  any  circumstances.  He  fijrther  argued  that 
civilian  churches  could  and  should  provide  this  service.  In  August  1980,  Judge  Mishler  published  his 
opinion.  He  supported  the  plaintiffs'  standing  as  taxpayers,  and  stated  that  the  court  did  have 
jurisdiction  to  review  the  case.  He  also  noted  that  sometimes  the  Establishment  Clause  must 
accommodate  the  Free  Exercise  Clause,  particularly  in  the  unique  military  environment  It  appeared 
ft^om  the  Judge's  comments  that  the  constitutionality  of  the  Chaplaincy  extended  only  so  far  as  it 
supported  the  soldier's  free  exercise  of  religion.  Whatever  went  beyond  meeting  free  exercise  rights 
was  subject  to  review  and  possible  prohibition.  Some  interpreted  that  to  mean  that  the  court  under 
this  rubric  could  evaluate  each  and  every  Chaplaincy  program  to  see  if  it  passed  constitutional 
muster.^'  If  it  did  not  meet  the  requirements,  it  would  be  disallowed  or  forbidden. 

Judge  Mishler's  ruling  caused  serious  concern  throughout  the  Chaplaincy.  There  were 
questions  about  whether  the  government  could  win  the  case  Worse,  some  felt  that  the  court  would 
now  become  involved  in  approving  programs  and  ministry  and  micro-managing  the  Chaplaincy  from 
the  dais.  This  did  not  happen,  but  the  potential  remained  a  clear  and  present  danger  as  far  as  the 
management  of  the  Chaplain  Corps  was  concerned. 

In  what  to  some  appeared  as  an  overreaction  to  the  Judge's  decision,  the  Chaplaincy  entered 
a  period  of  intensive  self-examination.  Everything  came  under  scrutiny.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains,  and 
particularly  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains,  did  not  want  to  do  anything  that  could  in  any  way 
strengthen  the  plaintiffs'  case 

As  the  Chaplaincy  began  to  prepare  for  fiature  legal  maneuvering.  Chaplain  Scott 
recommended  to  Chaplain  Johnson  that  a  strategy  conference  be  convened  to  include  experts  from 
all  levels  of  the  Chaplaincy  and  representatives  of  OTJAG.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  approved  the  idea 
and  the  meeting  convened  at  Manressa  Retreat  House  in  Annapolis,  Maryland,  from  19-23  January 
19g]  44  Participants,  besides  active  duty  chaplains,  included  Reserve  Chaplains  David  Heino,  Israel 
Drazin  and  Cecil  Currey,  a  representative  from  the  Air  Force  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Office,  and  Major 
Dodson  fi"om  OTJAG.  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson  attended  the  meeting  on  22  January.  The  agenda 
included  a  top  to  bottom  review  of  the  Chaplaincy  to  determine  what  was  constitutional  and  what 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


might  not  contribute  directly  to  meeting  the  free  exercise  needs  of  soldiers. 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  wrote: 

The  court  challenge  to  the  Constitutionality  of  the  Chaplaincy  is  the  single 
most  critical  issue  facing  us  at  this  time.  The  future  of  the  Chaplaincy  rests  on  the 
outcome  of  the  case,  and  the  work  done  here  at  Manressa,  hopefijlly,  will  provide 
material  that  will  substantially  assist  us  in  influencing  decisions  made  by  the  court. 
However,  your  conference  goes  beyond  the  court  challenge  and  will  allow  us  to  take 
a  serious  and  in-depth  look  at  what  we  do  as  a  Chaplaincy  and  why.  It  should  provide 
this  office  with  data  for  fliture  directions  and  decisions.^' 

Chaplain  Johnson  also  challenged  the  group  to  develop  "a  zero-based  Chaplaincy."  His 
reference  came  from  the  Carter  presidency  in  relation  to  zero-based  budgeting.  This  emphasis  was 
part  of  the  total  Army  Staffs  deliberations  in  fijnding  what  was  necessary  "to  accomplish  the 
mission."  All  elements  of  the  Army  Staff  had  been  thinking  along  these  lines. ^''  For  the  Chaplain 
Corps,  Chaplain  Johnson  intended  the  term  to  refer  to  the  basic  ministerial  role  of  chaplains: 

The  freeing  aspect  of  this  [concept]  meant  that  we  did  not  have  to  be  bound  by  the 
past.  Because  of  my  emphasis  on  basic  ministry,  some  of  those  oriented  toward 
psychological  and  sociological  tools  felt  that  I  was  going  to  take  a  cudgel  to  these 
programs.  I  never  did,  and  I  never  intended  to;  I  only  wanted  to  restore  and 
emphasize  //r.v/  things  individual  contact  with  soldiers,  preaching,  worship,  care  of 
souls,  spirituality,  ethics."*^ 

Some  chaplains  did  not  understand  what  the  Chief  had  in  mind  by  the  term  "zero-based,"  but 
the  majority  did  realize  that  for  Chaplain  Johnson  "the  soldier  was  our  first  priority"  for  a  ministry 
that  was  both  pastorally  supportive  and  morally  challenging. 

Conference  participants  received  Issue  Papers  written  by  members  of  the  task  force.  These 
papers  proposed  answers  to  allegations  and  interrogatories  and  provided  a  basis  for  discussions  on 
varied  topics  In  spite  of  some  bias,  expressions  of  personal  interest,  and  differences  regarding  the 
nature  of  the  Chaplaincy  and  its  future  directions,  considerable  progress  was  made  in  developing 
positions  on  the  chaplain's  role  and  flinctions,  civilianization  of  the  Chaplaincy,  and  the  basic  elements 
required  for  a  viable  Chaplaincy  in  the  late  twentieth  century.  Many  of  these  ideas  were  later 
incorporated  into  court  documents  Although  Chaplain  Johnson's  objectives  for  the  meeting  were  not 
totally  met,  enough  was  accomplished  that  he  was  satisfied  with  the  results. 

Chaplain  Israel  Drazin,  an  Army  reservist  and  a  rabbi,  favorably  impressed  the  gathering  with 
his  legal  and  theological  expertise.  Upon  returning  to  the  Pentagon,  Chaplain  Scott  recommended  to 
Chaplain  Johnson  that  Drazin  be  called  to  active  duty  for  at  least  one  year  to  help  prepare  for  future 
developments  in  the  court  case.  Chaplain  Drazin  already  had  done  a  great  deal  of  work  on  the  case 
and  was  willing  to  give  it  his  fiill  attention.   Chaplain  Drazin  entered  active  duty  and  assumed  total 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


responsibility  as  the  Chiefs  action  officer  upon  Scott's  reassignment  in  May  1982.  Thereafter, 
Chaplain  Drazin  was  responsible  for  representing  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  to  the  OTJAG. 
He  remained  in  that  status  until  the  conclusion  of  the  case  whereupon  he  was  selected  for  a  promotion 
to  Brigadier  General  and  appointed  one  of  two  Assistant  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  from  the  Reserve. 
Chaplain  Drazin  made  outstanding  contributions  to  the  defense  of  the  Chaplaincy  in  the  court  case 
and  in  other  issues  related  to  the  First  Amendment  that  arose  during  his  active  duty  period,  and  in 
matters  of  religious  practice  and  accommodation  of  religion  in  the  Army 

During  the  Spring  and  Summer  of  1981,  documents  from  both  plaintiffs  and  defendants 
flowed  in  and  out  of  the  courthouse  The  defendants  provided  answers  to  some  of  the  interrogatories 
and  continued  their  arguments  against  standing  for  the  plaintiffs  The  plaintiffs  sought  to  compel  the 
defendants  to  produce  all  the  documents  they  requested  In  the  meantime  significant  changes  had  been 
made  to  the  principals  in  the  case  Secretary  John  O  Marsh,  Jr ,  replaced  Secretary  of  the  Army 
Alexander;  Judge  Joseph  McLaughlin  replaced  Judge  Mishler,  Ms  Marilyn  Go  replaced  Mr  Caro 
as  the  Assistant  US  Attorney,  and  Major  Nardotti  replaced  Major  Dodson 

Major  Michael  Nardotti  worked  closely  with  Chaplain  Drazin  and  other  chaplains  in  1982. 
The  teamwork  between  the  JAG  officers  and  the  chaplains  was  outstanding.  Chaplains  Kermit 
Johnson,  Don  Shea,  John  Scott,  Wayne  Kuehne,  and  Israel  Drazin  had  produced  or  collected  an 
enormous  file  of  information  Major  Nardotti  xeroxed  every  reference  to  chaplains  in  the  statutory 
and  legislative  records  of  Congress — more  than  600  pages  of  historic  data.  At  times  there  were  slight 
disagreements  over  the  timing  of  arguments.  "By  1982  every  major  argument  was  already  on  the 
table,"  Major  General  Nardotti  recalled  in  1995.^*  "Some  people  wanted  to  ignore  the  standing 
argument  and  move  directly  to  the  free  exercise  argument,  but  we  had  to  challenge  the  standing  of 
the  plaintiffs  to  prevent  hundreds  of  other  potential  suits  by  students  or  others  across  the  country."^'' 
Eventually  the  chaplains  deferred  to  the  JAG  officers  who  actually  argued  the  case,  yet  both  sides 
agreed  that  teamwork  paid  off  when  the  work  load  was  so  large 

Debate  on  the  taxpayer  issue  also  continued  into  1982.  The  government  requested  a  dismissal 
of  the  case  and  the  plaintiffs  responded  with  a  motion  for  summary  judgment  In  response  to 
Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson's  personal  request,  five  general  officers  of  the  Army  provided  written 
statements  in  support  of  the  Chaplaincy  General  Edward  C  Meyer,  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army, 
presented  his  views  on  the  duty  of  the  Army  to  meet  the  religious  needs  of  soldiers.  He  stated  further, 
"Chaplains  have  credibility  with  soldiers.  Soldiers  know  that  Chaplains  share  their  common  bond  of 
personal  experience.  Perhaps  most  important  for  the  soldier  is  that  he  knows  the  chaplain  will  always 
be  there."  General  John  W.  Vessey,  Vice  Chief  of  Staff',  spoke  about  the  impossibility  of  civilians 
ministering  on  the  dangerous  battlefield.  General  Charles  W.  Bagnal,  Commanding  General  of  the 
101st  Airborne  Division  wrote,  "It  is  obvious  to  me  that  if  we  do  not  have  chaplains  in  the  Army  ... 
we  are  prohibiting  to  a  degree  the  free  exercise  of  religion...  we  must  never  lose  sight  of  this  as  we 
plan  and  execute  our  programs."  General  Frederick  J.  Kroesen,  Commander  in  Chief  U.  S.  Army 
Europe,  noted  that  "only  the  Army  Chaplaincy,  because  it  is  as  mobile  as  the  troops,  can  meet  our 
religious  support  needs."  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Gerhardt  W.  Hyatt,  USA  Retired,  stated  that 
no  civilian  clergy  had  ever  met  the  Army's  comprehensive  religious  needs  with  any  degree  of 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


success.^"  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson's  affidavit  was  far  more  detailed  than  those  of  the  other  generals. 
He  outlined  the  history  of  the  Chaplaincy  program,  its  roots  in  Congressional  actions  and  the 
mechanisms  by  which  it  meets  the  free  exercise  of  religion  needs  of  soldiers  Major  General  Nardotti 
said  later  that  Chaplain  Johnson's  ability  to  persuade  these  general  officers  to  make  statements  in 
support  of  the  Chaplaincy  as  then  constituted  was  an  extremely  valuable  asset  for  the  government's 

On  June  8,  1982,  Judge  McLaughlin  conducted  a  short  hearing  that  basically  dealt  with  the 
plaintiffs'  request  to  take  depositions  from  the  five  generals  who  submitted  affidavits.  He  denied  their 
request.  On  November  3,  1982,  Judge  McLaughlin  conducted  another  hearing  to  address  Motions 
for  Summary  Judgment,  submitted  by  both  plaintiffs  and  defendants.  No  decision  was  rendered  until 
February  1,  1984  "  The  significant  conclusions  provided  by  Judge  McLaughlin  included: 

1 .  The  Chaplaincy  is  Constitutional."  He  went  on  to  say:  "In  its  present  form,  then,  the 
Army  Chaplaincy  is  a  constitutionally  permissible  means  to  a  constitutionally 
mandated  end  " 

2.  Decided  that  the  plaintiffs  do  have  standing". 

3.  Congress  has  repeatedly  fijnded  the  Chaplaincy. 

4.  The  founding  fathers  saw  no  inconsistency  between  the  First  Amendment  and  a  paid 

5.  The  judge  also  noted  the  inability  of  the  Wisconsin  Evangelical  Lutheran  Synod  to 
provide  effective  ministry  during  the  Vietnam  War.  Civilian  ministry,  as  envisioned 
by  the  plaintiffs,  would  be  even  further  negated  without  the  substantive  military 
logistical  and  transportation  support  provided  by  the  Army  for  religious  support  to 

Plaintiffs'  Appeal,  1984 

Katcoff  and  Wieder  were  displeased  with  the  determination  of  Judge  McLaughlin  They 
appealed  to  the  Second  Circuit  Court  for  a  reversal  of  McLaughlin's  decision.  A  panel  of  three  judges 
heard  the  case  on  October  29,  1984.  On  January  22,  1985,  the  decision  of  the  appeals  court  was 
published.'*  The  judges  determined  that: 

1.  The  plaintiffs  do  have  standing 

2.  The  Chaplaincy,  "viewed  in  isolation"  would  fail  to  meet  the  establishment  clause 
requirements  as  outlined  in  Lemon  v.Kurtzman.  "However,  neither  the  Establishment 
Clause  nor  the  statutes  creating  and  maintaining  the  Army  Chaplaincy 
interpreted  as  if  they  existed  in  a  sterile  vacuum."" 

3.  Deference  to  Congress  in  matters  pertaining  to  the  military  and  its  Chaplaincy  is  a  well 
established  and  legitimate  practice  '* 

4.  Free  Exercise  obligates  Congress  "to  make  religion  available  to  soldiers  who  have 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


been  moved  by  the  Army  to  areas  of  the  world  where  religion  of  their  own 
denomination  is  not  available  to  them.  Otherwise,  the  effect  of  compulsory  military 
service  could  be  to  violate  their  rights  under  both  Clauses  of  the  First  Amendment  "'' 
5.  Assuming,  hypothetically,  that  such  a  program  (civilian  Chaplaincy)  could  be 

launched,  "it  would  be  constantly  teetering  on  the  brink  of  disaster.'"'*'  "In  short, 
plaintiffs'  proposal  is  so  inherently  impractical  as  to  border  on  the  frivolous.'"''  They 
further  stated  that  the  feasibility  of  a  civilian  Chaplaincy  "must  in  our  view  be  resolved 
in  favor  of  judicial  deference  to  Congress'  decisions  in  this  area."*'' 

Not  all  of  their  findings  were  favorable  to  the  Chaplaincy  "In  a  few  areas,  however,  the 
reasonable  necessity  for  certain  activities  of  the  military  Chaplaincy  is  not  readily  available  '""^  One 
of  the  examples  cited  in  the  decision  was  stationing  of  chaplains  in  large  metropolitan  areas  Because 
of  the  court's  hesitancy  in  this  area,  the  case  was  remanded  to  the  District  Court  to  "determine  if  some 
activities  are  constitutionally  permissible"*^  The  Court  also  determined  that  the  appellees  (Katcoff 
and  Wieder)  would  be  required  to  pay  the  costs  of  the  District  Court. 

Conclusion  with  Prejudice 

In  January  1986,  in  the  face  of  mounting  financial  costs,  Katcoff  and  Wieder  decided  to  drop 
the  case.  Eventually  the  government  agreed  to  their  action.  Although  Chaplain  Hessian  wanted  to 
see  the  case  through  to  its  conclusion,  he  eventually  acquiesced  to  Army  lawyers  and  agreed  to  their 
recommendation  to  allow  the  plaintiffs  to  drop  the  case  with  prejudice  On  February  7,  1986,  the 
Office  of  the  Staff  Judge  Advocate  General  informed  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  that  "On  31  January 
1986,  the  plaintiff  in  Katcoff  v.  Marsh  abandoned  his  lawsuit."*"'  More  than  six  years  had  passed 
since  the  case  was  filed  Although  many  questions  remained  unanswered,  at  least  the  court  answered 
the  basic  question  of  constitutionality  for  this  case 

During  the  six  year  period  of  Katcoff,  several  other  significant  cases  made  their  way  into 
other  courts  that  had  a  direct  relationship  to  the  Chaplaincy  In  Roslker  v.  Goldberg,  the  central  issue 
was  "deference."  The  suit  alleged  that  it  was  unconstitutional  for  the  government  to  require  only 
males  to  register  for  the  draft.**  Supreme  Court  Justice  Rehnquist  wrote,  "The  Court  has  made  it 
clear  that  even  our  most  fiindamental  constitutional  rights  must  in  some  circumstances  be  modified 
in  the  light  of  military  needs,  and  that  Congress'  judgment  as  to  what  is  necessary  to  preserve  our 
nafional  security  is  entitled  to  great  deference."  In  John  Garth  Murray,  et  al ,  v  Azie  Taylor  Morton, 
et  al  ,  the  plaintiflFs  alleged  that  the  paid  civilian  chaplain  in  the  House  of  Representatives  was 
unconstitutional.  The  District  Court  in  Washington,  DC  determined  that  the  plaintiffs  lacked  standing 
to  sue,  but  also  cited  the  deference  argument  as  reason  for  the  court  not  to  make  a  decision  in  the 

The  negative  effects  of  the  challenge  to  the  constitutionality  of  the  Chaplaincy  were  few  and 
transient  The  threat  of  placing  all  Chaplaincy  programs  under  the  scrutiny  of  the  courts  caused  some 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


curtailment  of  programs  and  activities  and  some  temporary  stagnation  in  others  The  majority  of  the 
chaplains  in  the  field  continued  uninterrupted  in  the  performance  of  their  religious  duties.  Soldiers' 
free  exercise  rights  were  not  abridged  in  any  way. 

In  the  late  1970s,  the  Department  of  Defense  established  a  study  group  to  grapple  with  the 
problem  of  how  the  free  exercise  of  religion  could  be  respected  while  at  the  same  time  maintaining 
good  order,  discipline  and  morale  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne  represented  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains.  Committee  meetings  over  a  period  of  several  years  resulted  in  a  principle  of 
"accommodation."  The  thrust  of  this  policy  was  to  allow  free  expression  of  religious  beliefs  unless 
they  impinge  on  such  things  as  readiness,  good  order  and  discipline  The  local  commander  maintained 
authority  to  make  decisions  regarding  individual  situations  on  a  case  by  case  basis,  with  the  individual 
having  the  right  of  appeal  to  higher  headquarters  This  was  not  a  major  change  in  the  way  the  Army 
operated,  but  it  did  affirm,  on  a  policy  level,  the  right  of  soldiers  to  freely  exercise  their  religious 

There  is  little  doubt  that  the  Chaplaincy  emerged  from  the  court  case  as  a  much  stronger 
structure  and  more  resolved  to  be  the  instrument  of  government  whereby  the  free  exercise  of  religion 
is  available  to  every  soldier.  There  were  several  positive  outcomes  of  the  case.  First,  it  forced  the 
Chaplaincy  into  a  healthy  self-examination.  It  placed  all  of  its  programs  and  activities  under  the 
microscope  The  Chaplaincy  eliminated  some  programs  that  did  not  contribute  to  free  exercise. 
Secondly,  it  required  every  chaplain  to  focus  clearly  on  providing  for  the  free  exercise  of  religion  as 
the  raison  d'etre  of  the  Chaplaincy.  It  furthermore  made  chaplains  conscious  that  they  must  avoid  at 
all  cost  any  excessive  entanglements  between  church  and  state,  or  any  perception  of  violation  of  the 
Establishment  Clause.  Thirdly,  it  made  clear  that  there  are  certain  vulnerabilities  to  the  Chaplaincy 
as  an  institution  There  also  may  be  limits  to  what  the  Chaplain  Corps  can  do  and  retain  protection 
under  the  Constitution.  While  the  threat  of  the  courts  evaluating  every  program  has  been  reduced, 
it  undoubtedly  will  surface  again  in  any  new  court  challenge.  The  future  of  the  Chaplaincy,  as  well 
as  its  past,  will  rest  squarely  on  the  support  and  good  will  of  Congress,  and  on  the  Chaplaincy's 
ability  to  remain  focused  on  providing  for  the  free  exercise  of  religion  for  soldiers  as  the  legal  basis 
for  the  existence  of  a  uniformed  ministry  in  the  military. 

Chaplaincy  Goals 

Chaplaincy  Goals  and  Objectives  for  the  fiscal  years  1983-1984  were  established  by  Chaplain 
Johnson  in  February  1981 .  The  future  direction  of  the  Chaplaincy  was  promulgated  in  the  "Chief  of 
Chaplain's  Guidance  to  MACOMs  and  Installations."  The  following  specific  priorities  were  declared:*''* 

1 .  Explore  means  of  enhancing  chapel  activity  specialist  job  satisfaction  and  career 

2.  Prepare  for  mobilization 

3.  Emphasize  recruitment  and  retention  of  Catholic  chaplains  and  ministry  to  Catholics 

4.  Reaffirm  religious  pluralism  in  the  Army 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


5.  Provide  moral  and  ethical  impact  on  decision-making 

6.  Reach  the  unchurched  in  the  Army 

7.  Increase  soldier  contact  with  chaplains 

8.  Develop  closer  denominational  ties 

9.  Increase  dialogue  to  decrease  racism/sexism 

10.  Empower  lay  persons  for  ministry 

11.  Develop  programs  for  spiritual  formation  and  mission 

12.  Develop  a  Chaplain  Support  System  (ministry  to  pastors) 

13.  Expand  Family  Life  Ministry 

14.  Use  the  skills  and  education  of  chaplains  and  rely  less  on  outside  civilian  consultants. 

Each  of  these  priorities  was  critical  to  maintaining  the  strength  and  viability  of  the  Chaplaincy 
program.  Leadership  and  supervision,  particularly  at  the  middle  management  (brigade)  level,  had 
been  determined  to  be  one  of  the  weakest  links  in  chaplain  leadership.  The  U.S.  Army  Chaplain 
Academic  Board  reported  in  March  of  1 98 1  that  "there  was  nothing  in  the  Basic  or  Advanced  courses 
which  taught  a  chaplain  how  to  be  a  brigade  chaplain  or  how  to  supervise."'^''  Increased  training  in 
this  area  would  be  provided  by  the  Chaplain  School.  As  noted  elsewhere,  preaching  and  worship 
were  not  considered  high  priorities  by  many  commanders  and  their  chaplains.  Consequently, 
preaching  often  did  not  receive  the  attention  it  deserved.  Division  '86  ,  the  "heavy  division  doctrine," 
was  well  on  its  way  to  implementation.  It  would  be  a  larger  division  with  more  tanks,  armored 
personnel  carriers  and  other  equipment.  The  Chaplaincy  needed  to  make  changes  on  how  it  would 
operate  under  this  doctrine  on  a  modern,  highly  mobile  and  exceedingly  lethal  battlefield 

In  his  goals  for  fiscal  years  1984  and  1985,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  again  began  setting  the 
course  for  the  fijture.  His  major  emphases  were  on  Leadership  and  Supervision,  Homiletics  and 
Worship,  preparing  the  Chaplaincy  for  implementing  the  Army's  Division  '86,  and  how  religious 
requirements  would  be  integrated  into  the  new  Army  structure.™ 

President  Jimmy  Carter  introduced  the  concept  of  zero-based  budgeting  to  the  Congress  and 
to  the  American  people  Chaplain  Johnson  felt  that  the  Chaplaincy  could  use  this  concept  as  a  means 
of  prioritizing  missions  and  programs  that  the  Chaplaincy  wished  to  pursue.  His  notion  was  that  we 
should  not  just  continue  programs  because  we  had  always  done  so,  but  should  always  be  looking  for 
new  ideas  and  discarding  old  unworkable  ideas  and  programs  The  Katcoflf  case  helped  to  refocus  the 
Chaplaincy  on  those  ministries  that  were  clearly  within  the  purview  of  the  First  Amendment,  and 
provided  a  catalyst  to  discard  those  that  were  not  Chaplain  Johnson,  therefore,  used  the  First 
Amendment  as  one  measure  by  which  programs  or  policies  could  be  approved  or  disapproved. 

Defense  Officer  Personnel  Management  Act  (DOPMA) 

A  Defense  Officer  Personnel  Management  Act  Policy  (DOPMA)  was  implemented  on  1 5 
September  1981 .   DOPMA  amended  Title  10,  US  Code,  the  basic  laws  governing  the  Army  and 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Department  of  Defense.  The  policy  created  a  single  promotion  system  for  all  field  grade  officers.  It 
replaced  the  old  duality  of  regular  Army  and  USAR  ranks."  The  Chaplaincy  was  one  of  the  nine 
"competitive  categories"  created  by  DOPMA  Chaplains  selected  for  promotion  to  major  were 
automatically  integrated  into  the  Regular  Army.  This  change  generally  meant  that  field  grade 
chaplains  could  serve  for  longer  periods  than  they  could  have  under  the  old  USAR  system. 

DOPMA  also  provided  the  opportunity  for  "selective  continuation"  in  three  year  increments 
for  chaplains  who  were  not  selected  for  promotion  to  either  captain  or  major  It  also  accorded  officers 
"continued  individual  promotion  consideration  and  eligibility  as  long  as  he/she  remains  on  active 
duty."''  The  continuation  policy  was  particularly  helpfijl  in  retaining  chaplains  for  shortage 
denominations  or  faith  groups. 

Along  with  the  changes  in  DOPMA,  the  Army  also  instituted  a  Combined  Arms  and  Services 
Staff  School  (CAS,)  at  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kansas.  Originally  there  was  space  for  only  eight  chaplains 
per  class,  but  this  was  later  expanded  and  all  chaplains  between  four  and  nine  years  of  active  duty, 
and  graduates  of  the  Chaplain  School  Career  Course  (C-22)  were  expected  to  attend.  The  course  had 
two  phases:  Phase  I,  a  120-hour  nonresident  preparatory  course,  and  Phase  II,  a  9  week  resident 
course."  The  course  focused  on  leadership,  management  and  tactical  subjects. 

Another  major  change  in  education  occurred  in  the  rewriting  of  AR  600- 101  It  "transferred 
to  the  various  Army  Schools  primary  responsibility  for  setting  educational  and  skill  standards"  for 
officers,  warrant  officers  and  enlisted  soldiers.'^  This,  in  eflFect,  meant  that  the  Chaplain  School  would 
have  greater  input  to  its  curriculum  for  chaplains.  It  also  meant  that  responsibility  for  training  chaplain 
assistants  would  be  transferred  from  the  Army  Administration  School,  to  the  US  Army  Chaplain 
Center  and  School. 

Ethical  Leadership  throughout  the  Army 

Concern  about  ethical  and  moral  behavior  has  been  a  part  of  Chaplaincy  history  from  the  very 
beginning.  Every  Chief  of  Chaplains  in  every  era  has  had  to  deal  forthrightly  with  this  issue.  All  did 
it  with  effectiveness.  With  the  conclusion  of  the  war  in  Vietnam,  the  wrenching  social  unrest,  the 
discussions  concerning  strategic  and  tactical  nuclear  warfare,  and  the  general  moral  disorientation  in 
the  United  States  in  the  late  1 970s,  setting  ethical  standards  became  more  crucial  to  the  Army  and 
to  the  Chaplaincy. 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  himself  steeped  in  ethical  matters.  His  interest  in  institutional 
ethics  began  as  a  cadet  at  West  Point,  and  was  later  deepened  by  theological  and  philosophical  studies 
at  Princeton  Theological  Seminary."  By  the  time  Chaplain  Johnson  was  assigned  as  a  student  at  the 
Army  Command  and  General  Staff  College  (1969),  he  was  already  writing  on  ethical  subjects.  He 
continued  his  interest  in  ethics  during  every  assignment  he  had  in  the  Army  He  gave  a  major  addr-ess 
at  a  Chief  of  Chaplains  Conference  in  Europe  on  the  subject  of  ethics.  While  assigned  in  1974  as  Post 
Chaplain  at  Carlisle  Barracks,  home  of  the  Army  War  College,  he  wrote  an  article  for  Parameters, 
the  official  publication  of  the  War  College,  on  the  "Ethical  Issues  of  Military  Leadership."  The  article 
was  very  well  received  throughout  the  Army,  and  Chaplain  Johnson  received  many  accolades  from 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


senior  officers  and  from  distinguished  civilian  ethicist  as  well.  Admiral  Hyman  G.  Rickover,  U.S. 
Navy,  told  Chaplain  Johnson,  "You  said  what  I've  been  trying  to  say  for  years."'* 

Likewise,  in  1974  Chaplain  Johnson  persuaded  Colonel  William  E  Rawlinson,  Director  of 
Personnel  Management  Studies  at  the  Army  War  College,  to  invite  a  series  of  distinguished  lecturers 
to  teach  12  modules  on  ethics  to  the  War  College  students  in  early  1975.  The  lecturers  included  Dr. 
Arthur  J.  Dyck  and  Professor  Ralph  B.  Potter  from  Harvard  University,  Dr  George  W  Petznick 
from  the  American  Medical  Association,  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Gerhard  Hyatt,  Chief  of 
Chaplains,  USA;  Monsignor  Joseph  A  Dunne,  Chief  of  Chaplains,  New  York  Police  Department; 
Mr.  Lewis  Van  Dusen,  American  Bar  Association,  and  Major  General  DeWitt  Smith,  Commandant 
of  the  U  S.  Army  War  College."  The  course  was  exceptionally  well  received  by  the  students  and 
faculty  alike   By  the  end  of  1975,  Chaplain  Johnson  was  widely  regarded  as  ''the  Army's  Ethicist." 

In  1978,  Chaplain  Johnson  wrote  an  article  for  the  Chaplaincy  magazine,  entitled  "Ethics  in 
the  Military."'^  He  pointed  out  that  the  Honor  Code  at  West  Point  was  a  time-honored  vehicle  for 
ethical  reasoning  but  that  it  was  limited  when  complex  issues  required  more  sophisticated  decision 
making  He  placed  himself  among  the  reasoned  forma  lists,  indicating  that  there  are  some  ethical 
considerations  which  are  always  important:  "it  means  certain  elements  of  actions  are  always 
intrinsically  right  or  wrong  in  themselves  " 

In  a  letter  to  Dr  Arthur  J    Dyck  of  Harvard  Divinity  School,  Chaplain  Johnson  declared: 

The  whole  ethical  area  is  so  very  important  So  many  matters  of  life  and  death  are 
before  us  precisely  at  a  time  when  theological  and  philosophical  bases  have  been  so 
thoroughly  eroded,  that  few  dare  speak  with  any  authority.  1  personally  believe  that 
unless  universals  exist,  we  have  absolutely  no  basis  for  making  ethical  judgements  and 
everything  is  up  for  grabs  " 

Johnson's  mission,  and  Dyck's  as  well,  was  to  "cut  through  this  relativistic  jungle  in  order  to  arrive 
at  a  more  human  or  humane  position.""" 

Chaplain  Johnson  advocated  that  the  commander  and  the  chaplain  should  act  as  an  ethical 
team.  "The  conclusion  of  all  this  might  be  expressed  in  theological  terms.  We  are  ultimately  driven 
to  a  feeling  of  weakness,  to  the  forgiveness  of  sins,  to  the  renewing  of  life,  to  the  grace  of  God  In 
my  scale  of  values,  ethics  proceeds  out  of  the  context  of  faith — and  it  is  my  belief  that  because  of  this 
faith,  every  chaplain  has  something  unique  to  contribute  to  ethics  in  the  military  ""' 

Chaplain  Johnson's  background  was  ideal  for  the  needs  of  the  Army  at  that  time.  The  Army 
Staff  was  struggling  with  the  question  of  defining  ethics  for  the  Army,  as  well  as  who  should  have 
proponency  for  ethical  training.  In  1980,  Chaplain  Johnson  wrote  to  the  Superintendent  of  West 
Point,  Lieutenant  General  Andrew  J.  Goodpaster,  on  the  subject  of  ethics  and  the  need  to  create  a 
course  at  the  Academy  on  professional  ethics.  General  Goodpaster  responded,  on  30  December  1980, 
by  thanking  Johnson  for  his  recommendations  *'  Shortly  thereafter,  a  "core  course"  in  ethics  was 
inaugurated  for  all  cadets  under  the  proponency  of  the  English  Department. 

The  Army  Staff"  continued  to  wrestle  with  the  meaning  and  relevance  of  ethics  in  the  Army. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Chaplain  Johnson  wrote  a  memorandum  to  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel  (DCSPER), 
"Integrating  Values/Ethics  into  the  Army."*'  He  argued  for  a  definition  of  the  ethical  values  the  Army 
was  seeking  to  instill  in  young  leaders  "A  value  for  Army  leadership  is  selflessness,  but,  how  does 
a  personnel  and  recruitment  system  which  is  basically  entrepreneurial,  working  by  self-interest  and 
self-development,"  interpret  this  to  leaders'^  He  concluded  his  memorandum  by  stating; 

To  summarize,  if  values  and  ethics  are  to  mean  anything  in  the  Army, 
our  highest  leaders  must  articulate  what  those  values  are  and  the 
behavioral  modes  which  reflect  those  values.  Then  doctrine  developers 
need  to  incorporate  this  into  their  training  materials  for  the  Army  and 
throughout  the  schooling/training  systems,  appropriate  to  the  level  of 
learning  persons  Another  effort  should  be  directed  horizontally  and 
vertically  to  life  as  it  is  lived  in  the  units,  installations,  headquarters, 
families,  etc  ,  to  see  whether  articulated  values  square  with  operating 
values  Finally,  based  on  reality  feedback,  decisions  will  have  to  be 
made  and  remade,  as  to  whether  you  adjust  rhetoric  (stated  values)  to 
what  is,  or  change  what  is  (operating  values)  to  new  ways  of 
operating,  behaving,  or  doing  to  conform  to  a  value  you  are  willing  to 
pay  a  price  for."*^ 

Brigadier  General  Mitchell  of  DCSPER  wrote  a  note  saying  "This  is  the  most  insightfial  three 
page  paper  I've  yet  seen  in  this  building  (the  Pentagon)  ""*' 

Chaplains  throughout  the  Army  were  dealing  with  ethics  in  their  daily  ministry.  Some, 
particularly  Service  School  Chaplains,  were  involved  with  ethical  matters  on  a  daily  basis.  The 
Mililary  Chaplains  Review  during  the  Johnson  years  continually  published  articles  on  ethics.  In  his 
introduction  to  the  Spring  issue  in  1982,  Chaplain  Johnson  noted  that,  while  proponency  for  ethics 
in  the  Army  was  assigned  to  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff"  for  Personnel,  the  Combined  Arms  Center  also 
provided  leadership  in  this  arena.  Johnson  wrote,  "the  US  Army  Chaplaincy  role  in  the  area  of  ethics 
has  been  and  remains  that  of  providing  resources  and  inputs.""''  Articles  by  many  other  persons 
appeared  in  i\\Q  Military  Chaplains  Review,  including:  Vice  Admiral  James  B.  Stockdale,  Chaplains 
John  W  Brinsfield,  Donald  W.  Gover,  John  A.  Rasmussen,  and  Ross  B.  Jackson. 

Chaplain  Johnson's  personal  interest  in  professional  ethics  included  assigning  chaplains  to 
teach  ethics  throughout  the  Army  One  of  the  Chaplaincy's  most  compelling  lecturers  at  that  time. 
Chaplain  Joseph  H  Beasley,  was  teaching  the  history  of  ethical  and  religious  thought  at  West  Point. 
During  his  nine  years  at  the  Academy,  Chaplain  Beasley  had  developed  introductory  and  advanced 
courses  in  World  History,  the  History  of  Western  Ethics,  the  History  of  Western  Religious  Thought, 
and  the  History  of  Asian  Religions  He  also  was  one  of  the  most  popular  professors  with  both  cadets 
and  colleagues  in  the  Academy's  long  history.  More  than  300  students  signed  up  for  his  lectures  in 
ethics  which  had  to  be  held  in  the  North  Auditorium.  He  had  many  humorous  anecdotes  to  illustrate 
his  lessons.  During  the  serious  investigation  of  a  cheating  scandal  involving  more  than  100  cadets  in 
1976,  he  also  served  as  an  advisor  to  the  faculty  and  cadets  and  later  was  appointed  as  a  member  of 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 

IVest  Point    Chaplain 
Professors : 

Chaplain   Joseph   Beasley 
Associate   Professor 
History  Department 

Chaplain   John    W. 

Asst.    Professor 
History  Department 


the  Superintendent's  Committee  on  Professionalism  and  Ethics.*^ 

When  Chaplain  Joseph  Beasley  announced  his  retirement  as  Associate  Professor  of  World 
History  at  the  US  Military  Academy  in  1980,  Chaplain  Johnson  approved  sending  not  one  but  two 
chaplains  to  replace  him.*"  Chaplain  Loren  Pugh,  a  Presbyterian,  was  already  in  the  History 
Department  at  West  Point  flinctioning  as  the  Course  Director  for  American  History  and  associated 
electives.  Chaplain  Pugh  had  been  named  to  succeed  Beasley,  but  Pugh  decided  that  he  did  not  wish 
to  remain  at  the  Academy  beyond  his  normal  tour.  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield  was  sent  then  from  the 
Chaplain  Advanced  Course  to  replace  Chaplain  Beasley. 

Chaplain  Brinsfield  reported  to  the  US  Military  Academy  in  July  of  1980.  He  was  assigned 
to  the  International  History  Division  to  teach  Worid  History,  under  the  direction  of  a  former  Rhodes 
Scholar  and  distinguished  professor.  Colonel  Paul  L.  Miles.  Brinsfield  eventually  developed  a  popular 
course  on  "The  History  of  the  Ethics  of  Warfare:  From  Plato  to  NATO."  Some  of  his  material  was 
later  introduced  into  the  curriculum  at  the  U.S.  Army  War  College  by  Chaplain  Don  Davidson,  whose 
own  work  and  book  on  the  churches  and  nuclear  deterrence  had  received  national  attention 

At  the  US  Army  Training  and  Doctrine  Command,  Chaplain  Max  Wilk  asked  Chaplain  Henry 
Ackermann  to  develop  a  series  of  workshops  in  teaching  methods  for  chaplains  assigned  as 
instructors  in  service  schools.  Ackermann  designed  workshops  ranging  from  the  strategies  for 
teaching  ethics  to  the  integration  of  audio  visual  support  in  the  classroom 

In  order  to  be  certain  that  chaplain  instructors  modeled  a  Multi-cultural  ministry.  Chaplain 
Johnson  assigned  Chaplain  Janet  Y.  Horton  to  be  the  first  female  facuhy  member  at  the  U.S.  Army 
Chaplain  School.  Chaplain  Horton  worked  for  Chaplain  Thomas  H.  Norton  in  Program  Development. 
Concurrently,  Chaplain  Donna  Weddle  was  assigned  to  teach  ethics  at  the  U.S.  Army  Engineer 
School  at  Fort  Belvoir,  Virginia,  and  in  1 982,  became  the  Chaplaincy's  first  female  chaplain  instructor 
in  an  Army  service  school.*' 

A  new  concern  in  ethics  began  to  arise  in  the  early  1980's  which  focused  on  biomedical  issues. 
In  1978,  Chaplain  Sanford  Dresin  had  introduced  an  elective  course  at  the  Chaplain  School  primarily 
for  chaplains  interested  in  serving  as  hospital  chaplains.  Chaplains  Jim  Travis  and  John  Rasmussen, 
both  in  the  Reserve  Component,  published  articles  on  medical  ethics  from  1980  to  1982  in 
professional  journals  By  the  end  of  1982,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  had  sent  two  chaplains  to  study 
ethics  at  civilian  universities,  one  at  Harvard,  and  one  at  Rice. 

Values  Clarification 

Chaplains  in  Europe  sought  to  meet  the  need  for  moral  and  ethical  training  through  the  Values 
Clarification  program.  The  program  was  officially  called  PET  II  The  University  of  Maryland  had 
received  a  contract  to  develop  lesson  plans  on  values  and  to  provide  five  teams  of  two  civilian 
instructors  each  The  teams  were  required  to  teach  classes  twice  each  week  with  30  students  in  each 
class.  More  than  5,000  soldiers  went  through  these  classes.  '" 

The  Chaplaincy  did  not  endorse  the  so-called  humanist  philosophy  of  those  who  developed 
Values  Clarification,  but  merely  adopted  the  effective  methodology  to  aid  soldiers  in  identifying  their 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


true  values.  The  program  was  criticized  by  conservative  religious  and  political  leaders  as  being  a  form 
of  "secular  humanism  "  They  saw  it  as  a  threat  to  traditional  Christian  values.  Senator  Strom 
Thurmond  of  South  Carolina  was  one  of  those  who  objected  most  strenuously  to  the  program.  He 
objected  to  a  program  that  did  not  distinguish  "moral  from  nonmoral  value  issues,"  and  which  seemed 
to  encourage  ethical  relativism/"  Chaplain  Johnson  was  disturbed  because  the  Chaplaincy  was  being 
attacked  in  the  press  for  teaching  secular  humanism.'*"  He  felt  that  those  who  objected  did  not  know 
what  they  were  talking  about,  but  were  being  misled  by  some  of  their  staff  members.  He  requested 
a  meeting  with  Senator  Thurmond. 

During  their  meeting  at  the  Senate  Office  Building,  Chaplain  Johnson  responded  to  the 
Senator's  questions  and  pointed  out  that  one  reason  the  program  was  chosen  was  because  "it  is  not 
the  role  of  government  to  intervene  in  the  soldier's  political,  religious,  or  social  attitudes."'"  Chaplains 
wanted  a  "noninterventionist"  and  non-prescriptive  way  of  dealing  with  values.  To  teach  one 
religious  viewpoint  in  a  command-sponsored  program  for  all  soldiers  would  be  an  establishment  of 
religion  and,  by  definition,  would  be  unconstitutional    Johnson  concluded  his  response  by  stating: 

Chaplains  will  continue  to  meet  (soldier)  needs  through  the  very  incisive 
ministries  they  have  to  offer,  all  of  which  draw  their  power  and  life-changing 
resources  from  the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  the  Torah  or  Law  of  God,  the  sacraments 
and  ordinances  of  churches  and  denominations,  and  the  simple  love  and  caring  we  can 
offer.  None  of  this  is  done  by  constraint  or  in  violation  of  anyone's  conscience  but  in 
the  atmosphere  of  free  exercise  of  religion.'^ 

The  meeting  concluded  with  the  issue  closed,  to  Chaplain  Johnson's  relief  Interestingly  enough,  the 
same  constitutional  arguments  which  had  justified  the  existence  of  the  Chaplaincy  had  been  used  by 
the  Chief  of  Chaplains  to  protect  the  freedom  of  conscience  for  soldiers. 


Under  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly's  leadership  (1975-1979),  the  need  for  good  preaching  and 
innovative  worship  in  the  Army  had  continued  to  surface.  Attempts  to  meet  this  need  intensified 
when  Chaplain  Johnson  became  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Johnson  had  a  strong  personal  interest  in 
homiletics  as  well  as  the  need  to  meet  the  worship  needs  of  the  military  community  effectively.  It  was 
felt  by  many  chaplains  that  good  preaching  was  seldom  rewarded  by  commanders.  They  wanted  their 
chaplains  out  in  the  field  with  the  troops  and  in  chapels  as  little  as  possible.  Consequently,  preaching 
was  not  a  high  priority  for  many  chaplains  Chaplains  Kelly  and  Johnson  attempted  to  correct  that 
perception  and  to  reward  in  some  way  the  creative  pulpit  talents  of  their  chaplains.  The  officer 
efficiency  report  regulation  was  amended  to  encourage  raters  to  reflect  the  importance  of  preaching. 

Materials  on  homiletics  were  produced  by  the  Chaplain  Board  for  each  of  the  three  major  faith 
groups.  Products  included  preaching  aids,  films,  tapes  of  good  sermons  and  the  distribution  of  texts 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


on  homiletics.  Homiletics  workshops  were  conducted,  particularly  under  the  leadership  of  Chaplain 
Rodger  Venzke,  as  well  as  several  civilian  consuhants/*^  In  1981,  the  Chaplain  Board  conducted 
regional  homiletics  workshops  in  six  CONUS  locations  Moreover,  a  "Homiletics  Strategic  Planning 
Group"  was  convened  in  June  1982  to  determine  problems  and  solutions  in  the  area  of  homiletics  and 
worship  in  the  Army  Chaplaincy.'**' 

Parish  Development 
Family  Life  Ministry  and  Minority  Ministry 

Parish  Development  continued  as  a  major  Chaplaincy  program.  However,  in  1980  a  new- 
model  was  introduced  called  the  "Parish  Development  Training  Program  (PDTP),"  in  which  civilian 
consultants  were  replaced  by  military  chaplains.'"  In  1981,  the  Chaplain  Board  sponsored  three 
Parish  Development  workshops.  Chaplains  conducted  the  programs  and  wrote  the  training  materials. 
The  Chaplain  Board  entitled  the  workshops:  "Leadership  Skills  for  Chapel  Ministry,"  "Management 
by  Objectives  for  Resuhs  for  Chapel  Ministry,"  and  "Empowerment  Skills  for  Chapel  Ministry."''* 

In  1981,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  contracted  with  the  U.S.  Army  Concepts  Analysis  Agency  to 
conduct  a  study  called  "Pre-  and  Post-Marital  Chaplain  Ministry  to  Military  Personnel  and  Korean 
Nationals."'"  The  study  was  designed  to  provide  more  effective  strategies  for  ministering  to  the 
growing  needs  of  Korean  spouses  and  their  husbands. 

In  Europe,  a  Family  Life  Center  was  established  for  every  military  community  having  a  high 
school  By  the  end  of  1980,  Family  Life  Centers  had  been  established  in  Stuttgart,  Nuremberg  and 
Mannheim.  Others  were  planned  to  open  as  resources  became  available'"" 

The  Chaplain  Board,  under  the  leadership  of  Chaplain  Gene  Allen  and  Chaplain  Richard 
Stenbakken,  placed  heavy  emphasis  on  marriage  and  family  life  ministry  in  FY  8 1 .  Chaplain  Board 
staff  personnel  conducted  workshops  and  specialized  training  on  many  Army  installations.  The 
Chaplaincy  also  participated  in  the  Army  Family  Symposium,  held  annually  in  Washington,  DC.  A 
total  of  185  chaplains  were  trained  in  "Understanding  Us."""  This  program  was  designed  to  foster 
understanding  of  families  and  included  a  Theological  Update  and  materials  on  dealing  with  sexism. 
A  family  ministry  update  conducted  by  the  Menninger  Clinic  was  provided  for  chaplains  in  family  life 
ministry.  Additionally,  Chaplain  Thomas  Smith  established  a  pilot  training  program  at  Fort  Knox, 
Kentucky,  combining  civilian  education  and  chaplain  supervision.  This  became  the  model  for  future 
chaplain  training  in  family  life  studies. 

In  1980,  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  contracted  with  Silver  Strands  Systems,  Inc., 
of  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  for  a  special  minority  ministry  workshop.  The  program  "Project 
Milestone"  was  conducted  in  Cleveland,  Ohio.'""  The  project  grew  out  of  the  need  to  develop 
chaplain  skills,  attitudes  and  understanding  in  meeting  the  Multi-cultural  needs  presented  by  soldiers 
in  the  Army  Subjects  discussed  included:  Scales  of  Prejudice,  Racism,  Communication  Barriers, 
Paternalism  and  Sexism.  To  inject  realism  into  the  training,  each  chaplain  participant  lived  with  a 
minority  family  during  the  training.  In  this  way  they  learned  about  the  environment,  the  needs  and  the 
peculiar  circumstances  of  each  family.  These  experiences  were  explored  during  the  sessions  led  by 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


facilitators  from  Silver  Strands.  MACOM  chaplains  ran  similar  experiential  programs  in  their 
commands  Reports  from  MACOMs  indicated  uniformly  positive  results  from  the  training  and  new 
determination  to  work  harder  to  ensure  equal  opportunity  and  treatment  for  all  minorities  and  persons 
from  diverse  cultural  backgrounds 

A  Minority  Ministry  Training  Course  was  conducted  in  Atlanta,  Georgia,  from  24-30  April 
1982.  The  theme  was  "The  Challenge  of  Cultural  Ministry  Amidst  Multi-cultural  Needs."""  This 
training  event  built  upon  the  lessons  learned  and  the  experiences  of  Project  Milestone.  Key  leaders 
in  these  discussions  were  Chaplain  Matthew  A.  Zimmerman,  later  the  18th  Chief  of  Chaplains,  and 
Chaplain  Calvin  H.   Sydnor,  III,  later  the  TRADOC  Staff  Chaplain. 

Chaplaincy  Studies 

The  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  conducted  several  studies  designed  to  enhance  chaplain 
ministry  in  the  Army.  Each  of  these  studies  was  completed  by  different  civilian  contractors.  The  first 
study  "Recruitment,  Retention,  Mobilization  and  Training  of  the  Woman  Chaplain,"  was  completed 
in  FY  1980-81  .'"^  The  study  was  designed  to  address  how  the  woman  chaplain  fits  into  what  had  been 
formerly  a  male-dominated  system.  Because  of  a  high  turnover  rate,  special  emphasis  was  placed  on 
methods  of  recruiting  and  retaining  female  clergy. 

A  second  study,  "Role  of  the  Chaplain  in  Ministry  Related  to  Psycho  genetic  Diseases,"  was 
completed  in  FY  81.""  Special  emphasis  was  being  placed  on  holistic  healing  in  military  as  well  as 
in  civilian  hospitals.  This  study  was  intended  to  develop  methodologies  and  modalities  for  chaplain 
integration  into  the  healing  team. 

The  third  study,  "Social  Aspects  of  Chaplain  Ministry,"  was  completed  during  the  same  time 
frame."*  The  objective  of  the  research  was  to  identity  religious  activities  in  which  soldiers  were  most 
interested.  The  data  was  to  be  used  by  OCCH  to  design  programs  "to  meet  contemporary  religious 
needs  of  soldiers  and  their  families  " 

Chaplain  Candidate  Program 

The  Chaplain  Candidate  Program,  formerly  called  the  Staff  Specialist  or  Seminarian  Program, 
was  changed  in  FY  8 1 .  Prior  to  that  time  the  program  was  fijnded  through  the  Reserve  Personnel 
Army  Budget  Program.  The  change  resulted  in  the  program  being  transferred  to  RPABP  3300,  which 
"allows  for  proper  resources  for  training  and  procurement  of  future  chaplains,""''  The  consequence 
of  this  change  was  that  the  Chaplaincy  was  able  to  enhance  its  procurement  of  candidates,  and 
provide  new  training  programs  which  hitherto  were  not  possible  Of  special  significance  was  the 
option  of  training  at  sites  other  than  the  Chaplain  School,  such  as  military  installations  and  hospitals. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Reflecting  Goals: 
Command  Chaplain  Programs  and  Events 

Throughout  the  major  commands,  senior  chaplains  implemented  the  Chiefs  goals  and 
priorities.  In  Germany,  the  U.  S.  Army  Europe  StafFChaplain's  Office  was  very  busy  with  its  normal 
abundance  of  worship  services,  conferences  and  retreats  for  soldiers  and  family  members.  Two 
family  counseling  workshops  were  held,  one  in  Nuernberg  and  the  other  in  Stuttgart,  to  provide  an 
update  on  techniques  used  in  family  counseling.  In  Berchtesgaden  the  Military  Council  of  Catholic 
Women  held  its  25th  Anniversary  Conference  in  1980.  Since  the  MCCW  was  founded  in  1955, 
approximately  500  women  had  met  each  year  to  share  program  ideas  and  enhance  their  personal 
spiritual  growth.'""  In  soldier  ministry,  some  5,000  troops  went  through  the  PET  II  (Values 
Clarification)  program  to  increase  motivation,  self-image,  and  positive  behavior  traits.  The  target 
audience  was  confined  to  E4  soldiers  and  below 

Chaplain  authorizations  in  USAREUR  went  up  from  298  to  303  positions.  Since  there  were 
only  278  chaplains  assigned,  there  was  a  real  increase  of  24  possible  assignments  Chaplain  Jack 
Ettershank  requested  more  black  and  Hispanic  chaplains  to  meet  a  goal  of  establishing  a  Black  Gospel 
or  Hispanic  worship  service  in  every  major  military  community  in  Europe  '"'^  On  November  16,  1980, 
the  U.  S.  Army  Europe  Roman  Catholic  community  turned  out  in  record  numbers  when  Pope  John 
Paul  conducted  an  evening  Mass  at  Finthen  Army  Airfield.  It  was  estimated  that  approximately 
300,000  persons  attended  the  Papal  Mass.""  Chaplain  John  P.  "Jack"  Ettershank,  who  served  as  VII 
Corps  Chaplain  before  he  became  the  U.S.  Army  Europe  Staff  Chaplain,  was  succeeded  in  the 
summer  of  1981  by  Chaplain  Charles  McDonald  who  continued  the  programs  of  his  talented 
predecessor,  but  with  special  additions  of  his  own. 

At  Headquarters,  U.S.  Training  and  Doctrine  Command,  Chaplain  Max  Wilk,  the  Staff 
Chaplain,  was  given  the  temporary  authority  to  place  chaplains  where  they  were  most  needed, 
without  regard  to  normal  staffing  criteria.'"  During  FY  1981,  authorizations  and  personnel 
distribution  plans  were  changed  at  five  TRADOC  installations  due  to  manpower  shortages.  A  MuUi- 
Ethnic/Cultural  Religious  Education  workshop  was  conducted  by  the  TRADOC  Chaplain  from  June 
15  to  18,  1981,  with  34  chaplains  and  directors  of  religious  education  in  attendance.""  This  workshop 
was  part  of  the  command's  ongoing  programs  to  include  all  personnel  in  the  religious  program.  A 
TRADOC/FORSCOM  training  conference  was  held  from  October  13  to  16,  1981  '"  The  theme  of 
the  Conference  was  "Ministry  in  Combat."  A  lay  sermon  was  delivered  by  General  Donn  Starry,  the 
TRADOC  Commander,  whose  contributions  to  AirLand  Battle  doctrine  had  changed  the  Army. 

The  Military  District  of  Washington  (MDW)  conducted  numerous  religious  services  in 
government  facilities.  Services  were  held  at  the  Pentagon,  the  Harkins  Building,  the  Hoffman  Building 
and  at  Cameron  Station."^  The  Pentagon  Pulpit  Series  featured  nationally  renowned  speakers  at  six 
special  services  each  year.  The  services  were  normally  conducted  on  the  Pentagon  Concourse. 
Eucharistic  lay  ministers  assisted  with  255  daily  masses  at  the  Pentagon,  and  the  Arimatheans  assisted 
with  163  fijneral  masses  in  MDW  chapels  and  at  Arlington  Cemetery."^ 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Mobilization  Planning  and  Coordination 

By  1980,  heavy  stress  was  being  placed  on  mobilization  planning.  The  Army  and  the 
Chaplaincy  recognized  the  need  for  plans,  policies  and  training  for  mobilization  The  Chief  of 
Chaplains  had  nonconcurred  with  the  first  draft  of  the  1980  Department  of  the  Army  Mobilization 
Plan  because  it  placed  the  Chief  under  supervision  of  the  DCSPER  and  made  chaplain  personnel 
management  the  responsibility  of  the  Military  Personnel  Center  (MILPERCEN).'""  The  Army  then 
developed  a  slightly  modified  mobilization  system  and  operational  document  to  which  OCCH 
provided  an  annex  to  explain  how  chaplains  would  be  mobilized.  The  instrument  was  an  evolutionary 
study  that  changed  as  the  Army  and  the  Chaplaincy  gained  more  information  and  experience 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  conducted  a  major  mobilization  conference  from  April  30  to  May  1, 
1981,'"  led  by  Chaplain  Paul  Forsberg  and  Mr  Jim  Barton  fi-om  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Office.  They 
were  joined  by  representatives  fi"om  FORSCOM  and  the  numbered  Armies,  including  the  Army 
Reserve.  The  agenda  focused  on  the  following  topics; 

►  Peace-time  Planning  Documentation 

►  Relationship/Authority/Cross-leveling. 
•■  What  assets  are  available  to  whom? 

»■  Reporting  requirements. 

»■  Who  is  in  charge? 

•■  Equipment  available  and  required. 

►  Handling  problems  of  family  members  residing  in  isolated  areas. 

In  December  1981,  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  sponsored,  and  FORSCOM  hosted, 
the  first  Mobilization  and  Army  Reserve  Chaplain  (MARCH)  Coordinators  Workshop  in  Atlanta, 
Georgia  MARCH  Coordinators  from  all  mobilization  stations,  CONUSAs,  Reserve  regions,  and 
major  commands  attended  The  conference  was  effective  in  providing  guidance,  information,  and 
definitive  instructions  for  mobilization  preparation."*  One  of  the  results  of  the  workshops  was  to 
recommend  that  chaplain  kits  be  issued  rather  than  stocked.  On  May  27,  1982,  the  U.S.  Army 
Equipment  Authorization  Review  Activity  authorized  chaplain  kits  to  be  issued  to  chaplains  upon 
entry  to  active  duty  thereby  precluding  massive  stockpiling  for  mobilization.'" 

Gospel  or  General  Protestant  Services? 

One  issue  which  emerged  in  1980,  and  which  finally  required  a  decision  by  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains  in  1982,  was  whether  Gospel  Services  would  be  continued  in  the  Army.  In  November  of 
1980,  Chaplain  Calvin  H.  Sydnor  III,  then  assigned  to  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  wrote 
a  decision  memorandum  for  Chaplain  Johnson's  consideration.  Chaplain  Sydnor's  recommendation 
was  that  the  name  of  Gospel  Services  be  changed  to  General  Protestant  or  denominational  services.'"" 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Chaplain  Sydnor  had  found  that  it  had  become  routine  for  installation  chaplains  to  assign  "unit  black 
chaplains  to  pastor  the  Gospel  service  program  as  an  additional  duty."'."'  Some  black  chaplains  from 
liturgical  backgrounds.  Episcopalians,  Lutherans,  and  some  Methodists,  did  not  feel  that  a  Gospel 
Service  was  part  of  their  religious  heritage.  They  felt  pressured  to  lead  the  Gospel  Services  merely 
because  of  their  race  Others  wanted  to  be  involved  with  Gospel  Services  exclusively  to  the  detriment 
of  other  programs.  In  both  cases,  the  title  "Gospel  Service,"  in  Chaplain  Sydnor' s  opinion,  tended 
to  be  "divisive  and  separatist."'" 

In  September  of  1981,  a  Gospel  Service  Conference  was  held  in  Atlanta,  Georgia,  for  military 
chaplains.  The  Conference  was  attended  by  chaplains  representing  DACH  and  various  commands 
in  the  Army  including  FORSCOM,  TRADOC,  and  U.S.  Army  Europe.  After  due  deliberation,  a 
Conference  committee  recommended  to  Chaplain  Johnson  that  "Gospel  Services  be  designated 
General  Protestant,  that  chaplains  who  are  white  be  'tuned  up'  to  participate  in  and  conduct  Gospel 
Services,  and  that  all  chaplains  be  reminded  of  their  care  for  all  soldiers  and  their  families  regardless 
of  race."'-' 

After  more  discussion.  Chaplain  Johnson  issued  his  decision  on  March  18,  1982.  He 
continued  with  the  name  "Gospel  Services,"  but  directed  installation  chaplains  to  staff"  and  support 
them  fairly  Chaplain  Johnson  wrote  the  following  concerning  the  recommendations  of  the  Gospel 
Service  Conference  of  1981,  "I  have  followed  the  recommendation  that  Gospel  Services,  led  by 
chaplains,  should  have  equal  scheduling  and  financial  support  as  any  other  General  Protestant  service. 
This  is  a  decision."'"^  Chaplain  Johnson  believed  that  Gospel  Services  were  meeting  a  need  and 
should  remain  an  option  for  soldiers  in  the  Army.  Thereafter  a  number  of  chaplains  without  regard 
to  race  did  sponsor,  though  not  always  lead.  Gospel  Services. 

The  Air  Florida  Crash  :  Defining  Religious  Support  by  Example 

If  some  chaplains,  in  light  of  the  Constitutionality  Case,  were  questioning  what  role  they 
would  play  in  future  ministry,  there  was  no  identity  crisis  in  1982  for  the  chaplains  at  Fort  Belvoir, 
Virginia  At  four  o'clock  on  Wednesday  afternoon,  January  13th,  Air  Florida  Flight  90,  with  79 
persons  on  board,  crashed  into  the  Potomac  River.  Even  though  the  twin-engine  Boeing  737  had 
been  de-iced  continuously  while  awaiting  takeoff"  from  Washington's  National  Airport,  it  did  not 
achieve  enough  thrust  from  its  engines  to  remain  in  the  air.  As  the  jet  left  Runway  36,  it  failed  to 
climb  quickly  enough  The  landing  gear  hit  five  cars,  crushing  four  of  them,  on  the  northbound  span 
of  the  14th  Street  Bridge  between  the  Pentagon  and  the  Jefferson  Memorial.'"'  The  jetliner  rolled 
over  nose  first,  knocking  out  a  chunk  of  the  bridge,  and  burst  into  flames  as  the  fijselage  began 
settling  into  20  feet  of  water.  The  accident  was  over  in  8  seconds  '""'  Four  people  on  the  bridge 
were  killed  and  four  others  injured  as  cars  were  smashed  and  toppled  into  the  river  Seventy  ticketed 
passengers,  three  infants,  one  Air  Florida  employee,  and  five  crew  members  were  on  the  plane. '"^ 

Among  the  first  agencies  to  respond  were  the  Metropolitan  Police,  the  Coast  Guard,  the  Park 
Police,  and  by  special  request,  the  902nd  Engineer  Company  from  Fort  Belvoir  Army,  Navy  and 
Coast  Guard  divers  were  summoned  to  help  recover  victims  and  (hopefully)  survivors.  As  the  first 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


helicopters  began  circling  the  area,  pilot  Donald  W.  Usher,  a  Vietnam  veteran,  noticed  a  man  in  the 
water  pushing  people  to  safety.  "That  guy  was  amazing  .I've  never  seen  that  kind  of  guts  He 
decided  that  the  women  and  the  men  who  were  bleeding  needed  to  get  out  before  him,  and  even  as 
he  was  going  under  he  stuck  to  his  decision,  "  ME.  "Gene"  Windsor,  a  paramedic  aboard  Usher's 
helicopter,  told  reporters  '""  The  hero,  one  of  many,  was  Arland  Williams,  46,  from  Georgia.  He 
saved  four  others  before  he  disappeared  into  the  water,  a  victim  of  hypothermia.''' 

Chaplain  Donna  Weddle,  the  Assistant  Brigade  Chaplain  for  the  Engineer  Brigade  at  Fort 
Belvoir,  was  in  the  tield  at  Fort  A  P  Hill  with  three  of  her  five  battalions  when  the  accident  happened. 
Requested  by  her  commander  to  accompany  elements  of  the  15th  Combat  Support  Hospital  to  the 
site  to  provide  medical  and  counseling  support  for  the  military  divers  and  rescue  personnel.  Chaplain 
Weddle  tlew  back  to  Davidson  Army  Airfield  at  Fort  Belvoir  and  then  drove  her  car  to  the  bridge.'^" 

The  Metropolitan  Police  Chaplain,  the  first  clergy  person  to  reach  the  accident,  remained  at 
the  site  for  12  hours  before  retiring  to  rest  The  temperature  was  between  7  and  10  degrees  above 
zero,  the  visibility  in  the  water  not  more  than  1 8  inches  Chaplain  Weddle,  who  had  to  repel  down 
a  rope  fi"om  the  bridge  to  reach  the  tactical  operations  center  (TOC),  was  the  first  and  only  military 
chaplain  to  be  continuously  on  the  site  for  the  9-day  recovery  operation. 

Of  the  79  passengers  on  board  Flight  909,  only  five  survived.  Most  of  the  others  were  still 
strapped  in  their  seats  below  water  in  the  wreck  of  the  aircraft  The  military  divers  had  to  locate 
many  of  them  by  touch  in  the  murky  darkness  Chaplain  Weddle  took  a  rubber  raft  out  to  the  diving 
platforms  where  she  gave  instant  encouragement  and  spiritual  support  to  the  young  divers  as  they 
brought  the  bodies,  men,  women  and  infants  to  the  surface.'^' 

After  a  few  dives,  the  military  divers  would  go  to  a  warming  tent  to  get  coffee  before 
resuming  operations.  The  doctors  felt  it  was  important  for  the  divers  to  discuss  their  feelings 
immediately,  lest  they  be  overcome  with  emotional  fatigue  in  the  extremely  dangerous  water. 
Chaplain  Weddle  accompanied  the  divers  and  other  rescue  personnel  and  helped  them  process  their 
feelings  Since  the  water  was  so  cold,  most  of  the  bodies  were  preserved  with  blood  frozen  near 
wounds.  For  the  Vietnam  veterans  the  condition  of  the  bodies  sometimes  brought  flashbacks  to  their 
war-time  experiences  Chaplain  Weddle's  ministry  was  even  more  important  for  them — to  prevent 
reactions  which  might  immobilize  them 

To  help  Chaplain  Weddle  maintain  her  own  spiritual  and  physical  strength.  Navy  Chaplain 
Lawrence  A.  Shoberg,  a  clinically  trained  hospital  chaplain,  met  with  Donna  periodically  before  she 
went  back  to  the  diving  platforms  "It  was  great  to  have  him  there,"  Chaplain  Weddle  recalled,  "he 
was  an  excellent  person  to  talk  to."'^" 

On  the  second  day  of  the  recovery  operation.  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson,  the  Army  Chief  of 
Chaplains,  called  Chaplain  Weddle  at  the  TOC  to  see  if  she  needed  any  help.  Chaplain  Weddle  was 
working  with  some  patients  when  she  got  a  message  that  Chaplain  Johnson  was  on  the  telephone. 
She  called  back,  "Tell  him  I'm  too  busy  doing  ministry.  I'll  call  him  when  I  can.  He'll  understand.  "'^^ 
An  hour  later  Chaplain  Weddle  returned  the  Chiefs  call.  "Whoever  would  have  thought  that  you 
would  be  in  that  situation,"  Chaplain  Johnson  said  to  his  fellow  Presbyterian  chaplain  and  colleague. 
"But  Sir,  if  not  here,  surely  I'd  be  doing  ministry  somewhere,    this  is  what  we  are  trained  for," 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Chaplain  Weddle  replied. 

After  nine  days  all  of  the  bodies  were  recovered  and  the  operation  was  over.  Seventy-nine 
people  had  lost  their  lives.  The  memorial  Service  was  conducted  on  Super  Bowl  Sunday  by  Chaplain 
Weddle  and  Chaplain  John  L.  Blake,  the  Roman  Catholic  Chaplain  from  Fort  Belvoir.  Some  1 70  of 
the  200  men  and  women  on  the  rescue  team  met  in  a  GP  tent  for  the  service.  The  Salvation  Army 
provided  music  as  it  alluded  the  people  who  had  died  and  gave  thanks  for  those  who  had  lived 
through  the  terrifying  ordeal 

At  the  Pentagon,  Chaplain  Johnson  and  his  staff  were  very  proud  of  the  tasks  Chaplain 
Weddle  had  assumed  and  performed  in  such  a  stellar  manner  They  were  equally  proud  of  the  other 
chaplains  and  chapel  activity  specialists  from  Fort  Belvoir  who  had  helped  cover  the  Engineer 
Brigade,  spread  out  from  Fort  A. P.  Hill  to  the  Potomac  River  In  the  midst  of  mass  casualties, 
chaplains  had  gone  to  the  edge  of  death  to  reaffirm,  with  noteworthy  courage,  the  power  of  life,  faith, 
compassion,  and  teamwork.  They  had  made  a  difference. 

Breaking  Out  of  the  Box:  Response  of  a  Soul  to  God 

Patriotism  is  not  limited  to  those  in  the  miUtary  sen'ices,  however.  I  haw  been  impressed 
by  persons  who  work  for  a  better  country  by  drawing  attention  to  the  lawlessness  of  our  nation.../ 
likewise  marwl  at  the  many  gifted  people  who  up  the  lucrative  rewards  dispensed  by  the 
military  -  industrial  -  scientific  -  academic  -  complex  working  instead  for  pittance  and  principle. 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Kermit  Johnson 

USA  Retired 

Realism  and  Hope  in  a  Nuclear  Age  ( 1 988) 

During  the  winter  of  1981  and  the  spring  of  1982,  security  problems  in  the  Western 
Hemisphere  and  in  Western  Europe  received  increased  attention  Factional  strife  in  El  Salvador, 
tensions  between  Nicaragua  and  Honduras,  and  Russian  and  Cuban  intervention  in  the  region,  either 
direct  or  by  proxy,  created  a  threat  that  required  a  sharpening  of  regional  priorities  and  an  allocation 
of  appropriate  resources  '^^  Helicopters,  trucks,  weapons,  and  communications  equipment  were 
dispatched  to  El  Salvador  under  the  Foreign  Military  Sales  Program.  U.S.  military  teams  were  sent 
to  help  the  government  of  El  Salvador  develop  a  national  military  strategy,  and  training  was  provided 
by  the  U.S.  Army,  both  in  El  Salvador  and  at  the  School  of  the  Americas  in  Panama,  to  assist  the 
government's  efforts  to  deal  with  escalating  insurgency.'"  In  Europe  the  Army  deployed  three 
battalions  of  Abrams  M-1  tanks,  new  Bradley  Fighting  Vehicles,  Stinger  missiles,  and  the  first  UH-60 
Blackhawk  helicopters.  Plans  for  the  deployment  of  additional  nuclear  missiles  in  Germany  and  in 
other  NATO  countries  were  underway.  USAREUR's  capability  to  accommodate  reinforcements  from 
the  United  States  was  improved  with  the  pre-positioning  of  a  fourth  division  set  of  equipment.'^* 

Not  all  of  these  developments  went  unnoticed  by  critics  of  American  defense  policy.  Since 
1977,  a  civil  war  involving  more  than  17,000  Popular  Revolutionary  Bloc  insurgents,  mainly  peasants, 
Roman  Catholic  priests,  workers  and  students,  had  sparked  periodic  violence  and  guerrilla  activity 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


against  the  government  of  El  Salvador.  '"  Scores  of  nuns  and  priests,  including  Archbishop  Oscar 
Romero  in  1980,  had  been  murdered  for  what  Chaplain  Johnson  saw  as  their  pastoral  and  prophetic 
stance  in  identifying  with  the  poor  and  advocating  justice  and  reconciliation.  "Priests  in  El  Salvador, 
as  throughout  Latin  America,  were  greatly  influenced  by  liberation  theology,"  Chaplain  Johnson 
noted,  "and  more  specifically,  negotiated  settlement  was  seen  as  treasonous  support  for  the  enemy. 
Not  until  very  late  in  the  game  when  elements  of  the  Salvadoran  Army  (but  not  all)  and  the  U.S.  were 
convinced  they  could  not  militarily  defeat  the  FMLN — was  there  any  change  in  this  position — and 
then,  only  begrudgingly  """ 

Some  Protestant  and  Roman  Catholic  missionaries  from  the  United  States  alleged  that  the 
United  States  Army  was  training  and  equipping  government  soldiers  who,  in  turn,  terrorized  their 
own  people.  These  charges  related  not  only  to  the  government  of  El  Salvador  but  to  Guatemala  and 
Honduras  as  well.  "'^  The  Mary  Knoll  Catholic  missionaries  from  New  York  reported  the  gruesome 

Archbishop  Oscar  Romero  was  assassinated  on  March  24,  1980  while  celebrating 
Mass  in  San  Salvador  On  Dec  2.,  1980,  two  Mary  Knoll  sisters,  a  Mary  Knoll  lay 
associate  and  an  Ursuline  sister  were  murdered.  Later  six  Jesuits,  their  housekeeper 
and  her  daughter  were  taken  from  their  houses  and  shot  on  the  grounds  of  the 
University  of  Central  America  in  San  Salvador.  Each  of  these  murders  involved 
soldiers  trained  at  the  School  of  the  Americas  run  by  the  U.S.  Military.  In  the  past 
40  years,  over  57,000  soldiers  have  trained  there,  some  of  whom  have  committed 
assassinations,  coups  and  massacres  in  El  Salvador,  Guatemala,  Honduras,  Argentina, 
Columbia  and  Peru.  '^° 

In  March  of  1982,  in  response  to  moral  critiques  of  U.S.  military  policy  which  had  appeared 
in  the  press.  General  Edward  C.  Meyer,  Chief  of  StaflFof  the  U.S.  Army,  asked  his  staff  for  a  paper 
on  the  moral  issues  related  to  nuclear  war  and  to  the  conflict  in  El  Salvador.  '^'  In  view  of  his  many 
qualifications.  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson  received  the  task.  As  a  graduate  of  the  U.S.  Military 
Academy,  where  the  strategy  had  been  practiced  for  decades.  Chaplain  Johnson  knew  that  if  he 
wanted  to  challenge  a  commanders's  policy  without  direct  confrontation,  one  asked  very  pointed 
questions  which  could  lead  to  uncomfortable  but  honest  conclusions.  "I  figured  the  best  way  to  raise 
issues  was  by  submitting  Socratic  questions  in  the  context  of  Just  War  criteria,"  Chaplain  Johnson 
wrote,  "but  when  this  paper  reached  the  Office  of  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Operations,  (Lt  Gen. 
William  Richardson),  it  angered  his  "Iron  Majors."'^" 

In  his  Memorandum  to  the  Chief  of  Staff,  "Subject:  Moral  Issues  of  Nuclear  War  and  of 
Conflict  in  El  Salvador,'"^'  Johnson  outlined  four  traditional  positions  regarding  war: 

►  The  Pacifist  Position  (no  war) 

•■  The  Crusade  Position  (holy  war) 

►  Just  War  (prevailing  Christian  position) 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


►  The  Nuclear  Pacifist  (new  position  on  use  of  nuclear  weapons) 

His  treatise  dealt  mostly  with  Nuclear  Pacifism  and  indiscriminate  killing  His  memorandum  was 
"obviously  intended  to  raise  the  consciousness  of  the  Chief  of  Staff"  of  the  Army  and  others  to  the 
ferment  in  churches  and  elsewhere  over  nuclear  policy  and  El  Salvador  " 

Johnson's  Memorandum  contained  statements  by  numerous  ecclesiastical  dignitaries  and  other 
national  leaders  In  Tab  C,  he  raised  numerous  questions  about  El  Salvador.  Each  question  was 
related  to  one  of  the  conditions  of  the  just  war  theory  (Justifiable  Cause,  Legitimate  Authority,  Just 
Intentions,  Public  Declaration  of  Causes  and  Intentions,  Reasonable  Possibility  of  Success,  Due 
Proportion,  Last  Resort,  and  Just  Means).  It  was  clear  that  he  did  not  feel  that  the  El  Salvador 
operation  met  these  criteria 

Chaplain  Johnson  also  was  particularly  incensed  when  the  United  States  started  to  train  El 
Salvador  soldiers  in  the  United  States  He  was  concerned  because  it  "would  only  help  soldiers  to  kill 
people  more  effectively."  He  was  also  angered  that  Salvadoran  soldiers  had  "killed  Archbishop 
Romero  "  Romero  was  an  outspoken  advocate  of  liberation  theology  and  the  revolution  of  the  poor 
and  disenfranchised.  Chaplain  Johnson  said  he  could  not  close  his  eyes  to  the  issues,  and,  as  a  result, 
he  and  the  Director  of  the  Army  Staff",  Lieutenant  General  James  Lee,  "went  head  to  head  '"'^^ 

These  staff" officers  let  it  be  known  that  not  only  was  Chaplain  Johnson  out  of  his  element,  but 
he  was  playing  in  left  field  To  question  the  results  of  high-level  Administration  policy,  for  which  the 
Army  was  but  the  action  agency,  was  not  in  the  Army  's  ballpark  '^'  In  his  March  3 1  memorandum. 
Chaplain  Johnson  wrote  to  General  Meyer  on  the  nuclear  issue,  "Religious  leaders,  together  with 
laity,  believe  they  are  struggling  with  issues  of  life  and  death,  perhaps  on  a  'last  chance'  basis  for  a 
human  civilization.  Thus,  cavalier  and  caustic  comments.,  (by  administration  officials)  are  bound  to 
be  regarded  as  insensitive  evasions  of  the  moral  issues  at  hand."'^''  General  Richardson  agreed  these 
issues  should  be  faced,  and  asked  his  staff" to  reconsider  Chaplain  Johnson's  paper 

Over  the  course  of  Chaplain  Johnson's  Army  career  he  had  undertaken  what  was,  in  eflFect, 
a  pilgrimage  of  moral  leadership  From  "grass  roots"  issues  of  morality,  relating  to  interpersonal 
integrity,  to  mega-ethics,  why  policies  which  hold  50  million  people  hostage  to  a  threatened  nuclear 
attack  might  also  be  wrong.  Chaplain  Johnson  had  moved  from  being  the  Army's  Ethicist  to  becoming 
the  Army's  Moral  Theologian.  '^' 

The  issues  which  he  overlooked  or  ignored  as  a  major  could  not  be  overlooked  or  ignored 
as  a  major  general  Chaplain  Johnson  reflected,  "...even  if  we  want  to  crawl  in  a  foxhole  to  get  out 
of  this  field  of  Macroethics,  some  sensitive,  deeply  committed  Roman  Catholic  Christian  like  General 
Meyer  will  come  along  and  tap  you  on  the  shoulder  and  ask  you  to  get  involved."  '^^ 

In  his  heart-of-hearts.  Chaplain  Johnson  did  not  embrace  the  role  of  a  prophet  glibly.  He 
knew  that  professional  loyalty  strictly  prescribed  what  comments  he  could  make  as  Chief  of 
Chaplains.  Because  he  so  strongly  and  honestly  disagreed  with  the  policies  of  the  Reagan 
Administration,  not  only  in  Latin  America  and  in  Europe  but  in  addressing  issues  of  poverty  and  the 
environment  in  the  United  States,  he  was  "boxed  in"  by  the  conflict  between  his  role  as  a  prophetic 
ethicist  and  his  role  as  Chief  of  Chaplains 

Chaplain  Johnson  fully  understood  where  such  role  conflicts  could  lead    He  had  written  a 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


study  of  that  exact  subject  while  a  student  at  the  Command  General  Staff  College  in  1969.  Yet,  as 
early  as  January  1982,  Chaplain  Johnson  sent  a  personal  note  to  General  Meyer  describing  his 
discomfort  at  remaining  solely  inside  the  pastoral  role  "box",  when  his  calling  to  speak  prophetically 
outside  the  "box"  was  so  strong.  "Even  though  much  of  my  work  is  inside  the  [pastoral]  box  and  I 
consider  it  to  be  important  ..increasingly  I  am  seeing  the  impossibility  of  taking  such  a 
compartmentalized  view  I  cannot  content  myself  with  only  looking  inside  the  "box  "'""''  Chaplain 
Johnson  was  concerned  not  only  with  people  within  institutions,  but  with  the  policies  of  those 

Ironically,  Chaplain  Johnson's  views  on  the  evils  of  supporting,  even  unintentionally.  Central 
American  death  squads  or  his  views  on  the  impossibility  of  waging  a  just  war  with  nuclear  weapons 
were  neither  totally  radical  nor  completely  new  to  the  military.  Other  general  officers  had  made 
similar  statements,  though  usually  in  retirement.  ''" 

When  Chaplain  Johnson  wrote  to  General  Meyer  that  1  )"In  no  way  could  a  strategic  nuclear 
war  be  considered  a  just  war,"  and  2)  "people  of  the  third  and  fourth  world,  who  1  believe  would 
rather  not  identify  with  communism,  are  nudged  that  way  by  our  cold  shoulder,  "  he  was  being  neither 
disloyal  nor  unprofessional  '^'  Given  the  fixed  mind-set  of  some  of  his  associates  at  the  Pentagon, 
however.  Chaplain  Johnson  knew  that  his  opinions  were  unfashionable  and  that  he  was  increasingly 
being  perceived  as  "out  of  step"  with  the  Army  and  with  many  of  the  senior  leaders  in  the  Chaplaincy 
who  totally  supported  the  policies  of  President  Reagan  as  the  surest  and  strongest  deterrence  to  "the 
evil  empire"  of  Communism 

Faced  with  his  own  "inner  struggles"  but  confident  that  his  "widening  awareness"  was  of  God, 
Chaplain  Johnson  announced  in  May  that  he  would  retire  on  June  30,  1982,  one  year  before  the 
conclusion  of  his  four-year  term  as  Chief  of  Chaplains.""  His  role  conflict  between  loyalty  to  an 
institution  he  had  served  for  35  years,  and  the  liberty  to  speak  out  in  prophetic  love  to  make  that 
institution  even  better,  was  resolved. 

Many  of  the  senior  chaplains  did  not  understand  what  Chaplain  Johnson  was  doing,  hence 
they  could  not  appreciate  his  wrestling  with  his  own  conscience  and  with  his  own  loyalties  At  his 
retirement,  however,  his  close  friend  and  former  classmate  at  West  Point,  General  Edward  C.  "Shy" 
Meyer  presented  Chaplain  Johnson  with  the  Distinguished  Service  Medal  for  outstanding  service  in 
two  wars  and  for  his  leadership  at  every  echelon  of  the  Army,  to  include  service  as  the  1 5th  Chief  of 
Army  Chaplains 

From  1983  to  1986  Chaplain  Johnson  served  as  Associate  Director  of  the  non-governmental 
Center  for  Defense  Information  in  Washington  Thereafter  he  served  as  a  member  of  the  Central 
America  Working  Group  in  the  Washington  Office  of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  USA. 

On  April  3,  1995,  The  Washing/on  limes  reported  a  series  of  charges  against  CIA-  supported 
Central  American  Army  officers  for  killing  more  than  100,000  people  "in  the  early  80s"  in  Guatemala. 
Other  news  stories  in  1994-1995  included  investigations  into  the  conduct  of  24  officers  in  El  Salvador 
charged  with  murder  and  assassination  during  the  period  1980  to  1 989.  All  were  allegedly  graduates 
of  the  U.S.  Army's  School  of  the  Americas.'" 

In  May  of  1995,  as  the  Keynote  Speaker  at  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Unit  Ministry  Team 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Conference  in  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  Chaplain  Johnson  received  a  warm  welcome  and  a  standing 
ovation  from  more  than  300  of  his  fellow  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  and  directors  of  religious 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 



1  Henry  Steele  Commager,  Pocket  History  of  the  United  States,  (New  York:  Pocket  Books, 
1992),  p.614. 

2  I  hid 

3  Leonard  Y    Brown,  ed..  Department  of  the  Army  Historical  Summary  FY  1980,  p. 3, 
4.  Henry  Steele  Commager,  Op.  cil.,  p. 621. 

5    Ibid,  p. 634. 

6.  Christine  O.  Handyman,  ed..  Department  of  the  Army  Historical  Summary,  FY  1982,  p. 3. 

7.  (J.  S.  News  and  World  Report,  October  25,  1993,  p.54. 
8    OCCn,  Annual  Historical  RevieM;  FY  79,  pp  4-5. 

9.  Ibid,  p.6. 

10.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen  )  Kermit  Johnson,  November  10,  1993. 

1 1.  Personal  Papers  of  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Kermit  Johnson,  "Summary  of  Objectives,  Activities, 
Emphases  while  at  FORSCOM,"  p.  1    Chaplain  Johnson  retained  his  personal  papers  in  his 
possession  after  kindly  making  them  available  for  this  study. 

\2  Ibid 

13.  Military  Chaplains  Review,  Fall  1981,  p. 2. 

14.  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  79,  pp  31-32. 

15.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj  Gen.)  Kermit  Johnson,  November  10,  1993. 
16  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  70,  p  36 

17.  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  80,  p. 7. 

18.  Letter  fi"om  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen  )  Kermit  Johnson  to  the  Most  Reverend  Joseph  T.  Ryan, 
Coadjutor  Archbishop,  July  16,  1981    Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

19  Lenwood  Y    Brown,  ed.,  DA  Historical  Summaiy,  FY  80,  p.  132 

20.  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  80,  p.  16. 


21.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj  Gen  )  Kermit  Johnson,  November  10,  1993 

22.  Letter  from  Vice  President  Walter  F.  Mondale,  March  1,  1982,  in  the  Personal  Papers  of 
Chaplain  Johnson. 

23  See  Israel  Drazin  and  Cecil  B    Currey,  For  God  and  Country  (Hoboken,  New  Jersey:  KTAV 
Publishing  House,  1955)  pp. 1-3. 

24.  The  Harvard  Crimson,  November  1,  1979,  pi     At  the  time  Harvard  Law  students  filed  their 
case,  the  Massachusetts  Supreme  Court  was  deciding  an  issue  of  prayer  in  public  schools. 

25.  Stephen  R.   Latham,  "Law  Students  File  Suit  Against  Army,"  The  Han'ard Crimson, 
November  30,  1979,  p.l. 

26.  Letter  from  Joel  Katcoff  to  Ms  Cindee  M  Brinsfield,  April  6,  1995.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain 
Corps  Archives. 

27.  Michael  Smith,  "3L's  Attack  U.  S.  Army  for  Employing  Chaplains,"  Harvard  Law  Record, 
December  7,  1979,  p. 3. 

28  Stephen  R    Latham,  The  Han'ard  Crimson,  November  30,  1979,  p  8. 

29.  Michael  Smith,  Harvard Liw  Record,  December  7,  1979,  p. 3. 

30.  United  Slates  District  Court  for  the  Fxistern  District  Court  of  New  York,  Joel  Katcoff  and 
Allen  M.  Wieder,  Plaintiffs,  against  Clifford  L  Alexander,  Jr.,  Secretary  of  the  Army,  and  the 
Department  of  Defense,  Defendants.  Civil  Action  79C  2986,  November  23,  1979. 


32. /A/a'.,  p. 8 


34.  Interrogatories  and  Request  for  Production  of  Documents,"  November  23,  1979,  p  10    Copy 
in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives 

35.  "Memorandum  of  Law  in  Support  of  Defendants'  Motion  to  Dismiss  or  in  the  Alternative,  -for 
Summary  Judgment,"  January  12,  1980. 

26.  Ibid.,  pp  20,21 


38.  Ibid.,  p.30. 


39  Ibid.  Justice  Stewart  in  his  dissent  in  Abington  School  District  v.  Schempp,  argued  in  favor  of 
the  complementary  nature  of  the  two  clauses. 

40  Ibid^  p.49flF. 

41 .  Ibid.,  p  62.  Lemon,  "First,  the  statute  must  have  a  secular  legislative  purpose;  second,  its 
principal  or  primary  effect  must  be  one  that  neither  advances  nor  inhibits  religion  ...  finally,  the 
statute  must  not  foster  'an  excessive  government  entanglement  with  religion'." 

42  Ibid,  p.63flF. 

43  Israel  Drazin  and  Cecil  B    Currey,  For  God  and  Country  (Hoboken,  New  Jersey;  KTAV 
Publishing  House,  1995),  p. 67 

44  Active  duty  participants  at  the  Manressa  Conference  included:  Chaplain  (Col  )  Douglas  Jones, 
USAF,  Chaplain  (Col  )  Charles  Kriete,  Army  War  College,  Chaplain  (Col  )  Richard  Tupy, 
Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School;  Chaplain  (Col.)  Edward  Christopher,  Fort  Ord,  Chaplain 
(Col )  Harold  Lamm,  Armed  Forces  Chaplain  Board,  Chaplain  (Col  )  John  Deveaux,  DARCOM; 
Chaplain  (Col  )  Richard  Martin,  Fort  Myer,  Chaplain  (Col.)  Ivan  Ives,  DACH,  Chaplain  (Col  ) 
John  Scott,  DACH,  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col  )  Wayne  Kuehne,  DACH;  Chaplain  (Lt  Col )  Rodger 
Venzke,  Army  Chaplain  Board;  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  Ronald  Bezanson,  DARCOM;  Chaplain 
(Maj.)  Herman  Keizer,  Chaplain  School;  Chaplain  (Maj  )  Richard  Goellen,  TRADOC, 
Chapiain(Maj.)  Sanford  Dresin,  DACH;  Chaplain  (Capt)  John  Brinsfield,  USMA.  Mrs.  Lee 
Cherepes,  secretary  in  Plans,  Programs  and  Policies,  was  recording  secretary. 

45  Letter,  DACH-PPZ-A,  January  16,  1981    Signed  by  Chaplain  (Maj  Gen.)  Kermit  D. 

46  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen  )  Kermit  Johnson,  letter  to  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Brinsfield  (with  notes), 
June  22,  1995. 

47  Ibid 

48.  Personal  interview  with  Major  General  Michael  J.  Nardotti,  Jr.,  The  Judge  Advocate  General 
of  the  Army,  March  20,  1995 

49  Ibid 

50  The  General's  comments  are  in  the  U    S.  District  Court,  Eastern  District  of  New  York, 
Statutory  Appendix,  pp  212-262.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives 

51  "Memorandum  and  Order"  February  1,  1984  (Judge  McLaughlin)    Copy  in  the  Chaplain 
Corps  Archives. 


52.  Ibid.,  p.2. 


54  Ibid,  p  24. 

55.  Ibid.,  pp. 33-35. 

56.  "Decided"  United  States  Court  of  Appeals  for  the  Second  Circuit,  January  22,  1985. 

57.  Ibid,  p.23. 

58.  Ibid 

59.  Ibid,  p.24. 

60.  Ibid.  p.27. 
6\.Ibid,  p.28 

62.  Ibid,  p.29. 

63.  Ibid.,  p.31. 

64.  Ibid,  p.32. 

65  DAJA,  "Final  Dismissal  of  Constitutional  Challenge  to  Army  Chaplaincy  --  IIVFORMATION 
MEMORANDUM"  February  7,  1986. 

66.  Ros/ker  v    Goldberg  {453  US  57),  June  1,  1981 

67 .  John  Garth  Murray,  et.  Al„v.  Azie  Taylor  Morton,  et.  o/.,  Civil  Action  No.  80-1475, 

68.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  Annual  Historical  Review,  October  1,  1980  -  September  30,  1981, 
HQDA,  Washington,  DC,  p  8 

69  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  8 1,  p  9. 

70.  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  82,  p  14. 

71   Karl  E    Cocke,  ed.,  DA  Historical  Summary,  FY  82,  p  55    Copy  in  the  Center  of  Military 

72.  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1980-81,  p  28 


73.  Ch\ef  of  Chap\ams  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  May  1,  1982,  p.  13. 

74.  Karl  E.  Cocke,  Op.  at.,  p  56. 

75.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Kermit  Johnson,  November  10,  1993. 

76.  Ibid. 

77.  U.  S.  Army  War  College  Directive,  Academic  Year  1975,  pp  10-1 1 .  The  Directive  was  a 
course  overview  for  students. 

78.  Chaplaincy,  vol    1,  pp  1 7-27. 

79  Chaplain  Johnson  to  Dr.  Dyck,  October  13,  1973,  p.  1 .  The  Johnson  Papers. 

80.  JhiJ. 

S\  Ibid,  p.2. 

82.  Letter,  Lieutenant  General  A.  J.  Goodpaster,  to  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson,  December  30, 

83  MEMORANDUM  FOR  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff,  Personnel,  SUBJECT:  "Integrating 
Values/Ethics  into  the  Army,"  March  1 8,  1 982,  from  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson. 

84  Ibid 

85.  Handwritten  note  from  Brigadier  General  Mitchell,  March  29,  1982. 

86  Military  Chaplains '  Review,  Spring  1982,  p. v. 

87  John  W    Brinsfield,  Developing  a  Ministry  of  Teaching  the  History  of  Ethics  and  World 
Religions  at  the  United  States  Militaiy  Academy,  West  Point,  New  York,  (Madison,  New  Jersey,: 
Drew  University  D.  Min.  Project,  1983)  pp.  18-36. 

88.  Another  outstanding  chaplain  assigned  to  West  Point  during  the  early  1980's  was  Chaplain 
Marc  A.  Abramowitz  who  led  the  successfijl  effort  to  build  the  Jewish  Chapel  there. 

89.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  Tom  Norton,  U.   S.  Army  War  College,  December  1,  1994; 
Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Donna  Weddle,  December  12,  1994. 

90.  HQ.,  USAREUR  and  Seventh  Army  Annual  Review,  1979-1980,  p.483. 

9 1 .  Congressional  Record,  p.  1 45 1 . 


92.  Oral  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj  Gen  )  Kermit  D    Johnson,  November  10,  1993,  see  also 
Kermit  Johnson,  "Macroethics  and  the  Dilemmas  of  Advising,"  Speech  at  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 
UMT  Conference,  May  23,  1995,  p. 6.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

93 .  Congressional  Record,  p.  1 45 1 . 

94.  //)/J.,  p.l453. 

95.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  ^/»»/(7////.vtoA-/cfl//?<?i7£?M',  October  1,  1981  to  September 
30,  1982,  p.20 

96.  Ibid 

97  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Annual  Historical  Review,  October  1,  1980  to  September  30, 
1981,  p. 35. 

9S  Ibid,  p.33. 

99.  Ibid.,  p.7 

100.  HQ.,  USAREUR  and  Seventh  Army  Annual  Review,  1979-1980,  p. 485. 

101.  Ibid,  p.32. 

102  Project  Milestone  "Action  Ministry  for  Minority  Soldiers  and  Their  Families,"  Silver  Strands 
Systems,  Inc.,  New  Haven  Connecticut,  p.l 

103  Karl  E  Cocke,  ed  ,  Department  of  the  A rttiy  Historical  Summary,  1981-1982,  p  6  flf 

104.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains /4/?«//a////.ytoA'/c'a//?fv/^M',  October  1,  1980  to  September 
30,  1981,  p. 6 

\  05  Ibid 

106.  Ibid,  p.7. 

107  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  October  1,  1980  to  September  30,  1981,  p  21. 

1 08.  USAREUR  and  Seventh  Army  Historical  Review,  FY  1 980,  p. 482. 

109.  Ibid.,  p.484. 

1 10  HQ  USAREUR  and  Seventh  Army  Historical  Review,  1979-1980,  p  485. 

111.  HQ  TRADOC  Chaplain  Semiannual  Historical  Report,  April  1  -  September  30,  1981,  p.l. 


\\2  Ib/d,p.2. 

113.  TRADOC  Chaplain  Semiannual  Historical  Report,  October  1,  1981  to  March  31,  1982,  p.l. 

1 14.  MDW  Chaplain  Annual  Historical  Review,  October  1,  1981  to  September  30,  1982,  p.v-3 

115.  Ibid 

1 16.  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  80,  p.  12. 

117  Chief  of  Chaplains  Annual  Historical  Review,  October  1,  1980  to  September  30,  1981,  p.l  1. 

1 18  Department  of  the  Army  Historical  Summary,  FY  82,  Compiled  by  Karl  E.  Cocke,  et.  al.. 
Center  for  Military  History,  Washington,  DC,  1984,  p. 89 

119  Ronald  S.  Bezanson,  OCCH  Memorandum,  December  28,  1984,  p  4. 

120  Memorandum  dated  November  5,  1980,  File  701-01  (Chaplain  Instruction  File)  "Gospel 
Services"  (81),  National  Archives  Suitland,  Maryland. 

121.//)/t/.,p  1. 


123  Memorandum  dated  November  6,  1981,  File  701-01,  Chaplain  Instruction  File,  "Gospel 
Services,"  National  Archives,  Suitland,  Maryland. 

124  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Kermit  Johnson,  letter  to  Chaplain  (Col.)  Whitfield  M.  McMillan,  HQ, 
USAREUR,  March  18,  1982  in  File  701-01,  "Gospel  Services,"  National  Archives,  Suitland, 

125  Lawrence  Meyer,  "Plane  Hits  Bridge",  The  Washington  Post,  Jan.  14,  1982  ,  p.l. 

126.  Ibid.  ,  Jan   15,  1982,  p.  A6 

127.  Ibid.. 

128    Ibid  ,p.l. 

129.  Mr.  Williams'  body  was  recovered  on  Saturday  ,  January  16,1982.  The  Ariand  D  Williams 
Bridge,  where  the  crash  occurred,  bears  his  name 

130  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col)  Donna  Weddle,  23  March  1995. 

131  Ibid 


132.  Ibid 

133.  Ibid. 

134    Department  of  the  Army  Historical  Summary  for  FY  82,  p  II-6 

135.  Ibid. 

136.  Ibid.,  p.  II-5. 

137.  The  New  York  Times,  77?^  1979  Hammond  Almanac,  (Maplewood,  N.J.:  Hammond 
Almanac,  Inc.,  1978),  p. 564. 

138.  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Kermit  Johnson,  letter  to  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Brinsfield,  June  22, 

139.  Fiona  Neill,  "Guatemalan  military  sent  reeling  by  Washington  murder  allegations,  "The 
Washington  Times,  3  April  1995,  p  A13. 

140.  James  Martin,  "School  of  Assassins,"  America,  10  Dec.  1994,  p. 22. 

141.  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen  )  Kermit  Johnson,  "Macroethics  and  the  Dilemmas  of  Advising,  "Chief 
of  Chaplains  UMT  Conference  Address,  23  May  1995,  p  2.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps 

142.  Ibid. 

143.  File  701-01,  Chaplain  Instruction  Files  (82),  "Moral  Issues,"  National  Archives,  Suitland, 

144.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Kermit  Johnson,  November  10,  1993. 

145.  Ibid 

146.  As  cited  in  Kermit  D  Johnson,  Reahsm  and  Hope  in  a  Nuclear  Age,  (Atlanta:  John  Knox 
Press,  1988),  p.  12 

147.  Kermit  Johnson,  "Macroethics,"  p.  1 

148.  Ibid, p.2. 

1 49.  Kermit  Johnson,  Realism  and  Hope  in  a  Nuclear  Age,  p.  1 09. 

150.  General  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  wrote  in  1947,  "We  need  an  organized  effort  that  will 
remove  war  from  the  category  of  the  inevitable  into  its  proper  position  as  an  evil  subject  to 


prevention."  Dr  Cyril  Falls,  Chichele  Professor  of  the  History  of  War  at  Oxford  University,  said 
in  1949,  "Technology  has  outrun  morality  and  has  put  weapons  of  appalling  character  into  the 
hands  of  statesmen  with  lower  moral  and  mental  equipment  than  some  of  their  predecessors.  The 
best  possible  counter  to  atomic  weapons  would  be  improved  ethics. "  General  Douglas 
MacArthur  told  the  Texas  Legislature  in  195 1 ,  "I  am  a  100  per  cent  disbeliever  in  war    In  war  as 
it  is  waged  now,  with  enormous  losses  on  both  sides,  both  will  lose.  It  is  a  form  of  mutual 
suicide;  and  I  believe  that  the  entire  effort  of  modem  society  should  be  concentrated  on  an 
endeavor  to  outlaw  it."  Quotations  from  Eisenhower,  Falls,  and  MacArthur  as  cited  in  John  W. 
Brinsfield,  "From  Plato  to  NATO,"  Speech  for  the  Command  Group,  U.S.  Army  Europe  and  7th 
Army,  1986,  p.  11,  16.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

151.  Kenmt  Johnson,  Realism  and  Hope  in  a  Nuclear  Age,  pp  111-112. 

152.  Ibid,  pp.  13-14. 

153.  James  Martin,  "School  of  Assassins,  "America,  Dec.  10,  1994,  p. 22. 





In  the  Army  Chaplaincy's  Second  Revohition  after  Vietnam,  the  theory  and  practice  of  ministry  to 
soldiers  and  their  family  members  shifted  from  a  garrison  to  a  battlefield  model.  Installations  became 
sustaining  bases  for  the  mobilization  and  deployment  of  soldiers.  For  the  first  time  in  recent  histor}\  teams 
of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  devolved  Chaplain  Corps  doctrine  from  operational  concepts  to  the 
publication  of  field  circulars,  field  manuals,  and  regulations  in  order  to  bring  the  Chaplain  Corps  on  line 
with  the  Armv's  Airl.and  Battle  Doctrine. 


Development  of  the  Unit  Ministry  Team 

Chapel  Activity  Specialists  redesignated  Chaplain  Assistants 

Publication  of  Field  Manual  16-5 

Assignment  of  a  Chaplain  to  the  National  Guard  Bureau 

Ministry  after  the  Gander  Tragedy 

Operation  Urgent  Fury,  Grenada 

Creating  a  New  Battle-Focused  Model  for  Ministry 

After  the  end  of  the  Vietnam  War  in  1973.  the  Army  Chaplaincy  defined  its  role  in  peacetime  largely 
in  terms  of  a  garrison  model.  Chaplains  were  pastors,  counselors,  and  preachers.  Clinical  pastoral 
education  and  the  emphasis  on  parish  development  contributed  to  the  organization  and  delivery  of  religious 
support  for  the  soldier  and  family  members  on  installations.  Chapel  Activity  Specialists,  as  chaplain 
assistants  were  known  after  1977.  were  linked  to  the  post  chapels  in  building  maintenance  and  office 
administration.  By  1983  less  than  fifh'  percent  of  the  chaplains  on  active  diit}'  had  had  any  combat 
experience.  Responding  to  the  Army 's  need  for  religious  support  m  both  hea\y  and  light  divisions  in  the 
early  80s,  leaders  throughout  the  Chaplaincy  turned  their  attention  once  again  to  formulating  doctrine  for 
the  ministry  on  the  battlefield. 

Chaplain  Gordon  Schweitzer,  Director  of  Combat  Developments 
US  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  1981-1983 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


The  years  from  1982  through  1986  constituted  a  "hinge  period"  for  the  history  of  the  Army 
Chaplaincy.  Many  concepts  for  ministry  which  had  been  developing  since  the  end  of  the  Vietnam  War 
were  synthesized  into  doctrine.  The  concept  of  the  chaplain  and  the  chapel  activity  specialists  as  a 
religious  ministry  team  in  the  chapel  environment  was  dramatically  altered  to  form  unit  ministry  teams 
of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  capable  of  operating  either  in  a  garrison  or  in  a  combat 
environment.  The  role  and  involvement  of  Reserve  Component  chaplains  and  assistants  grew  to 
include  direct  support  for  active  duty  missions  on  a  large  scale.  The  inclusion  of  ministry  to  soldiers 
suffering  from  battle  fatigue  as  a  part  of  Chaplain  Corps  doctrine  helped  make  the  unit  ministry  team 
both  more  relevant  and  more  valuable  to  the  unit  commander  As  the  first  joint  operation  in  combat 
since  Vietnam,  Operation  Urgent  Fury  generated  an  upgrade  in  readiness  training  as  a  result  of 
lessons  learned  during  the  deployment  of  religious  support  personnel  to  Grenada.  With  these  and 
other  changes  in  policy,  doctrine,  and  training,  the  Chaplaincy  "put  on  its  Battle  Dress  Uniform"  for 
the  decade  of  the  80s. 

Chaplain  Patrick  J.  Hessian 

Chaplain  (Major  General)  Patrick  John  Hessian  was  appointed  the  Army's  16th  Chief  of 
Chaplains  on  July  1,  1982.  As  a  former  semi-professional  ball  player,  a  European  handball  champion, 
and  a  Jump  Master  in  the  XVIII  Airborne  Corps,  Chaplain  Hessian  combined  a  deep  spirituality  with 
a  strong  competitive  nature  and  natural  athletic  ability. '  His  career  advancement  had  been  meteoric, 
with  all  of  the  implications  of  brilliance  and  fire  characteristic  of  the  metaphor. 

Bom  in  Belle  Plaine,  Minnesota,  in  1928,  Chaplain  Hessian  attended  St  Paul  Seminary  and 
was  ordained  a  Roman  Catholic  priest  in  1953.  After  spending  five  years  in  the  Army  Reserve, 
Chaplain  Hessian  entered  active  duty  on  August  29,  1963.^  Sixteen  years  later  he  became  the  Deputy 
Chief  of  Chaplains  and  would  spend  more  time  as  a  general  officer  than  any  other  Chief  of  Chaplains 
in  the  preceding  twenty  years. ^ 

Chaplain  Hessian's  first  duty  assignment  in  1963  was  to  the  1st  Brigade,  1st  Armored  Division 
at  Fort  Hood,  Texas.  The  battalion  he  was  to  cover  was  the  2/8 1st  Armor,  commanded  by  Lt. 
Colonel  George  Patton,  son  of  General  George  S.  Patton,  Jr.,  of  World  War  II  fame.  Chaplain 
Hessian  recalled  reporting  to  Lt.  Colonel  Patton  at  his  office  for  their  first  meeting: 

So  I  went  in  there  and  I  stood  at  attention  before  his  desk,  but  he  refused  to  look  up. 
He  was  writing,  and  he  just  kept  on  writing,  and  he  wrote  and  he  wrote  and  it  was  a 
very  long  time.  Finally  he  got  up  and  he  walked  around  his  desk  and  he  walked  all  the 
way  around  me,  inspecting  me  from  stem  to  stem  A  word  had  never  been  spoken. 
Finally  he  said,  "What's  your  name?"  I  told  him  my  name.  He  said,  "What's  your 
denomination?"  By  this  time  I  was  angry,  and  angrily  I  said,  "I'm  Catholic."  And  he 
said,  "Damn  good  thing  you  are  or  I'd  have  your  ass  out  of  here.  My  old  man  never 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


had  anybody  but  a  Catholic  and  I'm  not  having  anybody  either." 

It  was  a  tense  land  of  time  for  a  person  who  was  brand  new  in  the  Army  and  not  very 
committed  to  the  Army.  I  was  clearly  not  committed  to  the  Army  then.  So  I  walked 
out  of  there  that  day  saying  to  myself  "To  hell  with  the  Army.  Who  needs  this?"** 

Chaplain  Hessian  remained  in  the  Army  for  twenty-four  additional  years,  but  he  never  forgot 
his  first  meeting  with  Patton  Chaplain  Hessian  had  volunteered  for  active  duty  because  he  wanted 
"adventure  "*  He  had,  in  retrospect,  almost  enough  adventure  his  first  day  in  the  Army  with 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Patton  to  satisfy  even  his  most  avid  curiosity.* 

Beginning  with  his  first  assignment  on  active  duty,  and  for  fourteen  consecutive  years 
thereafter.  Chaplain  Hessian  was  constantly  involved  with  ministry  to  soldiers  in  the  field.  As  a 
chaplain  in  the  1st  Brigade,  1st  Armored  Division,  Chaplain  Hessian  had  his  first  experience  with  a 
major  training  exercise.  The  exercise,  called  Desert  Strike,  involved  50,000  soldiers  and  Marines. 
Chaplain  Hessian  recalled  later  some  of  the  lessons  he  learned: 

It  was  in  the  Desert  Strike  exercise  that  I  began  to  understand  the  value  of  field 
exercises  for  a  chaplain,  and  for  me,  at  least,  it  was  my  very  first  long  road  march. 
It  took  us  2  !/2  days  by  jeep  just  to  get  out  of  Texas.  We  kind  of  skipped  across 
Arizona  and  New  Mexico  all  the  way  to  California.  That  was  a  very  long  trip. 

When  we  went  to  the  desert  for  six  weeks  straight  and  slept  on  the  ground  we  really 
got  to  know  our  people.  It  was,  I  believe,  as  a  result  of  that  experience  that  I  came 
away  with  the  notion  that  any  time  you  can  go  into  an  unusual  environment  with  a 
unit  it  will  cause  cohesion  in  the  unit.' 

Another  lesson  that  Chaplain  Hessian  learned  on  Desert  Strike  involved  the  cost  of  fatigue 
to  a  unit.  During  the  exercise  soldiers  got  extremely  tired  because  the  scenario  ran  24  hours  a  day. 
When  the  troops  got  tired  they  tended  to  lie  down  in  their  sleeping  bags  in  the  open  area  of  the  desert. 
Over  the  course  of  time  many  soldiers  were  run  over  by  tanks  maneuvering  in  the  desert.  Chaplain 
Hessian  recalled,  "I  think  in  the  course  of  this  exercise  something  like  30  men  were  killed  or  injured."' 

At  the  conclusion  of  Desert  Strike,  the  1st  Brigade,  1st  Armored  Division  was  assigned  to  the 
1st  Marine  Division  to  practice  amphibious  landings.  Chaplain  Hessian  noted: 

It  was  my  first  experience  with  beach  landings.  We  were  assigned  to  the  1  st  Marine 
Division  to  do  landings.  So  we  were  put  aboard  ships  and  then  transferred  at  sea 
fi"om  one  ship  to  another  with  tanks  and  trucks.  It  was  very  diflficuh.  I  mean  there 
were  people  in  the  water  everywhere  The  little  landing  craft  did  not  get  in  close  to 
the  shore.  They  dropped  the  front  down  and  there  were  all  kinds  of  guys  throwing-up 
in  the  water.  The  waves  were  hitting  them.  It  was  a  wicked  exercise  but  it  was  good 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


training,  I  guess/* 

At  tiie  end  of  Desert  Strike  the  1st  Armored  Division  had  a  Thanksgiving  Service  for  the 
success  of  the  exercise  and  a  memorial  service  for  the  dead.  Many  of  the  soldiers  were  thankflil  that 
more  were  not  killed  Chaplain  Hessian  wrote,  "It  was  an  exceedingly  danger-filled  exercise  "'"  From 
this  experience  and  others  like  it.  Chaplain  Hessian  developed  a  conviction  that  training  exercises, 
particularly  field  exercises,  were  absolutely  essential  if  chaplains  were  to  develop  the  cohesion,  trust 
and  understanding  necessary  to  minister  effectively  to  soldiers  in  a  unit." 

After  his  experience  at  Fort  Hood,  Chaplain  Hessian  served  in  Korea,  in  Germany,  and  in 
Vietnam.  While  assigned  to  the  8th  Infantry  Division  at  Bad  Kreuznach,  Germany,  Chaplain  Hessian 
volunteered  for  airborne  training.  He  was  not  fond  of  jumping  out  of  airplanes,  but  he  felt  the 
training  was  valuable  The  next  year,  in  July  of  1969,  he  became  the  brigade  chaplain  of  the  173d 
Airborne  Brigade  in  Vietnam. 

In  many  ways  Chaplain  Hessian's  experience  in  the  Army  was  a  classic  model  of  ministry  to 
soldiers  in  combat  units.  Twice  a  brigade  chaplain,  he  subsequently  became  a  deputy  division 
chaplain,  and  then  post  chaplain  at  Fort  Campbell,  where  the  101st  Airborne  Division  was  located 
in  1975.  By  that  time  Chaplain  Hessian  was  one  of  the  few  chaplains  in  the  Army  who  was  qualified 
in  both  airborne  and  amphibious  infantry  operations. 

On  the  first  of  August,  1975,  after  Chaplain  Hessian  had  been  at  Fort  Campbell  for  only  six 
months,  he  received  a  telephone  call  from  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain 
Hessian  remembered  the  call  well: 

Monday  morning  at  0800,  my  phone  rang  in  Kentucky  and  it  was  Orris  Kelly  His 
first  official  act  as  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  to  call  me  and  tell  me  that  I  was  being 
moved  immediately  to  a  new  job  to  become  the  XVIII  Airborne  Corps  and  Post 
Chaplain  at  Fort  Bragg,  North  Carolina.  That  was  obviously  a  shock  to  me,  having 
been  at  the  present  job  only  six  months.  But  in  that  phone  conversation  he  told  me, 
"You  will  go  to  Fort  Bragg  and  you  will  be  there  a  short  time.  You  will  then  go  to 
the  War  College.  From  there  you  will  go  to  a  major  command  And  you  will 
accomplish  all  of  this  in  four  years  time  "  Every  one  of  these  steps  was  a  part  of  the 
preparation  process  to  qualify  me  to  become  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain  Kelly 
was  preparing  not  only  me  but  several  other  people  to  be  able  to  undertake  this  job 
in  the  event  that  any  one  of  them  happened  to  be  chosen. 

I  did  go  to  Fort  Bragg  I  was  there  for  two  years.  I  went  to  the  War  College  and  I 
went  to  U.S.  Army  Europe  to  become  the  U.S.  Army  Europe  Chaplain  all  in  four 
years  time,  so  that  by  the  time  the  four  years  were  up,  I  was  prepared  to  become  the 
Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains.  That  is  what  happened  I  was  the  Deputy  for  three  more 
years,  so  I  was  dealing  with  all  of  the  people  in  the  Pentagon  and  all  the  people  on  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Army  Staff.  I  had  three  years  (ample  time)  to  learn  how  the  big  system  works,  and 
to  get  acquainted  with  everything  at  all  levels  within  our  own  branch  Consequently, 
by  the  time  I  became  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  I  felt  I  was  exceedingly  well  prepared.'" 

By  1 982,  when  Chaplain  Hessian  was  nominated  by  President  Ronald  Reagan  for  appointment 
as  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  he  had  accumulated  not  only  a  Soldiers  Medal,  a  Bronze  Star  with  three 
Oak  Leaf  Clusters,  an  Air  Medal,  and  a  Purple  Heart  from  his  tour  in  Vietnam,  but  also  a  wealth  of 
experience  with  soldiers  in  ministry  at  every  echelon  in  the  Army.'^ 

Challenges  For  The  Chief 

One  of  the  first  tasks  Chaplain  Hessian  performed  as  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  to  prioritize 
ministerial  plans,  policies,  and  programs  which  would  meet  the  religious  needs  of  the  Army.  In  that 
regard,  like  the  previous  Chiefs,  he  aligned  and  directed  the  chaplaincy  to  address  current  and  future 

Prioritizing  the  programs  of  the  chaplaincy  was  no  small  task  The  previous  fall,  October  of 
1981,  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  at  that  time,  had  approved  goals  and 
objectives  through  fiscal  year  1984  In  total,  some  86  designated  programs  were  approved  for 
implementation  Fifty-five  of  these  programs  had  been  fijnded  at  a  total  cost  of  $1,091,300  This 
included  some  $307,000  in  programs  approved  for  the  Chaplain  Board  to  implement.  Chaplain 
Kermit  Johnson  had  put  special  emphasis  on  three  distinct  areas  of  programming:  ethics,  leadership 
and  supervision,  homiletics  and  worship,  and  Division  86.  The  Division  86  objective  involved 
developing  policy  and  training  for  the  integrative  ministry  requirements  implicit  in  religious  coverage 
at  the  battalion,  brigade,  and  division  levels  in  both  combat  and  peace-time  environments  '■*  In  all  of 
this  planning  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  as  advised  by  his  staff,  the  major  command  chaplains,  and  the 
installation  staff  chaplains,  strongly  supported  the  total  Army  goals  for  each  fiscal  year 

The  mission  of  the  total  Army  in  1982,  like  that  of  succeeding  years,  was  to  "deter  any  attack 
upon  U.S.  national  interests  and,  if  deterrence  fails,  to  engage  and  defeat  any  enemy  in  any 
environment."'^  The  threat  to  U.S.  national  interests  in  1982  was  vital  to  the  Chaplaincy  because  the 
Army  would  configure  its  organization  to  meet  the  perceived  threat.  In  essence  there  were  both 
nuclear  and  conventional  threats  in  Europe,  as  well  as  possible  high  and  low  intensity  threats  around 
the  world.  Of  the  many  possible  scenarios  in  1982,  however,  the  possibility  of  an  attack  by  the  Soviet 
Union  or  its  Warsaw  Pact  Allies  against  NATO  had  the  highest  priority  for  American  defense 
planners.  "The  most  serious  threat  facing  the  United  States  Army,"  said  Secretary  of  the  Army,  John 
O.  Marsh,  Jr.,  in  October  1982,  "is  a  major  conventional  war  with  the  Soviets,  especially  considering 
the  huge  imbalance  in  numbers  of  weapons  systems  and  fighting  forces."  During  1982  the  United 
States  Army  was  determined  to  restore  the  military  balance  with  the  Soviet  Union. '^ 

To  help  restore  the  balance  of  military  power  in  Europe,  the  Army  planned  to  deploy  572  U.S. 
Pershing  and  cruise  missiles  beginning  in  December  1982  in  five  NATO  countries.   This  action  was 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


sure  to  receive  the  most  attention  during  the  Nuclear  Arms  negotiations  scheduled  to  convene  in 
Geneva  in  1983.  Also,  President  Reagan's  Commission  on  Strategic  Forces,  headed  by  Lt.  Gen. 
Brent  Scowcraft,  a  former  National  Security  Advisor  to  President  Ford,  while  endorsing  the  MX 
missile,  proposed  "building  down"  the  opposing  strategic  nuclear  forces.  Other  balance-restoring 
plans  involving  conventional  weapons  upgrades  were  to  be  set  in  motion. '^ 

Meanwhile,  violence  and  terrorism  escalated  on  the  international  scene  in  the  autumn  of  1982, 
causing  power  imbalances  to  take  on  new  relevance.  In  the  Middle  East,  Lebanon's  President  was 
assassinated,  and  massacres  in  two  Palestinian  refijgee  camps  left  300  dead.  Both  events  placed  in 
jeopardy  an  international  peace-keeping  force,  including  a  contingent  of  U.S.  Marines  sent  to 
Lebanon  in  September  of  1982  In  West  Germany,  the  Revolutionary  Cells  Terrorist  Group  took 
credit  for  the  bombing  of  two  U.S.  military  bases,  while  in  Asia  there  was  the  possibility  that  the  war 
between  Iran  and  Iraq  would  escalate.'* 

The  worsening  international  situation  at  the  end  of  1982  increased  the  U.S.  Army's 
determination  to  deal  with  its  weaknesses.  They  included.  Secretary  Marsh  said,  in  October  1982, 
a  lack  of  adequate  air  and  sealift,  shortages  of  weapons  and  equipment,  and  frustratingly  slow 
progress  in  the  modernization  of  old  equipment  During  the  new  fiscal  year  the  Army  planned  to 
move  aggressively  to  shore  up  these  weaknesses  and  maximize  its  strengths  For  example,  the  Army 
planned  to  move  forward  with  the  AirLand  Battle  doctrine,  which  stressed  extreme  mobility, 
independent  action  and  directed  strength  against  enemy  follow-on  echelons 

The  Army  also  intended  to  move  forward  with  its  High  Technology  Test  Bed  (HTTB)  project 
involving  the  9th  Infantry  Division  at  Fort  Lewis,  Washington,  which  would  help  produce  a  lean,  hard 
hitting  force—a  new  high  technology  light  division.  The  Army  planned  to  modernize  its  equipment 
so  that  it  out-performed  Soviet  equipment  and  thereby  would  compensate,  to  the  extent  possible,  for 
the  Soviet  numerical  advantage.  The  Army  also  planned  to  make  many  organizational  changes  from 
the  Army  86  studies.  These  included  the  modernization  of  16  battalions  as  a  result  of  major  weapons 
system  changes.  Some  battalions  in  armored  divisions  would  transition  to  Division  86  designs  during 
1982-1983,  using  personnel  and  equipment  assigned  to  the  division  at  the  time  of  transition  In  short, 
the  Army's  modernization  effort  was  to  focus  to  a  great  extent  on  designing,  developing  and 
procuring  modem  arms  and  equipment  for  the  total  Army." 

The  accelerated  pace  of  modernization  in  the  Army,  especially  in  the  areas  of  new  technology, 
doctrine  and  organization,  had  many  ramifications  for  the  Chaplaincy.  If  chaplains  were  to  perform 
meaningflil  ministry,  they  must  be  part  of  the  total  modernization  effort.  This  would  include  not  only 
active  duty  chaplains  but  also  those  in  the  reserve  components.  Chaplains  in  key  leadership  positions, 
especially  those  in  plans,  programs  and  policies  and  in  combat  developments,  would  have  to  advise 
the  Chief  of  Chaplains  concerning  measures  the  Chaplaincy  would  have  to  take  to  remain  "on-line" 
with  the  new  Army  of  Excellence. 

Keeping  pace  with  the  new  modernization  effort  in  the  Army  was  not  the  only  challenge  that 
the  Chaplaincy  faced  in  1982.  There  were  other  internal  challenges  as  well.  Among  these  were  a 
shortage  of  Roman  Catholic  chaplains,  the  continuing  Constitutionality  court  case,  a  lack  of  clarity 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


concerning  the  role  of  the  chapel  activity  specialist  and  the  relationship  between  the  chapel  activity 
specialist  and  the  chaplain;  and  a  shortage  of  female  and  other  minority  chaplains  in  the  Chaplain 
Corps.  Moreover,  the  decision  made  in  1980  at  the  Department  of  the  Army  level  to  assign  chaplains 
to  battalions  did  not  yet  iron  out  of  the  problems  at  the  installation  level.  In  1982  -  83  it  was  clear 
that  it  would  take  the  eflfort  of  all  the  supervisory  chaplains  to  work  out  the  religious  coverage 
requirements  by  TOE  and  TDA  chaplains  as  this  transition  took  place.^" 

Spirituality  and  Training 

Of  particular  interest  to  Chaplain  Hessian  was  the  issue  of  the  spirituality  of  the  Chaplain 
Corps.  In  his  guidance  to  the  chaplaincy  in  the  fall  of  1982,  Chaplain  Hessian  emphasized  the 
following  statements  of  encouragement: 

Personal,  spiritual  health  is  at  least  as  important  for  chaplains  as  training  and  tactics 
and  weaponry  is  for  the  tactical  officer  Each  chaplain  is  responsible  for  his/her 
spiritual  well-being  and  must  seek  opportunities  for  theological  reading,  study  and 
reflection.  Chaplains  are  encouraged  to  maintain  close  relationships  to  their  endorsing 
denomination  and  seek  to  grow  theologically  and  spiritually  through  the  nurture  of 
their  religious  organizations. 

Spiritual  nurture  of  the  soldier  is  one  of  the  principal  pastoral  duties  of  the  chaplain. 
Chaplain  contact  with  the  soldier  is  essential  if  this  nurture  is  to  take  place. 
Supervisory  chaplains  should  encourage  effective  contact  of  the  chaplain  with  soldiers 
and  their  family  members  through  the  intentional  presence  of  chaplains  in  units, 
hospitals,  homes  and  barracks  visitation.^' 

Chaplain  Hessian  said  that  he  attempted,  in  every  speech  and  in  every  letter  he  wrote  for  chaplains, 
to  emphasize  the  spirituality  theme  during  his  tenure  as  chief  Above  all,  he  took  time  each  morning 
before  the  work  day  began  to  pray  for  all  of  his  chaplains.^' 

Another  of  Chaplain  Hessian's  personal  priorities  concerned  the  training  of  the  Chaplain 
Corps.  As  Chaplain  Hessian  was  fond  of  stating,  "training  is  ministry."  In  his  personal  guidance  to 
his  major  command  chaplains.  Chaplain  Hessian  wrote: 

As  training  is  being  done  mission  is  accomplished  and  ministry  is  performed.  General 
Ferdinand  Foch  wrote:  "No  study  is  possible  on  the  battle  field,  one  does  there  simply 
what  one  can  in  order  to  apply  what  one  knows.  Therefore,  in  order  to  do  even  a 
little  one  has  already  to  know  a  great  deal  and  know  it  well.'  It  is  because  of  our  total 
mission  that  I  plan  to  establish  a  major  emphasis  on  training.  When  we  train  for  the 
Army's  mission,  we  are  performing  ministry."^ 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Training,  according  to  Chaplain  Hessian,  was  an  essential  element  in  the  missjon  and  the  preparation 
for  mission  for  all  chaplains.  "■* 

It  would  not  be  an  accurate  picture  of  the  chaplaincy  at  the  end  of  1982,  however,  to  focus 
merely  on  the  policies  and  guidance  issued  from  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Of  the  1,440 
chaplains  then  on  active  duty,  859  held  commissions  from  the  U.S.  Army  Reserve,  5 1  were  National 
Guard  chaplains  on  active  duty,  and  530  were  regular  Army  chaplains  Of  the  1,440,  some  596  were 
captains  and  407  majors.  The  largest  majority  of  chaplains  were  doing  the  backbone  religious  support 
of  the  Army — performing  worship  services  in  chapels  and  in  the  field,  providing  counseling  and 
religious  education  opportunities  for  soldiers  and  their  families,  performing  ministries  of  soldier 
visitation  and  morale  support,  and  advising  their  commanders  on  religion,  morals  and  morale  as 
specified  in  Army  regulations. 

In  the  Chaplain  Corps  as  a  whole,  therefore,  hundreds  of  chaplains  were  involved  in  both 
ministry  and  training  in  accord  with  the  direction  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Some  249  chaplains 
graduated  from  the  Chaplain  Basic  Course,  and  85  from  the  Chaplain  Career  Course  in  1982;  1,300 
chaplains  were  enrolled  in  the  non-resident  program  at  the  Army  Chaplain  School.  More  than  100 
active  duty  chaplains  were  enrolled  in  non-resident  courses  of  the  Command  and  General  Staff 
College  Some  41  chaplains  had  been  selected  for  civilian  and  military  residence  schooling  including 
five  at  the  Command  and  General  Staff  College,  two  at  the  Army  War  College,  one  at  the  Armed 
Forces  Staff  College,  six  in  Clinical  Pastoral  Education,  and  19  in  other  civilian  schooling  programs. 
Approximately  150  chaplains  were  enrolled  in  the  Combined  Army  and  Service  Staff  School  (CAS3). 
In  fiscal  year  1983,  therefore,  1,655  different  chaplains  from  the  active  and  reserve  components  were 
involved  in  formal  academic  training."' 

Organization  of  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 

During  FY  1983,  the  organizational  structure  of  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  (OCCH) 
consisted  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains;  the  Executive  Officer;  the 
Administration  and  Management  Division;  the  Plans,  Programs  and  Policies  Division,  and  the 
Personnel  and  Ecclesiastical  Relations  Division.  The  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Board  was  a  Field 
Operating  Agency  (FOA)  of  the  Office,  Chief  of  Chaplains  The  following  persons  filled  essential 
positions  in  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains: 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Patrick  J.  Hessian,  Chief  of  Chaplains 

Chaplain  (Brig.  Gen.)  Paul  O.  Forsberg,  Deputy  Chief 

Chaplain  (Col.)  Norris  L.  Einerston,  Executive  Officer 

Chaplain  (Col.)  Ronald  S.  Bezanson,  Jr.,  Director,  Administration  and  Management  Division 

Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  James  A.  Edgren,  Management  Budget  Officer 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


(Succeeded  by  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col  )  Timothy  Tatum  in  July  1983) 

Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  Chester  R  Steffey,  Logistics  Officer 

Mr  John  C  Baer,  Administrative  Officer 

Ms.  Theresa  L.  Nottingham,  Public  Affairs 

(Succeeded  by  Mr.  Franklin  Vance  in  June  1983) 

Mrs.  Norma  J.  Turner,  Morale  and  Welfare 

Chaplain  (Col  )  Leroy  T  Ness,  Director,  Plans,  Programs  and  Policies  Division 

Chaplain  (Col.)  Edward  G  Wulfkuehler,  Reserve  Affairs  Chaplain 

Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  Wayne  E.  Kuehne,  Force  Structure  Plan  Officer 

Chaplain  (Maj  )  Calvin  H  Sydnor,  Staff/Parish  Development  Officer 

(Succeeded  by  Chaplain  (Lt  Col.)  Roy  N  Mathis  in  July  1983) 

Mr.  Roger  W  Able,  Plans  and  Programs  Development 

Mrs.  Ida  M  Butcher,  Drug/Alcohol  and  Women's  Programs 

Chaplain  (Col  )  Israel  Drazin,  Special  Projects 

Chaplain  (Col.)  John  T.  Hoogland,  Director,  Personnel  and  Ecclesiastical  Relations  Division 

Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  Wendall  F.  Danielson,  Professional  Planning  and  Development 

(Succeeded  by  Chaplain  (Maj  )  James  E  Russell  in  June  1983) 

Chaplain  (Maj  )  Sanford  L  Dresin,  Personnel  Actions 

Chaplain  (Lt  Col  )  Donald  W  Shea,  Procurement 

(Succeeded  by  Chaplain  (Maj.)  John  A.  Flaska  in  June  1983) 

Mrs.  Nellie  E  Burton,  Assignments 

Mrs.  Shirley  Womack,  ADP  Systems  Coordinator 

Chaplain  (Col  )  Billy  W  Libby,  President,  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Board 

Chaplin  (Maj  )  Geoffrey  H.  Moran,  Audio- Visual 

Chaplain  (Lt  Col  )  Marvin  K.  Vickers,  Jr  ,  Religious  Education 

Chaplain  (Maj.)  Richard  N.  Donovan,  Homiletics,  Journalism,  and  Editor,  Military  Chaplains  Review 

Chaplain  (Lt.  Col  )  Kenneth  B.  Clements,  Marriage  and  Family  Life 

Chaplain  (Maj.)  Louis  L.  Schmit,  Pastoral  Planner 

Sergeant  First  Class  Aaron  N  Gibson,  Administration/Special  Projects 

In  addition  to  the  chaplains  assigned  at  Department  of  Army  level,  other  chaplain  leaders  included 
1 1  major  command  (MACOM)  chaplains,  five  U.S.  Army  chaplains,  81  post  chaplains  in  the  United 
States,  four  overseas  headquarters  chaplains  (in  Alaska,  Panama,  Okinawa,  Puerto  Rico)  and  the 
Commandant,  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  School  and  staff  at  Fort  Monmouth,  New  Jersey. 

Approximately  two  weeks  after  Chaplain  Hessian  became  Chief  of  Chaplains,  he  convened 
the  36th  Annual  Command  Chaplains  Conference  in  Rosslyn,  Virginia  Some  28  command  staff 
chaplains,  including  the  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School  and  the  senior  chaplain  at  West  Point, 
attended  the  conference.  The  purpose  was  to  enable  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  to  review  and  evaluate 
the  past  year's  programs  and  policies,  to  outline  and  to  discuss  concepts  and  priorities  for  future 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


ministry  programs,  and  to  develop  revised  goals  and  objectives  to  enable  chaplains  to  perform  a  more 
viable  ministry  for  soldiers  and  their  families.  Two  of  the  main  speakers  at  the  conference  were 
Lieutenant  General  William  R.  Richardson,  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Operations,  and  Dr  James  T. 
Johnson,  professor  of  Political  Science  at  Rutgers  University.  Significantly,  General  Richardson  and 
Dr.  Johnson  highlighted  the  modernization  effort  in  the  Army  and  the  ethical  issues  involved  in 
contemporary  defense  policies. 

Some  of  the  other  topics  discussed  at  the  Command  Chaplains  Conference  included  the 
supervision  and  training  of  chaplains.  Gospel  Services,  homiletics  and  preaching,  the  hiring  of 
civilians,  a  new  field  manual  and  a  revision  of  regulations  for  the  Chaplaincy,  and  the  constitutionality 
case.  However,  the  most  important  outcome  of  the  conference  was  the  opportunity  for  Chaplain 
Hessian  to  address  his  major  emphases  for  the  next  four  years.  Chaplain  Hessian  stated  that  the  order 
of  his  priorities  were  1)  the  religious  support  mission  for  soldiers  and  their  families,  and  2)  the 
modernization  and  upgrading  of  the  Chaplaincy.  Chaplain  Hessian  emphasized  the  importance  of 
training,  recruitment,  and  mobilization  planning.  Above  all,  the  Army  Chaplaincy  would  have  to  be 
prepared  to  support  soldiers  in  any  and  all  contingency  missions,  whenever  and  wherever  they  might 

The  Total  Chaplaincy  Goals  and  Objectives  which  Chaplain  Hessian  approved  for  FY  1985- 
1986  were  intended  to  be  a  mission  statement,  with  taskings,  for  the  following  three  years  They 
continued  some  of  the  goals  from  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson's  administration  as  Chief  but  Chaplain 
Hessian  put  his  own  imprint  on  others.  Chaplain  Hessian  stressed  a  Human  Goal  which  would  ensure 
the  fi'ee  exercise  of  religion  for  all  soldiers  and  promote  family  life  in  the  Army  as  well  as  the  spiritual 
welfare  of  the  single  soldier  The  Leadership  Goal  included  systemic  training  for  chaplains  and  chapel 
activity  specialists  as  well  as  an  emphasis  on  ethics  to  inform  the  conscience  of  the  soldier.  The 
Future  Development,  Materiel,  Management  and  Strategic  Deployment  Goals  directed  efforts  toward 
a  Chaplaincy  that  was  prepared  for  ministry,  equipped,  organized  and  ready  to  accomplish  "the 
chaplain  mission  in  peace  and  war."'* 

Management  Issues:  Chaplain  Proponency 

In  September  of  1982  two  meetings  were  held  at  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  School,  Fort 
Monmouth,  New  Jersey,  that  dealt  with  the  management  of  the  chaplain  branch.  The  first  meeting 
dealt  with  the  chaplain  specialty  proponency.  The  second  meeting  was  a  regularly  scheduled  meeting 
of  the  Chaplain  Academic  Board. 

In  the  final  draft  of  AR  600-1,  Specialty  Proponency,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  designated 
as  the  proponent  for  MOS  56A,  the  specialty  designation  for  chaplains.''  The  Chief  exercised 
personnel  management  authority  Specific  management  responsibilities  paralleled  those  delineated 
for  the  Commander,  MILPERCEN,  and  the  included  structure,  acquisition,  individual  training  and 
education,  distribution,  unit  deployment,  sustainment,  professional  development,  and  separation  for 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


chaplains.  A  proponency  issues  group  had  been  established  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  and  met  in 
August  1982.  Action  officers  from  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Office,  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Board, 
the  Chaplain  School,  TRADOC  and  FORSCOM  developed  proponency  issues  that  required 
coordination  of  actions.  In  addition,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  appointed  an  executive  group  which  met 
in  September  1982  to  discuss  those  Proponency  issues  and  determine  the  action  (lead)  agency 
responsible  for  each  issue. 

Some  of  the  special  proponency  issues  of  interest  to  Chaplain  Hessian  included  the 
recruitment  of  Roman  Catholic  chaplains,  minority  chaplains  and  female  chaplains.  Personnel 
shortages  in  these  areas  led  Chaplain  Hessian  to  urge  "special  consideration  by  all  to  provide  for 
Roman  Catholic  rites  and  sacraments"  and  chaplain-led  worship  services  for  minorities  which  could 
include  special  training  in  the  Spanish  language  for  ministry  to  Hispanic  soldiers."* 

Women's  issues  were  highlighted  in  the  Military  Chaplains  Review  in  1983.  Some  of  the 
topics  included  exclusive  language  in  worship,  alienation,  double  standards,  and  fair  treatment  of 
female  chaplains  and  chapel  activity  specialists.  It  was  clear  from  the  available  research  that  females 
in  the  Chaplaincy  often  labored  under  false  stereotypes  and  without  a  trustworthy  support  system.'' 

The  Chaplain  Academic  Board,  meeting  in  the  same  month  and  also  at  the  Chaplain  School, 
was  called  to  discuss  continuing  education  and  training  (sustainment  training)  occurring  between  the 
Chaplain  Basic  Course  and  the  Chaplain  Advanced  Course,  and  the  Combined  Arms  and  Services 
Staff  School  (CAS  3)  and  its  relationship  to  the  Chaplain  Professional  Development  Plan.  Although 
the  Chaplain  Academic  Board  was  established  in  April  1977  as  part  of  the  Chaplain  Professional 
Development  Plan,  upon  completion  of  the  September  1982  Academic  Board  meeting.  Chaplain  Paul 
Forsberg,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains,  decided  to  review  the  composition  of  the  Academic  Board 
as  part  of  Chaplaincy  proponency.  A  decision  was  to  be  made  whether  to  reconfigure  the  Board  later 
in  1982. 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  also  approved  renaming  the  Staff  Specialist  or  Seminarian  Program. 
The  new  name  was  to  be  the  Chaplain  Candidate  Program.  Seminarians  were  appointed  to  the 
Chaplain  Candidate  Program  to  provide  a  continuing  source  of  trained  chaplains  for  active  duty. 
Reserve,  and  National  Guard  service.  Denominational  approval  was  required  for  all  chaplain 
candidates.  Chaplain  candidates  were  authorized  up  to  45  days  active  duty  for  training  each  year. 
The  first  year  candidates  had  to  attend  the  Chaplain  Basic  Course  at  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  School. 
In  following  years  they  had  to  train  in  an  institution,  hospital  or  confinement  facility.  Chaplain 
candidates  wore  Staff  Specialist  brass  insignia  and  the  words  "Chaplain  Candidate"  under  their  name 
on  their  name  plates. 

Nuclear  Issues:  The  Bombs,  The  British,  and  The  Bishops 

As  part  of  the  NATO  deterrence  strategy  for  European  security  in  1982,  the  United  States 
completed  the  delivery  of  572  Pershing  II  and  cruise  missiles  to  five  European  countries.  The  108 
Pershing  II  missiles  initially  deployed  in  Germany  had  the  capability  of  reaching  Soviet  targets  within 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


five  minutes  after  launching.'"  An  additional  96  cruise  missiles  were  transported  to  the  British  Royal 
Air  Force  Base  at  Greenham  Common,  50  miles  west  of  London." 

The  Conservative  Party  in  Britain,  led  by  Prime  Minister  Margaret  Thatcher,  was  firmly 
committed  to  the  emplacement  of  American  cruise  missiles,  but  the  Labor  Party  under  the  leadership 
of  the  Honorable  Michael  Foot  was  equally  committed  to  removing  all  nuclear  weapons  from  Britain. 
The  Conservatives  argued  that  the  missiles  were  necessary  to  maintain  the  nuclear  balance  in  Europe, 
while  their  critics  in  the  Labor  Party  said  that  the  missiles  would  simply  make  it  easier  for  the  United 
States  and  the  Soviet  Union  to  fight  a  nuclear  war  without  resorting  to  intercontinental  missiles.^" 

At  Greenham  Common,  30,000  women  linked  arms  in  a  circle  around  the  base  in  protest. 
Ms.  Gillian  Booth,  who  spent  two  weeks  in  prison  for  her  activities  at  the  base,  explained  that  she 
"would  like  to  see  all  countries  get  rid  of  nuclear  weapons,  including  Britain  "  The  Honorable  Alex 
Kitson,  a  Scottish  political  leader  observed,  "When  they  talk  about  limited  nuclear  war  in  the  States, 
they  mean  it  would  be  limited  to  us."^^ 

London's  Sunday  Times  called  the  proliferation  of  nuclear  weapons  "the  most  crucial  issue 
for  1983."  Seventy-two  percent  of  the  British  electorate  said  they  were  worried  about  nuclear 
weapons,  and  30%  said  they  favored  unilateral  disarmament  for  Britain.'^  The  Most  Reverend  Dr. 
Robert  Runcie,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  said  a  fiill-scale  nuclear  war  was  un-winnable  and 
"applauded  those  who  demonstrated"  against  nuclear  weapons  "  The  Church  of  England's 
Convocation  of  Clergy  scheduled  a  debate  in  February  of  1983  on  "The  Church  and  the  Bomb" 
which  seemed  to  look  with  predisposed  favor  upon  unilateral  nuclear  disarmament  for  the  British 

In  the  United  States  various  church  leaders  began  to  issue  letters  and  statements  regarding 
the  increase  in  nuclear  weapons  in  Europe.  The  United  Methodist  Council  of  Bishops,  representing 
ten  million  church  members,  condemned  "the  use  and  the  threat  of  using  nuclear  arms."'^  The 
National  Conference  of  Catholic  Bishops,  whose  member  bishops  presided  over  285  dioceses  in  the 
United  States,  began  reviewing  a  statement  on  the  morality  of  nuclear  arms  as  drafted  by  their 
Committee  on  Peace  and  War.  The  Committee's  Chairman,  Archbishop  Joseph  L.  Bernardin,  had 
already  written  in  the  first  draft  that  "any  nation's  first  use  of  nuclear  weapons  would  be  irrational  and 
immoral."  The  first  draft  also  raised  serious  moral  questions  about  the  concept  of  deterring 
opponents  through  the  threat  of  using  nuclear  weapons,  which  had  been  basic  to  United  States  policy 
for  decades.'" 

The  possibility  of  a  pastoral  letter  by  the  Catholic  bishops  condemning  nuclear  deterrence 
immediately  attracted  some  of  the  most  extensive  news  coverage  in  the  United  States.  Major 
newspapers,  television  broadcasts,  and  news  magazines  ran  follow-up  stories  from  November  of  1982 
through  May  of  1983  on  three  different  drafts  of  the  bishops'  "Pastoral  Letter  on  War  and  Peace. "_''' 
President  Reagan's  national  security  advisor,  William  P.  Clark,  sought  to  persuade  the  Catholic 
bishops  that  "the  Administration's  policies  on  nuclear  arms  were  guided  by  compelling  moral 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Army  Concerns 

At  the  highest  Department  of  the  Army  levels  there  were  concerns  over  the  impact  the 
Bishops'  Pastoral  Letter  might  have  on  service  members  of  the  Roman  Catholic  faith  More  than  25% 
of  the  soldiers  in  the  Army  were  Catholic:  and,  in  1983,  for  the  first  time  in  its  history,  the  United 
States  Military  Academy  at  West  Point  reported  that  more  than  50%  of  the  cadets  were  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  faith  Some  generals  wondered  if  Catholic  soldiers  assigned  to  Pershing  missile  units  would 
refuse  to  perform  their  duties  in  light  of  the  Pastoral  Letter  At  St  Augustine's  Church  in  Ossining, 
New  York,  Lt  General  Willard  Scott,  Superintendent  of  the  US  Military  Academy  and  a  Roman 
Catholic  Eucharistic  minister,  addressed  the  congregation  in  February:  "Yes,  I  study  war,  but  I  study 
war  to  promote  and  preserve  peace.  I  tell  my  cadets  that  we  will  do  our  utmost  to  preserve  peace.  "^' 

At  the  U.S.  Army  War  College  Professor  John  W  Coffey,  a  visiting  scholar,  wrote  in 

a  bishop's  conference  has  no  teaching  authority  Only  the  Pope  or  the  whole 
College  of  Bishops  with  the  Pope  can  proclaim  morally  binding  principles  for 

However,  Chaplain  Donald  L  Davidson,  who  taught  ethics  as  a  member  of  the  War  College 
faculty,  urged  that  the  Roman  Catholic  Pastoral  Letter  "not  be  overlooked,"  for  "since  1980,  churches 
and  synagogues  representing  more  than  100  million  Americans  have  issued  official  statements  that 
criticize  nuclear  weapons  and  U.S.  deterrence  policy  "■" 

At  the  OtTice  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Chaplain  Hessian  monitored  the  news  reports  and 
discussed  the  drafts  of  the  Pastoral  Letter  At  the  Command  Chaplain's  Conference  in  July,  Chaplain 
Hessian  invited  Terence  Cardinal  Cooke,  Archbishop  of  New  York  and  Military  Vicar  of  the  Armed 
Forces,  to  address  the  Conference  on  the  "Moral  Responsibility  of  Command  Leadership."^"'  Chaplain 
Robert  J.  Ennis,  Deputy  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School,  wrote  concerning  the  Pastoral  Letter: 
"This  statement  has  generated  more  interest  on  a  national  level  in  both  political  and  military  spheres 
than  any  other  moral  issue  in  the  last  decade.""" 

Ultimately,  after  the  publication  of  the  third  draft  of  the  Bishops'  Letter  in  May,  interest  began 
to  shift  to  other  issues  The  bishops  had  never  advocated  what  some  feared  they  might—disobedience 
to  military  orders  by  Roman  Catholic  soldiers.  In  fact,  the  third  and  final  draft  of  the  Pastoral  Letter 
amended  the  earlier  condemnation  of  all  first  use  of  nuclear  weapons  to  include  recognition  of  the  role 
that  NATO's  "flexible  response"  doctrine  played  in  deterring  Soviet  aggression  in  Western  Europe 
But  the  draft  also  urged  that  "flexible  response"  be  replaced  quickly  with  "an  adequate  non-nuclear 
alternative."""'  This  wording  provided  enough  "diplomatic  room"  for  Roman  Catholic  soldiers,  the 
Army,  the  Church,  and  NATO  to  live  with  the  situation  The  moral  issue,  however,  had  enough  force 
to  cause  many  in  the  Chaplaincy  to  re-examine  their  own  rationale  for  serving  as  uniformed  clergy 
in  a  "nuclear"  world. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


A  Question  of  Identity 

At  Fort  Leonard  Wood,  Chaplain  Phillip  J.  Cassibry,  CPE  Supervisor  and  Trainer,  applied  for 
a  grant  from  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  in  1982  to  frind  a  Chaplains'  Denominational  Identity  Workshop. 
The  focus  of  the  workshop  was  to  stress  denominational  identity  and  relationships  as  a  way  to  bridge 
the  role  conflict  some  chaplains  were  experiencing  between  their  identity  as  military  officers  on  one 
hand  and  clergy  representatives  of  their  denomination  on  the  other.  The  nuclear  morality  issue  had 
not  helped  bridge  the  role  conflict  many  chaplains  felt.  Chaplain  Hessian  agreed  to  give  the  keynote 
address.  Major  General  C.  J.  Fiala,  Commanding  General  of  Fort  Leonard  Wood  and  a  Catholic  Lay 
Eucharistic  Minister,  agreed  to  share  his  views  on  the  Chaplaincy  as  a  vital  force  in  the  military 

The  workshop,  which  met  in  the  spring  of  1983,  featured  fifteen  speakers  including 
denominational  endorsing  agents,  active  and  reserve  component  chaplains.  Army,  Navy,  and  Air 
Force  chaplains.  Chaplain  Billy  W.  Libby,  President  of  the  Army  Chaplain  Board,  spoke  on  "The 
Chaplain's  Allegiance  to  His  Church,"  and  shared  an  experience  he  had  in  1972  in  which  he  lost  faith 
in  the  morality  of  the  Vietnam  War.  Chaplain  John  P.  "Jack"  Ettershank,  the  TRADOC  Chaplain, 
discussed  the  problem  of  the  degree  of  allegiance  the  chaplain  should  affirm  for  the  military.  Chaplain 
Jerry  E.  Malone,  from  the  93rd  Evacuation  Hospital  at  Fort  Leonard  Wood,  discussed  "The  Chaplain 
as  an  Advocate  of  Religious  Freedom.  "^^ 

In  a  sense  the  workshop  was  therapeutic  for  the  chaplains  who  attended,  for  it  showed  that 
their  concerns  over  role  conflicts  were  shared  and  had  been  addressed  by  many  of  their  colleagues. 
In  fact  the  issue  of  role  conflict  among  chaplains  had  had  a  long  history.  An  impressive  bibliography 
of  books  and  articles,  at  least  fifteen  titles  by  ten  chaplains  since  1954  was  available."''  For  some 
chaplains  the  issues  were  related  to  unresolved  feelings  from  the  Vietnam  War,  for  others  to  the 
possible  disconnection  they  feU  in  supporting  an  Army  on  the  edge  of  a  nuclear  holocaust.  For  all 
of  them  the  issues  and  the  responses  hopefially  spoke  to  the  question,  "What  am  I  doing  here?"'" 

U.S.  Army  Europe: 

Addressing  Issues  with  Programs,  Conferences,  and 

Spiritual  Leadership 

The  European  protest  to  the  deployment  of  American  missiles,  though  perhaps  a  minority 
view,  was  not  limited  of  course  to  England.  Throughout  Germany,  and  indeed  most  of  the  NATO 
countries,  newspapers,  civic  groups,  church  leaders,  and  politicians  debated  the  issues  involved  in 
strengthening  "the  nuclear  option"  in  Western  Europe.  Even  in  Switzerland,  a  traditionally  neutral 
country,  protests  were  reported  in  most  major  cities. *' 

Chaplain  Charles  J.  McDonnell,  the  U.S.  Army  Europe  Chaplain,  decided  to  address  some 
of  the  ethical  and  practical  ministry  issues  involved  in  NATO's  nuclear  posture  at  the  USAREUR 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Command  Chaplain  Conferences  in  November  of  1982  and  again  in  November  of  1983.  Supported 
by  an  outstanding  staif.  Chaplain  Whitfield  McMillan,  Chaplain  Tom  A.  Carroll,  and  Sergeant  Major 
Theodore  G  Huggins  among  them.  Chaplain  McDonnell  chose  the  topic,  "Ethics  in  an  Explosive 
World — Peace,  Presence,  and  Prophecy"  for  the  1982  Conference  The  Most  Reverend  John  J. 
O'Conner,  Office  of  the  Military  Ordinariat  and  former  Navy  Chief  of  Chaplains,  was  the  principal 
guest  speaker  The  conference  was  widely  advertised  and  attended  by  Army,  Navy,  and  Air  Force 
chaplains  as  well  as  by  some  chaplains  from  allied  NATO  countries."  The  follow-on  conference  for 
1983  was  centered  on  the  topic  "Ministry  in  an  Explosive  World — Ministry  to  the  Total 
Community  "" 

In  spite  of  the  concerns  around  the  possibility  of  nuclear  war,  the  focus  of  the  ministry  to 
soldiers  and  families  in  Europe  remained  centered  on  spiritual  support  and  growth,  religious 
education,  and  training  leaders  During  FY  82-83  more  than  32  conferences  and  USAREUR-wide 
training  sessions  were  conducted  with  the  sponsorship  and  approval  of  the  USAREUR  Chaplain.  A 
sample  of  the  ministries  addressed  by  these  conferences  included: 

Spirituality  and  Ministry 

The  Protestant  Chaplains'  Professional  Development  Conferences,  1982-83,  on 
Pastoral  Care  and  Homiletics. 

Protestant  Women  of  the  Chapel  Workshops  and  Study  Conferences  with  emphasis 
on  spiritual  growth  and  training  for  275  PWOC  officers  from  communities  throughout 
Europe.  More  than  700  women  attended  these  various  sessions. 

The  Military  Council  of  Catholic  Women  training  conferences  in  1982-83  featured 
guest  speakers  addressing  spiritual  growth  and  edification,  organizational  skills,  and 
the  rites  of  Christian  initiation.  Some  1,256  Catholic  women  attended 

Four  conferences  for  chapel  activity  specialists  which  included  training  sessions  in 
team  building,  time  management  and  MOS  71M-unique  roles  and  skills. 

Training  Volunteers/Professional  Development 

•  Two  conferences  on  training  volunteers  in  children's  ministries,  youth  ministries  and 
music  ministries  were  attended  by  all  Catholic  and  Protestant  Religious  Education 
Advisors,  Directors  of  Religious  Education,  and  Religious  Education  Coordinators. 
More  than  265  leaders  were  trained. 

•  Parent  Effectiveness  Training  for  200  chaplains  and  lay  leaders  leading  to  instructor 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 



Bethel  Bible  course  certification  training  by  the  German  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church 
graduated  13  chaplains  in  1982-83 

Two  sessions  of  "Train  the  Trainer"  programs  for  Chapel  Activities  Supervisors  to 
assist  in  professional  development  of  chapel  activity  specialists  were  held  in 
Kaiserslautem  and  Mannheim 

Two  Church  Music  Conferences  at  Berchtesgaden  with  540  attendees,  a  600% 
increase  over  1981,  featured  multiple  workshops  around  the  central  theme  of  "A 
Good  Team  at  Work:  Musicians  and  Chaplains."^'' 

Religious  Education 

•  Responding  to  the  need  for  USAREUR  -  wide  coordination,  a  Catholic  Religious 
Education  Advisory  Group  was  formed  and  held  its  first  meeting  on  7  October  1982. 
One  priest  from  each  of  the  major  subordinate  commands,  the  senior  USAFE  and 
USAREUR  priests,  and  three  Roman  Catholic  Directors  of  Religious  Education  were 
included  in  the  membership.  The  group  met  six  times  fi"om  October  of  1982  through 
December  1983  with  120  key  lay  leaders  to  discuss  the  "Rite  of  Christian  Initiation 
for  Adults." 

•  Eight  Catholic  religious  education  workshops  conducted  by  the  Reverend  James  J. 
DiGiacomo,  S.  J.,  trained  267  lay  leaders  on  "the  religious  formation  of  the 
adolescent  in  today's  church. 

•  Religious  Education  Orientation  and  Training  Conferences  in  April  of  1983  for  both 
Protestant  and  Catholic  RECs  and  DREs  were  held  in  Berchtesgaden  which  addressed 
multiple  administrative  and  organizational  issues.  Guest  speakers  included  Dr  John 
Westerhoff  fi"om  Duke  Divinity  School,  Sister  Joyce  Ann  Zimmerman  from  the  Maria 
Stein  Center  in  Ohio,  and  Richard  Avery  and  Donald  Marsh,  noted  musicians  from 
Port  Jervis,  N.Y.   Some  317  religious  educators  attended. 

Although  it  is  true  that  the  bulk  of  ministry  in  Europe  in  1982-83  was  centered  in  units, 
chapels  and  communities,  the  numbers  of  lay  leaders  trained  by  the  USAREUR  Chaplain's 
conferences  were  indicators  of  the  spiritual  strength  of  the  command.  During  his  trips  to  Europe  in 
1982  and  1983,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  impressed  both  with  the  implementation  of  the  Total 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Chaplaincy  Goals  and  with  the  involvement  of  volunteer  leaders  in  the  ministry  within  most  military 

The  Development  of  New  Doctrine 

One  of  the  initial,  and  most  important  missions  Chaplain  Hessian  gave  to  his  staff  in  FY83  was 
to  update  Chaplain  Corps  doctrine.  The  most  recent  Chaplain  Branch  Field  Manual  available  at  that 
time  was  FM  16-5,  The  Chap/ain,  dated  8  July  1977.  Since  1977,  there  had  been  a  number  of  new 
doctrinal  initiatives  both  at  Training  and  Doctrine  Command  (TRADOC)  and  within  the  Chaplain 
Corps  itself 

In  1978  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly  had  worked  out  an  agreement  with  General  Donn  A  Starry, 
Commanding  General  of  TRADOC,  to  assign  "assistant  brigade"  chaplains  to  battalion  level  This 
"Forward  Thrust"  doctrine,  approved  in  1980  at  Department  of  the  Army  level,  not  only  provided 
better  religious  coverage  for  soldiers,  but  also  gained  additional  spaces  for  chaplains.  Chaplain 
Wayne  Kuehne,  the  Force  Structure  Officer,  had  staffed  the  doctrine  for  Chaplain  Kelly  on  numerous 
trips  including  some  to  the  Armor  and  Infantry  Centers.  Chaplain  Kuehne  was  able  to  lay  the  ground 
work  so  effectively  that  General  Starry  approved  the  doctrine  before  the  concept  had  gone  through 
the  complete  staffing  procedure." 

General  Starry  had  directed  TRADOC  to  form  a  concept  of  how  the  Army  should  fight  "the 
Central  Battle" — the  place  where  all  combat  and  combat  support  systems  would  interact  on  the 
AirLand  battlefield.  A  "concept-based  acquisition  system,"  presented  in  1981,  served  as  the 
mechanism  to  translate  broad  operational  concepts  into  the  necessary  equipment  and  personnel 
requirements.'*"  In  the  revision  of  FM  100-5,  Operations,  and  in  the  fiiller  Army  86  studies,  combat 
developers  were  to  provide  integrated  operational  concepts  which  would  be  used  to  develop  force 
structure,  equipment  requirements,  training,  personnel,  and  installation  support.'^ 

Division  86,  the  first  reorganization  of  the  Army's  division  structure  since  the  ROAD  Division 
of  1963,  was  conceptualized  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  AirLand  battlefield.  The  Heavy  Division 
86  Table  of  Organization  and  Equipment  provided  for  19,040  soldiers  supported  by  30  chaplains  and 
30  chapel  activity  specialists.  This  was  an  increase  of  9  religious  ministry  teams  over  the  1982 
Armored  Division  Modified  TOE  (MTOE).  The  ratio  of  chaplains  to  soldiers  in  the  Heavy  Division 
86  TOE  was  1  to  635  as  opposed  to  1  to  713  in  the  Armored  Division.  The  larger  number  of 
chaplains  and  their  assignments  to  battalions  was  designed  to  provide  more  direct  support  for  soldiers 
on  the  AirLand  battlefield^* 

In  early  1982,  General  Glenn  K.  Otis,  who  had  succeeded  General  Starry  as  the  TRADOC 
Commander,  expanded  the  AirLand  Battle  doctrine,  which  had  appeared  in  TRADOC  Pamphlet  525- 
5  in  March  of  1981,  to  include  the  concept  of  an  "operational  level  of  war"  that  existed  between 
tactics  and  strategy. '^  Combat  developers  throughout  TRADOC  developed  joint  concepts  for 
operations  on  conventional-nuclear-chemical  battlefields.''" 

At  Fort  Monroe,  Chaplain  Max  W.  Wilk,  the  TRADOC  Staff  Chaplain,  discussed  the  need 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


for  revised  Chaplain  Corps  doctrine  with  Brigadier  General  D  R  Moreili,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff 
for  Doctrine.  General  Moreili  suggested  to  Chaplain  Wilk  that  the  chaplains  develop  a  concept  for 
how  they  would  provide  religious  support  on  the  new  AirLand  battlefield.  If  all  of  the  other  branches 
were  working  on  their  doctrinal  concepts,  the  Chaplain  Corps  needed  to  do  the  same  if  they  wanted 
to  be  resourced  in  the  fliture 

Chaplain  Wilk  appointed  Chaplain  Richard  Goellen,  a  Roman  Catholic  chaplain  on  his  staff, 
to  begin  the  development  of  a  concept  for  religious  support  on  the  modern  battlefield.'^'  Chaplain 
Wilk  was  succeeded  by  Chaplain  John  P  Ettershank  at  TRADOC  and  Chaplain  Goellen  received 
orders  to  go  to  Fulda,  Germany,  but  the  project  was  passed  to  Chaplain  John  Hannah,  who  had 
arrived  to  succeed  Chaplain  Goellen  In  July  of  1982  Chaplain  Hannah  completed  TRADOC 
Pamphlet  525-26,  Religious  Support  in  Combat,  and  had  it  approved  both  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 
and  by  TRADOC.  Religious  Support  in  Combat  was  published  in  March  of  1983. 

Renaming  Chapel  Activity  Specialists 

Other  developments  in  the  Army,  however,  soon  made  necessary  even  more  extensive  changes 
to  Chaplain  Corps  doctrine.  At  Fort  Lewis,  Washington,  the  9th  Infantry  Division  had  been 
designated  part  of  a  "High  Technology  Test  Bed"  for  a  new  light  division  capable  of  defeating  hostile 
armored  divisions  on  the  modern  battlefield.  In  Germany,  U.S.  Army  Europe  had  along  been 
concerned  about  the  possibility  of  a  conventional  attack  by  heavy  Soviet  armor  and  mechanized 
infantry  units.  Indeed  this  concern  had  caused  General  Donn  Starry,  the  former  Corps  Commander 
at  Fulda,  to  initiate  AirLand  Battle  Doctrine. 

In  1982-1983  the  Soviets  had  40,000  tanks  in  their  inventory  as  compared  to  about  10,000 
first-line  U.S.  tanks.  On  the  NATO  central  front,  the  ratio  was  about  2.5  to  I  in  favor  of  the  Warsaw 
Pact.*^'  General  Edward  C  Myer,  the  Army's  Chief  of  Staff,  wanted  the  9th  Infantry  Division  (under 
its  Commander,  Major  General  Robert  Elton),  to  develop  some  new  concepts  to  help  defeat  hostile 
armor  on  the  battlefield. 

One  study  suggested  that  Russian  tanks  could  be  defeated  by  anti-tank  vehicles  if  they  were 
fifty-percent  faster  than  the  tanks  and  if  they  had  a  low  profile  If  the  9th  Infantry  Division  could 
develop  a  light  but  lethal  anti-tank  capability  and  if  the  whole  division  could  be  air-lifted  to  Germany 
on  CI  30  or  C 141  aircraft,  it  would  give  NATO  an  important  additional  asset  in  the  event  of  a  Soviet 
attack.*^  Since  the  9th  Infantry  was  the  largest  division  in  the  Army  at  that  time,  a  reduction  in  spaces 
was  necessary  if  the  division  was  to  be  "air  transportable." 

The  9th  Infantry  Division  Staff' Chaplain,  Timothy  C.  Tatum,  was  enthusiastic  about  the 
possibility  of  a  high-technology  religious  ministry  team  accompanying  the  division.  Chaplain  Tatum 
had  managed  to  secure  portable  computers  for  the  chaplains  in  the  field.  They  had  experimented  with 
new  tents  and  even  had  some  chaplains  on  motorcycles  to  deliver  fast  support  to  casualties  at  aid 
stations.''^  He  also  had  VHF  pocket  radios  which  were  so  efficient  the  division  surgeon  asked  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


chaplains  to  relay  messages  for  the  medics  Indeed,  the  chaplains  were  the  most  technologically 
advanced  section  in  the  division  in  1982 

The  problem  Chaplain  Tatum  encountered,  which  quickly  became  an  issue  for  the  entire 
Chaplaincy,  was  with  the  job  description  and  name  for  Chapel  Activity  Specialists.  In  1977  chaplain 
assistants  had  been  renamed  in  Army  Regulation  61 1-201  to  give  a  more  professional  title  for  the  71 
M  military  occupational  specialty  Instead  of  "assistants"  they  were  "specialists"  on  an  Air  Force 
model. *^  The  senior  Chapel  Activity  Specialists  (CAS)  were  called  Chaplain  Administrators. 

In  the  9th  Infantry  Division,  however,  there  were  no  plans  to  deploy  chapels  on  aircraft  to 
fight  Russian  tanks  If  the  chaplain  activity  specialist's  (CAS)  job  was  primarily  tied  to  a  chapel,  he 
or  she  was  not  needed  in  combat  To  compound  the  problem,  there  was  very  little  doctrine  in  print 
in  1982  to  justify  the  CAS'  position  on  the  battlefield 

Chaplain  Tatum  had  argued  successfijily  for  ail  22  of  his  chaplain  positions  to  remain  in  the 
new  light  division,  but  he  knew  he  could  not  defend  the  Chapel  Activity  Specialists  as  long  as  they 
had  that  name.*'''  After  a  discussion  with  Chaplain  Gordon  Schweitzer,  Director  of  Combat 
Developments  at  the  Chaplain  School,  Chaplain  Tatum  called  Chaplain  Leroy  Ness  at  the  Office  of 
the  Chief  of  Chaplains  and  recommended  an  immediate  name  change  for  CASs  back  to  chaplain 

In  spite  of  Chaplain  Tatum's  efforts,  the  slots  for  Chapel  Activity  Specialists  in  the  9th  Infantry 
Division  were  lost  on  paper  The  Division  recommended  the  positions  be  civilianized.  It  was  left  to 
Chaplain  Tatum's  successor.  Chaplain  James  Edgren,  to  re-justify  the  positions  under  a  new  name  and 
with  a  different  understanding  of  their  fijnction 

Ironically,  as  these  developments  were  taking  place  at  Fort  Lewis,  Sergeant  Major  Charles 
J.  Durr,  the  senior  noncommissioned  officer  at  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Office,  had  just  completed  a 
project  to  gain  approval  for  new  Chapel  Activity  Specialist  insignia.  Sergeant  Major  Durr  had  been 
statTmg  the  project  for  two  years.  In  April  of  1983  the  insignia,  a  chapel  supported  by  two  open 
hands,  was  approved  for  production  by  Chaplain  Hessian. 

At  about  the  same  time  Chaplain  Tatum's  recommendation  to  re-name  assistants  came  to 
Chaplain  Leroy  Ness,  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne  had  drawn  the  same  conclusion.  When  Chaplain 
Kuehne  mentioned  the  proposal  to  Chaplain  Hessian,  it  was  immediately  approved.  Sergeant  Major 
Charles  Durr  notified  the  field,  and  by  October  of  1983  TRADOC  had  recognized  the  name  change.*** 

The  notion  of  civilianizing  the  Chapel  Activity  Specialist  positions,  in  spite  of  the  hasty  name 
change,  spread  quickly  through  the  Army.  At  Headquarters,  U.S.  Army  Europe,  USAREUR 
resource  team  recommended  replacing  CASs  with  civilian  secretaries  At  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains,  Sergeant  Major  Durr  wrote  an  information  paper  for  Chaplain  Hessian  designed  to  protect 
the  MOS  Citing  AR  61 1-201,  Sergeant  Major  Durr  argued  that  since  the  CAS  was  expected  to 
"engage  the  enemy  with  weapons"  to  "provide  security  for  the  chaplain,"  a  civilian  secretary  would 
neither  be  a  "feasible"  nor  a  "desirable"  alternative.  Though  Sergeant  Major  Durr's  argument  was 
eventually  successfial,  it  was  clear  that  a  more  complete  doctrinal  justification  for  the  chaplain 
assistant  MOS  was  urgently  needed  *'"' 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 

Sergeant  Major   Charles   J.    Durr   III 


The  Unit  Ministry  Team  Concept 

The  concept  and  the  term  "Unit  Ministry  Team"  had  its  origins  in  response  to  concerns  within 
the  Chaplaincy  In  1980,  following  requests  from  both  senior  chaplains  and  senior  chapel  activity 
specialists.  Chaplain  Kermit  Johnson,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  directed  the  Chaplain  Board  to  develop 
ways  and  means  to  improve  the  working  relationships  and  ministry  of  religious  ministry  team 
members'"  Master  Sergeant  Aaron  Gibson,  Special  Projects  Manager  on  the  Chaplain  Board, 
worked  with  the  President  of  the  Board,  Chaplain  Billy  Libby,  to  develop  a  series  of  team  building 
workshops  A  total  of  sixteen  separate  workshops  and  meetings  were  held  from  1982  to  1985  at 
installations  which  included  Fort  Carson,  Fort  Gordon,  Fort  Meade,  and  Fort  Shafter/"  A  consultant, 
the  Reverend  Dr.  John  C.  Bryan  of  Bryan  and  Weir  Associates  in  Toronto,  Canada,  was  contracted 
to  develop  a  Team  Building  Manual. 

As  Master  Sergeant  (later  Regimental  Sergeant  Major)  Gibson  wrote: 

In  the  early  part  of  the  team  building  project  (April  1982),  one  of  the  major  issues  was 
to  define  the  meaning  of  "team  "  Each  unit  participating  in  the  project  wrote  its  own 
definition  for  team  as  well  as  its  own  mission  statement  The  titles  changed  from 
"Religious  Ministries  Team"  to  "Religious  Ministries  Support  Team"  and  then  finally 
to  "Unit  Ministry  Team. "'- 

The  focus  of  the  team  building  workshops  was  not  on  the  development  of  doctrine  for  the 
Chaplaincy,  but  rather  on  improving  interpersonal  relationships  Nevertheless,  the  research  by  Master 
Sergeant  Aaron  Gibson  helped  prepare  the  branch  for  the  new  concept  and  for  the  development  of 
the  formal  UMT  doctrine  in  the  same  time  frame." 

A  more  important  initiative,  which  led  to  the  development  of  formal  unit  ministry  team 
doctrine  in  Field  Manual  16-5,  The  Chaplain  and  Chaplain  Assistant  in  Combat  Operations,  began 
in  the  summer  of  1983.  Chaplain  James  Edgren  left  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Office  (DACH)  to  become 
the  Division  Chaplain  for  the  9th  Infantry  Division.  Chaplain  Timothy  Tatum  replaced  Chaplain 
Edgren  at  DACH  and  brought  his  recommendations  to  save  chaplain  assistant  positions  with  him. 

The  term  "Chapel  Activity  Specialisf  was  being  changed  in  the  field  to  "Chaplain  Assistant", 
but  there  still  needed  to  be  a  new  and  clearer  description  of  the  chaplain  assistant's  flinctions  in 
combat.  The  regular  quarterly  meeting  of  the  Chaplaincy's  combat  developers  was  scheduled  for  the 
fall  at  the  Chaplain  School.  At  that  meeting  the  need  for  new  concepts  and  doctrine  would  take  the 
highest  priority. 

The  people  who  comprised  the  Chaplaincy's  "First  Team  for  Doctrine"  in  the  fall  of  1983 
brought  a  wealth  of  varied  experience  with  them.  Chaplain  G.  T.  Gunhus  was  from  the  Soldier 
Support  Center  at  Fort  Ben  Harrison  and  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne  from  Plans,  Programs  and  Policies 
at  the  Chiefs  Office  Chaplain  Gordon  Schweitzer  was  Chief  of  Combat  Developments  at  the 
Chaplain  School'^  and  Major  Morgan  L.  Flom  was  Chief  of  the  Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division 
there.  Chaplain  John  Hannah  was  from  TRADOC,  Master  Sergeant  Oliver  T.  "Irish"  Corbett  was 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


theNCOIC  for  Combat  Developments,  Chaplain  James  Robnolt  was  in  the  Directorate  of  Training 
and  Doctrine,  Chaplain  Basil  L.  Ballard  and  Chaplain  Claude  Newby  were  assigned  to  Combat 
Developments,  and  Sergeant  First  Class  T.  E.  Hatcher  was  in  Training  Developments  before  moving 
to  Combat  Developments  in  1984/^ 

Although  no  minutes  of  the  1983  meeting  are  known  to  exist.  Chaplain  Kuehne  recalled  that 
at  one  point  someone  noted  that  the  chaplain  assistants'  positions  in  the  9th  Infantry  Division  would 
not  be  secure  as  long  as  the  chaplain  and  assistant  were  called  a  "Religious  Ministry  Team."  Chaplain 
Gunhus  was  presiding  at  the  meeting,  after  several  suggestions,  he  wrote  "Unit  Ministry  Team"  on 
a  piece  of  butcher  paper"'  Major  Flom  fi-om  UITD,  an  artillery  officer,  thought  that  was  the  best 
choice  because  it  tied  the  chaplain  and  the  chaplain  assistant  to  the  unit  and  not  to  a  chapel." 

Choosing  a  new  name  for  the  chaplain-chaplain  assistant  team  was,  of  course,  but  a  small  part 
of  writing  new  doctrine  for  the  AirLand  battlefield.  Fortunately,  there  were  several  older  versions 
of  FM  16-5,  The  Chaplain,  the  new  TRADOC  Pam  525-26,  Rehgious  Support  in  Comhat,  and 
numerous  Army  regulations,  manuals  and  special  studies  available.  One  concern  was  how  to  describe 
the  job  of  the  chaplain  assistant  in  a  combat  environment  with  more  functions  than  merely  providing 
security  for  the  chaplain  and  driving  a  vehicle.  If  the  job  of  a  chaplain  assistant  was  a  specialty  which 
required  training  and  justified  branch  insignia,  there  should  be  functions  the  assistant  could  be  trained 
to  perform  that  would  be  independent  of,  though  supplemental  to,  the  ministry  of  the  chaplain.  As 
Major  Morgan  Flom  reflected: 

The  unit  ministry  team  had  to  be  of  value  to  the  commander  of  the  unit.  It  had  to 
have  value  for  the  commander's  mission,  and  its  functions  had  to  be  portrayed  in 
language  the  commander  understood.  Certainly  religious  support  in  combat  was 
important,  but  its  components  had  to  be  described  in  detail.'^ 

Selecting  multiple  tasks  for  the  chaplain  assistant  was  not  difficuh.  Chaplain  Orris  Kelly  had 
directed  a  task  force  to  meet  at  the  Chaplain  School  in  1976  to  do  a  task  review  The  result  was  the 
addition  of  50  new  tasks  for  the  71M  MOS  Yet  in  1983,  seven  years  later,  the  question  was  how 
to  "battle  focus"  the  tasks  in  a  way  that  would  justify  the  MOS. 

One  suggestion  for  a  set  of  new  tasks  came  from  research  Major  Flom  had  done  on  combat 
stress  and  battle  fatigue  casualties  during  the  Yom  Kippur  War  in  Israel  in  1973  At  Walter  Reed 
Army  Medical  Center,  studies  by  Dr  Greg  Belenky  and  Dr.  Ruben  Gall  had  indicated  that  battle 
fatigued  soldiers  treated  near  the  battlefield  and  returned  to  duty  as  soon  as  possible,  as  had  happened 
in  1973  in  Israel,  had  a  greater  chance  of  not  becoming  casualties  than  those  evacuated  to  the  rear. 
In  1982  the  U.S.  Army  was  very  interested  in  minimizing  battle  fatigue  casualties,  especially  in  a 
situation  in  which  the  enemy  was  more  numerous  When  a  unit  was  out  numbered,  every  soldier 

Major  Flom  argued  that  both  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  could  be  trained  to  minister  to 
battle  fatigued  soldiers.  This  would  be  an  area,  among  others,  in  which  chaplain  assistants  would 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


have  independent  value  and  relevance  for  the  commander  Other  general  functions  for  chaplain 
assistants,  which  could  produce  up  to  40  trainable  tasks,  included  supporting  religious  services  and 
care  for  the  wounded,  providing  armed  security,  managing  equipment  and  material,  arranging 
transportation,  communication  and  collection  of  information,  screening  counseling  requests, 
scheduling,  and  analyzing  key  elements  of  information  regarding  the  provision  of  religious  support 
in  a  potential  nuclear-chemical-biological  battlefield  environment  ™ 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  meeting  in  the  autumn  of  1983,  it  was  clear  that  a  good  deal  of 
conceptual  work  would  have  to  be  done  before  a  new  field  manual  could  be  completed.  Combat 
Developments  at  USACHS  would  take  the  lead  in  writing  some  training  circulars  on  the  unit  ministry 
team  Many  of  the  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  on  the  faculty  would  participate  in  the  fijrther 
development  of  the  new  doctrinal  manual.  The  Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division  at  USACHS 
would  edit  and  produce  the  manual  for  the  Commandant,  Chaplain  Richard  R  Tupy,  and  ultimately 
for  the  Chief  of  Chaplains'  approval 

As  the  results  of  the  Chaplain  School  meeting  were  being  discussed  at  the  Chiefs  Office,  news 
came  of  an  alert  for  units  at  Fort  Bragg,  Fort  Stewart,  and  Fort  Lewis  to  prepare  for  a  "rapid 
deployment"  to  the  Windward  Islands  in  the  West  Indies  Reportedly  some  American  students  were 
being  held  hostage  on  the  island  of  Grenada,  and  President  Reagan  had  decided  to  commit  U.S. 
combat  forces  to  rescue  them.*" 

Whirlwind  of  Teamwork  :  Concepts,  Doctrine,  Plans,  and  Products 

The  Unit  Ministry  Team  concept  was  the  organizing  principle  which  enabled  us  to  articulate 
our  materiel  and  force  structure  requirements  for  the  Army. 

Chaplain  James  H.  Robnolt 

Plans,  Programs,  and  Policies  Division 

Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  1984 

In  1 984,  following  the  annual  Command  Chaplains  Conference,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 
approved  a  number  of  new  or  newly  initiated  concepts  ,  programs  and  policies  which  helped  the 
Chaplaincy  meet  the  rapid  modernization  timetable  of  the  Army.  Among  these  were  the  unit  ministry 
team  concept,  the  strengthening  of  the  chaplain  and  chaplain  assistant  ministries  in  the  reserve 
components,  the  creation  of  the  Chaplain  Administrative  Religious  Support  System  (CARSS),  and 
a  review  of  regulations  impacting  on  the  accommodation  of  religious  practices  for  soldiers  In  every 
instance  there  were  teams  of  individual  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  who  made  important  and 
timely  contributions  to  the  realization  of  these  initiatives. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  Development  of  Field  Manual  16-5 

Since  the  Command  Chaplains'  Conference  of  July,  1983  ,  a  number  of  doctrine  writers, 
including  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne  at  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  (DACH),  Chaplain  G  T. 
Gunhus  at  the  Soldier  Support  Center,  and  others  located  principally  at  the  Chaplain  School,  had 
been  hard  at  work  reviewing  proposed  doctrinal  changes  for  a  new  field  manual,  Ihe  ( 'luip/ain  and 
Chaplain  Assistant  in  Combat  Operations  .  The  Combat  Developments  Directorate  had  the  tasking 
to  develop  concepts  and  studies  that  would  relate  Forward  Thrust  doctrine  ,  the  unit  ministry  team 
as  a  vehicle  for  the  provision  of  religious  support ,  and  the  traditional  roles  and  ftjnctions  of  chaplains 
and  chaplain  assistants  to  the  AirLand  battlefield  Studies  of  Division  86  as  described  by  Chaplain 
Stephen  Gantt  and  Chaplain  Gordon  Schweitzer,  Director  of  Combat  Developments,  formed  an 
important  part  of  the  force  structure  framework  for  the  development  of  doctrine  **' 

The  chaplains  in  the  major  leadership  positions  at  the  Chaplain  School  faced  the  problem 
of  personnel  rotations  in  the  midst  of  doctrinal  development  Chaplain  Richard  Tupy  ,  the 
Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School,  was  succeeded  by  Chaplain  Charles  J  McDonnell,  formerly  the 
USAREUR  Chaplain  .  Chaplain  Gordon  Schweitzer  in  Combat  Developments  was  succeeded  first 
by  Chaplain  John  W  Schumacher  and  then  by  Chaplain  Wayne  E.  Kuehne  when  Chaplain 
Schumacher  was  selected  to  go  to  the  War  College  Other  chaplains  and  assistants  in  Combat 
Developments  continued  the  work  ,  however  Chaplain  Basil  Ballard  ,  Chaplain  Claude  Newby,  SFC. 
Ronald  D  Romer,  and  Spec  6  Jim  Roberts  pushed  forward  with  development  and  coordination  of 
tactical  concepts  for  the  UMT.  In  the  Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division,  Major  Flom  and  his  staff 
edited  the  various  concept  papers  and  chapters  written  for  the  manual  by  members  of  the  Chaplain 
School  faculty  Chaplain  Archie  T  Roberts  ,  the  Director  of  Training,  Chaplain  Ocie  I  Courtney,  the 
Director  of  Training  Developments,  Chaplain  Don  Gover  in  Training  Developments,  and  Chaplain 
Robert  J  Ennis  ,  the  Assistant  Commandant,  all  lent  their  support  for  the  development  of  the  manual 
and  for  writing  the  new  training  tasks  and  standards  being  generated  by  the  new  doctrine. 

In  the  latter  part  of  June,  1 984  ,  Chaplain  Kuehne  arrived  at  the  School  to  assume  the  duties 
of  Director  of  Combat  Developments  Before  he  left  Washington,  Chaplain  Kuehne  had  been  directed 
by  Chaplain  Hessian  to  "go  up  there  and  be  prepared  to  write  doctrine."'*'  Chaplain  James  Robnolt, 
the  Force  Structure  Planning  Oflficer  at  DACH,  came  to  the  Chaplain  School  to  join  Chaplain  Kuehne 
and  Major  Flom  in  reviewing  the  doctrinal  statements  which  had  been  developed  to  that  time. 
Chaplain  Jesse  Thornton  also  arrived  at  USACHCS  in  June  to  be  the  new  publication  otTicer  in  the 
Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division,  the  division  which  had  the  final  editing  responsibility  for 
manuals  and  most  training  publications. 

There  were  still  issues  to  be  discussed  surrounding  the  way  doctrine  was  to  be  conceived  and 
written.  The  duties  of  chaplain  assistants  related  to  religious  support  on  the  battlefield  needed  to  be 
expanded  ,  but  some  questions  seemed  too  problematic.  Could  a  chaplain  assistant  who  was  neither 
ordained  nor  endorsed  by  a  denomination  for  ministry  perform  emergency  baptism  on  the  battlefield'^ 
If  the  chaplain  assistant  could  do  so,  could  he  or  she  be  trained  by  the  Army  to  baptize  and  required 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


to  perform  this  task  '^  Would  assistants  be  trained  to  baptize  by  immersion  or  by  sprinkling  or  by  both 
methods  '^ 

Another  issue  involved  presenting  religious  coverage  requirements  in  language  the 
commander  could  understand.  Earlier  doctrine  had  described  religious  coverage  as  unit  coverage, 
area  coverage  ,  and  denominational  coverage.  Major  Flom  wanted  to  "battle-focus"  the  language. 
Unit  coverage  became  "direct  support ,"  and  area  coverage  became  "general  support,"  artillery  terms 
which  commanders  used  daily. ^''  The  missions  were  the  same,  but  the  language  changed  . 

There  were  many  other  discussions  concerning  the  chaplain's  role  as  a  religious  leader  and  a 
staff  officer,  confidentiality  in  the  counseling  process,  the  policy  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  that 
"chaplains  would  not  bear  arms"  on  the  battlefield,  the  chaplain's  role  as  an  advisor  to  the  commander 
on  world  religions  ,  and  the  supervisory  responsibilities  of  chaplains  and  senior  chaplain  assistants  at 
each  echelon  to  mention  but  a  few.**  In  essence  the  doctrinal  writers  in  Combat  Developments  , 
Training  and  Doctrine,  DACH  ,  and  UITD  tried  to  hammer  out  centrist  positions  which  would  give 
clear,  logical,  and  legal  guidance  without  prescribing  a  single,  "school  solution"  for  every  situation. 

The  layout  for  the  "battle-focused"  manual,  and  for  Chaplain  Corps  doctrine,  followed  a 
logical  sequence:  a  statement  of  the  history  and  mission  of  the  Chaplain  Corps,  a  discussion  of 
religious  support  concepts  which  included  Forward  Thrust  and  the  Unit  Ministry  Team  ,  the  inclusion 
of  duties  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  (no  longer  chapel  activities  specialists),  the  role  and 
duties  of  the  unit  ministry  team  in  combat  (  with  a  chart  of  all  of  the  tasks  the  chaplain  assistant  would 
perform),  and  a  discussion  of  the  ministry  on  installations  The  manual  captured  enough  doctrine  to 
save  the  chaplain  assistant  MOS  and  to  provide  a  rationale  for  resourcing  the  materiel ,  training  ,  and 
personnel  requirements  of  the  religious  support  mission  on  the  battlefield. 

At  the  end  of  September  1984  ,  after  approval  by  Chaplain  Hessian,  the  galley  proofs  for  the 
new  FM  16-5  went  fi"om  UITD  to  TRADOC  for  printing  and  publication  There  was  a  sense  of  real 
achievement  both  at  the  Chief's  Office  and  at  the  Chaplain  School  In  announcing  the  new  doctrinal 
achievement  to  the  field  ,  Chaplain  Leroy  Ness ,  the  Director  of  Plans,  Programs,  and  Policies  ,  wrote: 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  developed  a  new  doctrinal  concept  for  the  chaplaincy  to 
provide  direct  soldier  ministry  in  the  AirLand  Battle  The  Unit  Ministry  Team  (UMT), 
comprised  of  the  chaplain  and  the  chaplain  assistant ,  will  be  assigned  in  direct  support 
of  battalions  This  organizational  and  assignment  shift  provides  ministry  to  soldiers 
at  the  forward  edge  of  the  battle,  giving  the  UMT  direct  contact  with  soldiers 
experiencing  battle  fatigue  and  needing  spiritual  comfort  in  the  environment  of  pain 
,  suffering  ,  and  death.  The  UMT  doctrine  is  applicable  to  every  level  of  assignment. 
Teams  work  at  Brigade,  Division,  Corps  ,  and  echelons  above  the  Corps,  providing 
general  and  direct  religious  support  The  UMT's  are  integrated  in  their  efforts  to 
provide  denominational  coverage  for  larger  elements  and  areas.  In  peacetime,  at 
installation  level,  the  UMT's  provide  support  for  all  assigned  and  attached  units  ,  as 
well  as  an  integration  of  the  total  command  religious  program.** 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


In  a  sense  ,  however,  the  publication  of  FM  16-5,  The  Chaplain  and  Chaplain  Assistant  in 
Combat  Operations  in  December  of  1984,  generated  more  questions  than  it  answered  about  the  unit 
ministry  team.  Three  field  circulars  dealing  with  the  unit  ministry  team  and  the  duties  of  chaplains 
and  chaplain  assistants  were  written  by  a  committee  of  subject  matter  experts  in  1986  to  meet  this 
need  It  was  not  until  1989,  five  years  later,  that  a  revised  FM  16-1,  Religious  Support  Doctrine, 
put  a  more  precise  definition  on  the  "ministry  tasks"  the  Army  could  and  should  train  chaplain 
assistants  to  perform. 

Functional  Review  and  Functional  Area  Assessment 

In  1983  the  Vice  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army ,  General  Maxwell  Thurman  ,  instituted  flinctional 
reviews  and  fijnctional  area  assessments  for  all  branches  in  the  Total  Army.  "''  The  aim  was  to 
evaluate  the  actions  needed  to  field  new  organizations  in  each  fijnctional  area  and  thereby  support 
smoother  force  modernization  and  integration.  Viable  organizations  would  integrate  doctrine, 
organizational  structure,  training ,  and  materiel  requirements.*'  The  Department  of  the  Army  viewed 
functional  area  assessments,  projected  three  years  into  the  ftiture,  as  an  apt  tool  for  the  Vice  Chief 
of  Staff  to  assure  the  success  of  Army  force  integration.  In  late  1983  functional  area  assessments 
(FAAs)  were  planned  for  seventeen  selected  areas  through  1985.  Special  Army  Staff — selected 
categories  included  decision  systems  ,  standardization  ,  and  interoperability  By  the  middle  of  1984, 
FAAs  had  been  completed  for  military  intelligence,  air  defense  artillery,  armor,  infantry,  ordnance, 
and  quartermaster  organizations.**  The  Chaplain  Corps  '  FAA  was  scheduled  for  August  of  1984. 

In  spite  of  the  heavy  demands  on  his  time  imposed  by  the  development  of  new  doctrine  for 
the  Chaplaincy ,  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne  performed  the  initial  work  for  the  Functional  Review  and 
Functional  Area  Assessment  along  with  designated  persons  within  the  Academic  Board  and  Combat 
Developments  Directorate  .*'  Over  a  period  of  four  months.  Chaplain  Kuehne  organized  the 
presentation  material  for  a  briefing  for  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel  (DCSPER).  In  order 
to  achieve  the  maximum  benefit  from  the  Functional  Review,  planning  and  participation  was 
performed  with  the  Adjutant  General ,  Finance ,  and  Public  Affairs  proponents  who  would  be  briefing 
at  the  same  time. 

In  August  of  1984  Chaplain  Jerry  Reynolds  ,  Major  Morgan  L.  Flom  ,  and  Chaplain  James 
H.  Robnolt  conducted  the  formal  briefing  at  DCSPER.  Included  in  the  briefing  was  a  review  of  the 
chaplain  and  chaplain  assistant  force  structure,  the  training  for  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants,  a 
review  of  the  development  of  doctrine,  and  issues  reflected  in  the  shortage  of  Roman  Catholic 

The  Functional  Area  Assessment  for  the  Vice  Chief  of  Staff ,  General  Thurman  ,  was  a  natural 
outgrowth  of  the  Functional  Review.  Whereas  the  Functional  Review  focused  mainly  on  personnel 
issues ,  the  Functional  Area  Assessment  addressed  specifics  in  the  force  structure  and  materiel  areas. 
Work  was  accomplished  by  joint  efforts  of  a  new  Manning  the  Force  Proponent  Subcommittee,  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Combat  Developments  Directorate  ,  and  the  Plans,  Programs,  and  Policies  Directorate  of  the  Chief 
of  Chaplains'  Office  Chaplain  Hessian  and  Chaplain  Leroy  Ness  attended  the  briefing,  but  the 
presentation  was  again  made  by  Chaplains  Reynolds  and  Robnolt  and  by  Major  Flom. 

The  briefing  for  General  Thurman  examined  details  around  the  issues  of  civilianization, 
recruitment  of  Roman  Catholic  clergy,  the  status  of  the  force  structure  in  the  immediate  fiature,  and 
applicable  doctrine  and  force  layouts  on  the  battlefield/*'  General  Thurman,  a  devout  Roman  Catholic 
layman,  understood  immediately  the  importance  of  the  Unit  Ministry  Team  concept"  The  UMT 
could  enable  chaplains  of  one  faith  to  be  paired  with  chaplain  assistants  of  another  faith  to  extend 
pluralistic  support  on  the  battlefield  and  to  help  ensure  the  accommodation  of  soldiers'  religious 
practices.  Even  if  the  chaplain  and  the  assistant  were  of  the  same  faith,  the  assistant  now  had  an 
expanded  role  on  the  battlefield  in  helping  to  minister  to  potential  battle  fatigue  casualties.  General 
Thurman  was  enthusiastic  about  the  UMT  as  a  new  idea  for  the  Chaplaincy.'' 

Even  though  Chaplain  Hessian  had  been  concerned  about  the  briefing  with  General  Thurman 
because  the  Chaplaincy  was  still  working  on  the  UMT  concept,  he  was  elated  at  the  outcome.'^'  At 
the  conclusion  of  the  briefing  General  Thurman  directed  that  the  chaplain  assistant,  as  part  of  the  Unit 
Ministry  Team,  be  assessed  as  an  asset  in  dealing  with  battle  fatigue  at  the  battalion  level.  Second, 
General  Thurman  directed  that  avenues  be  explored  to  assign  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  to 
units  in  the  Reserve  Components  without  the  force  constraints  applicable  to  the  active  component 
The  Vice  Chief  turned  to  Chaplain  Hessian  and  said,  "Father,  how  many  chaplains  do  you  send  to 
the  War  College  "^  "  Chaplain  Hessian  replied,  "Two  to  the  resident  course.  Sir."  "Well,  "  General 
Thurman  said,  "let's  get  some  more  seats"  With  that  remark  General  Thurman  added  two  additional 
chaplain  spaces  to  the  Senior  Service  College  to  make  a  total  of  four  chaplains  per  year.'"* 

Since  the  role  of  the  chaplain  assistant  had  been  one  of  the  main  subjects  at  the  FAA,  another 
of  the  results  of  the  briefing  was  to  re-examine  UMT  training  at  the  Chaplain  School.  Although  more 
opportunities  for  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  to  work  together  in  the  field  were  always  desirable, 
scheduling  problems  for  class  time  and  for  appropriate  field  locations  were  usually  present. 
Nevertheless  ,  in  the  summer  of  1984  the  AIT  students  at  the  Chaplain  School  had  their  first  field 
training  exercise  (FTX)  to  help  "battle-focus"  their  curriculum.''^  Likewise  they  got  their  first  Drill 
Sergeants  as  "group-paced"  replaced  "self-paced"  instruction  ."' 

Strengthening  the  Reserve 

General  Thurman's  decisions  sent  a  ripple  through  the  Chaplaincy  's  personnel  and  force 
structure  planning  Nowhere  was  this  more  evident  than  in  the  Reserve  Components.  A  major  change 
in  the  Army  organizational  structure  in  the  Reserve  Components  was  in  progress.  The  number  of 
continental  armies  (CONUSAs)  had  been  increased  fi"om  three  to  five  and  the  Army  Readiness  and 
Mobilization  Regions  (ARMRs)  were  dissolved.  Staff  chaplain  positions  were  established  at  the 
newly-created  Second  and  Fourth  US.  Army  headquarters.  All  nine  ARMR  active  duty  chaplain 
positions  were  eliminated  ,  but  a  notional  force  structure  of  76  Active  Guard  Reserve  (AGR)  chaplain 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


positions  was  approved  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  ,  with  six  AGR  chaplain  and  six  AGR  chaplain 
assistant  positions  located  at  FORSCOM  and  in  the  five  CONUSAs/*' 

As  a  result  of  the  Functional  Area  Assessment  in  August  of  1984  ,  unit  ministry  teams  would 
be  placed  in  all  Reserve  Component  battalion-sized  units.  Moreover,  policies  and  procedures  were 
developed  to  place  Reserve  Component  chaplains  of  shortage  faith  groups  on  active  duty  on  a 
Temporary  Tour  of  Active  Duty  (TTAD)  for  up  to  139  days.  This  was  the  first  utilization  of  Reserve 
Component  chaplains  in  support  of  active  component  chaplain  missions  by  regular  policy  .  In  order 
to  flirther  coordinate  the  new  AGR  chaplain  personnel  issues,  a  National  Guard  chaplain  AGR 
position  was  established  at  the  National  Guard  Bureau  .  Chaplain  Philip  J  Rapp  was  assigned  to  that 
position  as  the  first  incumbent.""* 

The  Chaplain  Automated  Religious  Support  System 

One  of  Chaplain  Hessian's  goals  in  1984  as  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  to  modernize  the 
Chaplaincy's  administrative  and  information  system  with  appropriate  computers  and  software 
programs.  "We  need  to  do  something  to  get  the  Chaplaincy  out  of  the  Stone  Age  ,"  the  Chief  told 
his  staff.  "Go  find  some  money  and  get  something  done  by  the  end  of  this  fiscal  year."'' 

Chaplain  Ronald  S  Bezanson,  the  Director  of  the  Administration  and  Management  Division 
(A  &  MD)  at  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  turned  the  project  over  to  Chaplain  Timothy  C. 
Tatum  ,  the  A  &  MD  Management  Officer,  for  study,  staffing,  and  implementation  Chaplain  Tatum 
coordinated  his  efforts  with  the  Office  of  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff' for  Operations  (DCSOPS)  to  get 
approval  for  the  project.  When  asked  at  DCSOPS  what  the  modernization  effort  would  be  called. 
Chaplain  Tatum  was  at  a  loss  "Why  does  it  have  to  be  called  anything  '^"  he  inquired  "Because  every 
Army  program  has  to  have  an  acronym,"  the  staff' officer  replied.  "Well,  give  me  a  moment."  Chaplain 
Tatum  said.  After  about  20  seconds  of  thought.  Chaplain  Tatum  suggested  that  the  program  should 
be  called  the  Chaplain  Automated  Religious  Support  System  (CARSS)  That  title  met  the  DCSOPS 
requirement,  so  the  paperwork  was  forwarded  for  approval 

At  approximately  the  same  time  the  CARSS  project  was  being  initiated,  the  Chief  of  Staff"  of 
the  Army  sent  a  directive  to  each  major  staff  agency  to  determine  what  their  information  system 
requirements  would  be  for  the  near  fijture  In  order  to  meet  this  tasking.  Chaplain  Bezanson  formed 
a  task  force  to  make  a  needs  analysis  and  determine  the  information  requirements  for  DACH  and  the 
U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Board  . 

A  90-day  study,  the  Information  Systems  Plan  (ISP)  Study,  was  conducted  by  a  team  of 
chaplains  from  those  two  organizations  The  team  members  included  Chaplain  Timothy  C  Tatum, 
Chaplain  Roy  N.  Mathis,  Chaplain  James  E.  Russell,  (all  from  DACH),  and  Chaplain  Geoffrey  H. 
Moran  from  the  Chaplain  Board.  Their  goal  was  "to  set  up  an  information  system  architecture  prior 
to  the  procurement  of  hardware  and  the  installation  of  a  computer  network  "  '""  Very  quickly  the 
study  expanded  to  include  input  from  major  command  chaplains  that  helped  in  assessing  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Chaplaincy's  larger  needs. 

Some  of  the  recommendations  of  the  ISP  Study  committee  went  beyond  their  charter,  but 
were  logical  extensions  of  the  analysis  process  Chaplain  Mathis  thought  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain 
Board  should  move  to  Washington  to  increase  its  contact  with  and  responsiveness  to  the  needs  of 
the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Other  members  thought  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains  should 
be  dual-hatted  as  the  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  Center  and  School  as  was  the  case  in  some  other 
branches  ""  These  suggestions  were  so  controversial  at  the  time  that  they  were  not  included  in 
writing,  although  within  a  few  short  years  the  Chaplain  Board  did  move  to  Washington  and  assumed 
a  new  name  as  the  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency 

For  FY  1984  ,  the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army  approved  the  procurement  of  218  computers 
throughout  the  Chaplaincy  to  include  major  commands,  installations,  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Center 
and  School,  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Board,  and  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Procurement 
of  these  computers  was  the  first  stage  in  the  automation  of  administrative  functions  such  as  statistical 
data  and  reports,  fijnd  records,  and  general  administrative  word  processing. 

In  October  1984,  the  computers  were  installed  worldwide  throughout  the  Chaplaincy  and  a 
training  program  was  initiated  at  the  Chaplain  School.  Installation  of  the  system  showed  an  immediate 
increase  in  the  quantity  and  quality  of  administrative  support  without  an  increase  in  the  number  of 
support  personnel.'"' 

Accommodating  Religious  Practices  for  Soldiers 

For  more  than  twenty  years,  since  the  first  soldiers  were  deployed  to  Vietnam,  the  Department 
of  the  Army  had  received  complaints,  questions,  and  even  law  suits  concerning  the  desire  of  some 
soldiers  to  wear  beards,  long  hair,  medals,  articles  of  additional  clothing,  or  even  ceremonial  knives 
with  their  uniforms  as  part  of  their  freedom  of  religious  expression.  Many  of  these  questions  and 
challenges  came  from  the  Reserve  Components  as  soldiers  who  were  Orthodox  Jews,  Sikhs,  or  even 
conservative  Christians  were  called  to  duty 

In  response  to  a  growing  number  of  these  complaints,  the  United  States  Congress  directed 
the  Secretary  of  Defense  to  "form  a  study  group  to  examine  ways  to  minimize  the  potential  conflict 
between  the  interests  of  members  of  the  Armed  Forces  in  abiding  by  their  religious  tenets  and  the 
military  interest  in  maintaining  discipline  "'*"  By  memorandum  dated  October  12,  1984,  the  Deputy 
Secretary  of  Defense  appointed  a  Joint  Service  Study  Group  to  explore  the  feasibility  of  granting 
additional  opportunities  for  members  of  the  Armed  Forces  to  observe  the  practices  of  their  religious 
faiths  and  to  prepare  a  report  to  answer  Congressional  concerns  within  this  area.  As  Deputy 
Secretary  Taft  stated  in  his  charge  to  the  committee,  "The  Armed  Forces  of  the  United  States  have 
long  held  the  view  that  morale  and  discipline  are  consistent  with  the  vast  majority  of  religious 
practices  in  the  United  States,  and  I  charge  this  panel  with  the  responsibility  to  recommend 
improvements  to  an  already  exemplary  record  "'"^ 

The  Joint  Service  Study  Group,  chaired  by  Lieutenant  General  E.  A.  Chavarrie,  U.S.  Air 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Force,  directed  the  efforts  of  three  internal  committees  These  were:  1)  A  committee  of  line  officers 
from  each  service  to  determine  military  interests  and  impacts,  2)  A  committee  of  judge  advocates 
from  each  service  lo  provide  legal  evaluation,  and  3)  A  committee  of  chaplains  from  the  Army,  Navy, 
and  Air  Force  to  determine  the  parameters  of  existent  religious  conflict.  Chaplain  Patrick  J.  Hessian, 
the  Army  Chief  of  Chaplains,  served  at  the  supervisory  Study  Group  level,  while  Chaplains  Israel 
Drazin  and  Wayne  E.  Kuehne  served  on  the  chaplain  committee.'"' 

The  committees  endeavored  to  obtain  a  broad  spectrum  of  information  from  religious 
organizations,  academicians,  and  military  specialists,  both  outside  and  within  the  government  Thirty- 
one  interviews  with  leaders  from  a  variety  of  religious  groups  including  the  Sikh  Dharma,  the 
American  Muslim  Mission,  the  Jewish  Welfare  Board,  the  Christian  Science  and  Seventh  Day 
Adventist  Churches,  and  the  National  Association  of  Evangelicals  were  conducted.""^  A  total  of 
3,425  questionnaires  were  mailed  to  students  in  intermediate  and  senior  service  schools  within  the 
military  to  help  identify  experiences  of  selected  groups  with  regard  to  religious  practices  within  the 
Armed  Forces.  Some  2,748  of  these  questionnaires  were  returned  for  a  return  rate  of  slightly  over 
80  percent,  a  high  response  for  a  mailed  questionnaire."" 

In  March  of  1985  the  Study  Group  submitted  its  report  with  13  observations  and  15 
recommendations.  Among  these  were  the  observation  and  recommendation  that  "the  creation  of  a 
mandatory  standard  for  accommodation  of  personal,  religious  practices  in  the  Armed  Forces  runs  a 
grave  risk  of  undermining  esprit  de  corps,  military  discipline,  and  the  military  justice  system.  Military 
policy  developed  in  effecting  accommodation  should  be  hortatory  rather  than  mandatory  and 
supplemented  by  guidance  to  focus  the  discretion  of  the  granting  [command]  authority."  Broadly 
stated,  the  Study  Group  recommended  a  review  of  worship,  medical,  dietary,  dress  and  appearance 
issues  and  the  drafting  of  policy  which  would  allow  the  accommodation  of  religious  practices  by  the 
commander  "except  when  precluded  by  military  necessity."'"*' 

In  due  course  Chaplain  Hessian  directed  his  staff  to  participate  with  the  Office  of  the  Deputy 
Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel  (DCSPER)  in  rewriting  Army  regulations  to  allow  a  broader 
accommodation  of  soldiers'  religious  practices  Both  the  basic  regulation  and  a  Department  of  the 
Army  pamphlet  would  establish  the  criteria  and  procedures  for  commanders  and  soldiers  to  deal  with 
accommodation  issues.'"^ 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  assumed  responsibility  for  training  the  force  in  religious  requirements 
in  the  areas  of  worship,  wear  and  apparel,  diet,  and  medical  needs.  Chaplain  Hessian  directed  the 
Chaplain  School  to  develop  exportable  training  material  for  all  installations  and  communities.""  On 
January  1,  1986,  a  new  Army  Regulation  600-20,  Accommodation  of  Religious  Practices  within  the 
Army,  which  contained  most  of  the  Joint  Study  Group's  recommendations,  went  into  effect 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Continuing  Training  for  Ministry 

Not  all  of  the  plans  and  programs  in  1984  were  new  to  the  Chaplaincy.  The  largest  majority 
were  continuing  ministries  which  had  been  inaugurated  and  refined  over  the  previous  decade.  Some 
programs  were  designed  to  enhance  the  organization  or  efficiency  of  the  Chaplain  Corps,  while  others 
were  more  directly  related  to  soldier  or  family  ministries.  As  situations  for  ministry  changed,  so  also 
did  some  of  the  Chaplaincy's  programs  in  order  to  be  consistently  relevant  to  the  needs  of  the  Army. 

One  of  the  most  productive  centers  for  the  development  of  new  initiatives  and  training  for 
ministry  was  the  US  Army  Chaplain  Board  at  Fort  Monmouth.  The  President  of  the  Board, 
Chaplain  Billy  W.  Libby,  had  an  exceptionally  talented  staff  of  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  and 
Department  of  the  Army  civilians  whose  number  included  Chaplain  Geoffrey  H.  Moran,  Chaplain 
Kenneth  B  Clements,  Chaplain  Marvin  Vickers,  Chaplain  Thomas  R.  Merrill,  Chaplain  Richard  N. 
Donovan,  Chaplain  Louis  L  Schmit,  Sergeant  First  Class  Aaron  N.  Gibson,  Ms.  Bess  Ballard,  and 
Ms.  Patricia  M  Jennings  In  FY  84  the  Chaplain  Board  conducted  1 3  workshops  across  the  United 
States  in  Parish  Development,  Religious  Education,  Homiletics  and  Worship,  Marriage  and  Family 
Life,  and  Life  Career  Transitions — for  Chaplains,  chaplain  assistants  and  directors  of  religious 
education  (DRE's). 

Of  particular  interest  to  many  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  were  the  training  opportunities 
in  Parish  Development  and  Basic  Human  Interaction  (BHI).  Parish  Development  was  conceived  in 
1976  as  a  process  of  planned  change  and  growth  to  provide  skills  for  those  who  would  serve  as 
pastors,  members  of  parish  councils,  lay  leaders  and  staff  members  in  military  chapels.'"  Two  years 
later,  in  1978,  the  Chaplain  Board  began  adapting  a  one-week  training  experience  to  the  unique 
context  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy  ""  This  intensive  workshop,  called  Basic  Human  Interaction,  was 
the  foundation  for  the  interpersonal  training  necessary  in  Parish  Development. 

By  1 984  four  types  of  Parish  Development  training  were  being  conducted  by  the  Chaplain 

1.  The  Staff  and  Parish  Development  Program,  a  nine-month  study  program 

which  began  in  1 980,  and  which  was  incorporated  as  a  regular  course  into  the 
Chaplain  School  curriculum  at  the  end  of  the  year 

2  Week-long  workshops  in  Group  Development  Skills  and  Ex- 
penitential  Education  Design  Skills  taught  by  skilled  civilian  facilitators. 

3  Basic  Human  Interaction  Workshops  and  Training  the  Trainer  Workshops  for 
military  chaplaincy  personnel. 

4.  Two  special  workshops  on  "Transitions  in  Ministry"  for  chaplains  and  DRE's, 

and  "Power  and  Influence"  training  for  chaplain  colonels  which  was  held  in 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Other  workshops  conducted  by  the  Chaplain  Board  staff  included  nine  in  homiletics  and 
worship,  including  one  developed  for  the  U.S.  Army  Europe  Chaplains  Training  Conference,  four 
Ministry-to-Priest  Conferences  to  strengthen  fraternal  ties  among  Roman  Catholic  chaplains,  four 
workshops  on  marriage  and  family  life;  and  three  on  Life/Work  Planning  for  senior  chaplains  and 
chaplain  assistants.'"  In  the  area  of  religious  education,  50  of  the  85  DREs  in  the  Chaplaincy 
attended  a  Religious  Leaders  Training  conference  in  Scottsdale,  Arizona,  as  well.  Between  1983  and 
1986,  the  Chaplain  Board  programs  trained  more  than  350  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  and  DRE's 
per  year  in  week-long,  intensive  training  events. 

In  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  at  US.  Forces  Command,  at  the  Chaplain  board,  and 
at  the  Chaplain  School,  Chaplain  Hessian's  motto  that  "training  is  ministry"  continued  to  generate 
interest  in  training  opportunities  throughout  the  Army.  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  Multi-Cultural 
Training  Course,  held  in  Hampton,  Virginia,  focused  on  "Supervising  a  Multi-Cultural  Ministry,"  and 
featured  exportable  training  tapes  The  Chaplain  Mobilization  Planning  Workshop  in  Atlanta  hosted 
71  chaplains  and  dealt  with  planning  for  fiall  mobilization.  The  Chaplain  Board  contracted  16 
workshops  for  943  soldier  and  family  member  volunteers  interested  in  youth  ministry  training."* 

At  the  Chaplain  School,  the  Chaplain  Training  Management  System  was  developed  in  June 
of  1984  to  help  installation  chaplains  to  plan,  execute  and  evaluate  all  training  conducted  by  or  for 
chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  civilian  employees,  and  lay  volunteers.  Chaplain  Hessian  directed  that 
each  installation  staff  chaplain  implement  a  long-range  training  plan  and  appoint  a  Chaplain  Training 
Manager  by  fiscal  year  1985  "' 

Chaplain  Hessian  did  not  believe  that  it  was  possible  to  over-train  his  chaplains.  He  wanted, 
and  to  a  large  extent  succeeded  in  securing,  excellent  UMTs  for  an  Army  of  Excellence. 

From  Europe  to  Washington: 
Pilgrimages,  Anniversaries,  and  Dedications 

In  Europe,  1984  marked  a  number  of  celebrations,  pilgrimages,  and  anniversaries.  In  addition 
to  21  conferences  and  workshops  sponsored  by  the  USAREUR  Chaplain's  Office,  which  included 
two  training  conferences  for  chaplain  assistants  on  the  theme,  "A  Time  for  Us,"  and  meetings  for  both 
Protestant  and  Catholic  women  with  a  combined  attendance  of  1,130  female  volunteers  from  nine 
NATO  countries,  there  were  lectures  and  addresses  by  15  civilian  professors  of  religion  and  other 
resource  leaders  on  topics  ranging  from  "the  New  Code  of  Canon  Law"  to  "Youth  Effectiveness 

Chaplain  Charies  J.  McDonnell,  the  USAREUR  Chaplain,  led  400  service  personnel  and  their 
family  members  on  a  Holy  Year  Pilgrimage  to  Rome.  The  highlight  of  the  pilgrimage  was  a  Mars 
celebrated  by  Pope  John  Paul  II  in  St.  Peter's  Square  with  approximately  100,000  people  in 
attendance.'"  A  month  later,  in  May,  Lieutenant  General  John  D  Bruen,  21st  Support  Command 
Commander,  headed  an  American  delegation  of  300  service  members  in  the  26th  Annual  International 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Pilgrimage  to  Lourdes,  France  "* 

The  year  1984  also  marked  the  40th  anniversary  of  the  D-Day  landings  in  Normandy. 
President  Ronald  Reagan  and  six  other  heads  of  state  met  for  ceremonies  at  Utah  Beach  on  June  6. 
All  U.S.  European  Command  components  participated  in  events  at  Pointe  du  Hoc,  Bernieres, 
Caretan,  Ste  Mere  Eglise,  Utah  and  Omaha  beaches  '"^ 

At  the  USAREUR  Religious  Retreat  House  in  Berchtesgaden,  Chaplain  Don  C.  Breland  and 
Chaplain  Kenneth  A.  Seifried  held  a  special  30th  anniversary  observance  of  the  establishment  of  the 
retreat  program  in  1954  by  the  Commander  in  Chief  USAREUR.  The  special  anniversary 
observance  in  1984  included  an  elaborate  display  of  historical  photographs  and  memorabilia,  a  special 
worship  service  at  the  Alpine  Inn  Chapel,  and  an  anniversary  luncheon  at  the  Berchtesgadener  Hof 

The  Alpine  Inn,  the  center  for  soldier  retreats,  had  an  interesting  history  as  a  recreational 
center  The  Inn  had  been  originally  constructed  during  World  War  II  by  Field  Marshal  Hermann 
Goering  as  a  facility  for  the  German  Air  Force.  Since  its  establishment  as  a  religious  retreat  house 
in  1954,  the  Inn  had  hosted  hundreds  of  retreats,  conferences,  and  conventions  attended  by  more  than 
327,000  men  and  women  of  the  US  Armed  Forces.'''  Chaplain  Tom  Norton  recalled  that  the 
Retreat  House  program  became  famous  in  1973-1974  for  helping  soldiers  stop  abusing  drugs,  "When 
Chaplain  Harold  Summers  and  I  were  there,"  said  Norton,  "the  Jesus  Movement  had  just  attracted 
notice  among  the  soldiers.  So  many  troops  converted  to  Jesus  and  laid  aside  their  drugs  that 
commanders  would  call  us  and  ask  what  we  were  doing  "'"  Subsequent  religious  leaders  at 
Berchtesgaden,  including  Chaplain  William  McAllister,  Chaplain  Samuel  Lamback  and  Chaplain 
Anthony  Imberi  continued  the  emphasis  on  both  spiritual  and  moral  development  of  soldiers. '■'' 


In  the  Military  District  of  Washington  (MDW),  Chaplain  CliflFord  T.  Weathers  and  Chaplain 
William  C  Noble  participated  in  the  preparatory  arrangements  and  the  interment  of  the  Unknown 
Serviceman  of  Vietnam  "It  was  a  moving  ceremony,"  Chaplain  Weathers  recalled,  "which  helped 
bring  closure  for  many  to  a  painfijl  period  in  our  nation's  history."''^ 

In  another  MDW  dedication  ceremony,  the  Honorable  Casper  W.  Weinberger  dedicated  the 
Pentagon  Meditation  Room  and  Center  for  Ministry  on  13  June  1984.  The  Pentagon  Chaplain,  who 
was  responsible  to  the  MDW  Commander  for  ministry  to  all  personnel  who  were  assigned  to  the 
Pentagon,  was  technically  supervised  by  the  MDW  StafT  Chaplain  who  also  supervised  ministry  at 
Fort  Myer,  Fort  Leslie  McNair,  Arlington  Cemetery,  and  later  Fort  Belvoir  '"^  The  funeral  ministry 
at  Ariington  Cemetery  was  coordinated  with  the  US  Navy  and  the  U.S.  Air  Force,  and,  in  the  case 
of  Jewish  personnel  coverage,  with  the  Jewish  Welfare  Board.'-* 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 

President   Ronald  Reagan   and  other  national    dignitaries  pay- 
tribute    to   an    Unknown   Soldier   from    the   Vietnam   Conflict. 
General    William   Westmoreland  is   at    far   left.    Chaplain    Cliff 
Weathers   is    second   to    the   right    of   the   President. 


Year  End  Strength 

At  the  end  of  1984  many  of  Chaplain  Hessian's  goals  for  the  Chaplaincy  were  well  on  the  way 
to  realization.  Field  Manual  1 6-5  was  in  print,  the  Functional  Area  Assessment  was  a  success,  the 
chaplain  assistant  military  occupational  specialty  had  a  new  foundation,  the  CARSS  project  was  being 
implemented,  the  ministry  in  the  Reserve  Components  had  new  support,  and  a  new  regulation  for 
Accommodating  Religious  Practices  was  in  process 

At  the  end  of  the  year  1,488  chaplains  were  on  active  duty  Some  1 14  of  these  chaplains  were 
in  resident  enrollment  at  military  schools,  while  19  were  attending  fijlly-flinded  advanced  degree 
programs  in  civilian  institutions.  The  Affirmative  Action  projections  called  for  15  minority  group 
chaplains  to  enter  active  service  in  FY  85.  The  number  of  Roman  Catholic  chaplains  on  active  duty 
declined,  however,  from  244  to  234. 

Chaplain  Israel  Drazin,  promoted  to  Brigadier  General,  succeeded  Chaplain  (Brigadier 
General)  Oral  D.  Nelson  as  the  Assistant  Chief  of  Chaplains  for  Mobilization  Sergeant  Major  Joseph 
A.  Pino  succeeded  Sergeant  Major  Charles  J.  Durr  in  the  Chiefs  Office.  Chaplain  Henry  F. 
Ackermann  graduated  fi"om  the  War  College  and  reported  to  the  Chiefs  Office  to  write  a  history  of 
the  ministry  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  during  the  Vietnam  War.'-' 

Finally,  in  1984  the  Constitutionality  Case,  Katcoff  and  Wieder  v.  Laird,  took  a  turn  for  the 
Chaplaincy's  side.  In  April  of  1982  Joel  KatcoflFand  Allen  M  Wieder  filed  a  motion  for  a  summary 
judgment  in  the  District  Court  of  New  York  asking  that  the  military  Chaplaincy  be  declared  an 
unconstitutional  violation  of  the  Establishment  Clause.  After  a  long  series  of  arguments,  on  February 
1,  1984,  the  plaintiffs  motion  was  denied  and  the  complaint  dismissed  on  the  ground  that  the  Court 
should  defer  to  Congress  because  the  issue  was  considered  to  be  a  military  matter.'-"  It  appeared  that 
the  Chaplaincy's  constitutional  base  was  solid  for  the  foreseeable  fiature. 

Developments  in  the  Army  in  1985 

Early  in  FY  85  the  Secretary  of  the  Army  and  the  Chief  of  Staff  announced  that  "Leadership" 
would  be  the  Army's  theme  for  1985.'^'  All  echelons  of  the  Army  planned  and  put  into  action 
programs  and  policies  to  promote  the  theme  Major  program  objectives  for  FY  85  were  to  staff, 
train,  and  continue  modernization  of  the  Total  Army  to  enable  it  to  "influence  the  early  stages"  of  any 

Moreover,  the  Army  began  a  concerted  effort  during  1985  to  chart  its  course  to  the  21st 
century.  Long-range  planning  was  begun  to  concentrate  effort  and  initiatives  to  provide  focus  and 
continuity  as  significant  improvements  in  war  fighting  capabilities  emerged.'^'  The  Total  Army 
vectors  for  1985  included  providing  quality  soldiers,  fielding  a  modernized  force  across  the  spectrum 
of  potential  conflicts,  exploiting  all  dimensions  of  AirLand  Battle  Doctrine,  developing  high 
technology  enhancements,  and  improving  deployability.'^" 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 

Sergeant  Major  Joseph   A.    Pino 


Army  personal  goals  included  a  recruited  and  retained  force  of  780,000  active  duty  soldiers 
and  a  total  reserve  strength  of  724,029  A  major  shortfall  in  Individual  Ready  Reserve  strength  to 
meet  filler  and  replacement  needs  proved  troubling  enough  for  General  Bernard  W  Rogers,  NATO 
Commander  and  former  Chief  of  Staff,  to  urge  the  Senate  Armed  Service  Committee  in  March  1985 
to  reinstitute  the  draft  '" 

Realistic  training  received  greater  Department  of  the  Army  emphasis  at  the  National  Training 
Center,  Fort  Irwin,  California,  and  with  continuous  training  in  Europe  with  newly  arrived  Ml  Abrams 
tanks  and  Bradley  fighting  vehicles.  A  vigorous  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff  coordinated  exercise  program 
featured  49  exercises  including  REFORGER  in  Europe,  Team  Spirit  85  in  Korea,  and  Auhus  Tara 
II  in  Honduras.'''^ 

Significant  equipment  improvements  included  the  production  of  the  Ml  El  tank  with  a  120 
mm  smooth-bore  gun,  planning  for  production  of  412  Patriot  air  defense  missiles,  and  the  allocation 
of  $1  4  billion  in  new  equipment  for  the  reserve  components,  an  increase  of  $500  million  over 

Fiscal  year  1985  also  marked  the  completion  of  the  principal  phases  of  a  major  reorganization 
in  FORSCOM's  Reserve  Component  Management  structure.  The  last  of  the  Army  Readiness  and 
Mobilization  Regions  were  eliminated  and  the  Fourth  US  Army  was  established  as  the  role  of  the 
Army  National  Guard  and  Army  Reserve  in  first-line  national  defense  continued  to  grow.'""^ 

Chaplain  Corps  Details 

The  active  duty  Chaplain  Corps  strength  for  FY  85  was  established  at  1,523.  With  an 
aggressive  Affirmative  Action  accession  plan,  20  minority  chaplains  entered  active  duty  Minority 
chaplains  constituted  14  08  percent  of  the  total  strength.'"  Sixteen  chaplains  were  female  Chaplain 
Hugh  M.  Grubb  from  the  Personnel  Directorate  reported  a  continuous,  if  slow  decline  in  Roman 
Catholic  chaplains  to  a  level  of  227  with  projected  losses  exceeding  projected  gains  for  FY  86.'^* 
Chaplain  assistant  strength  totaled  1,562  with  mid-career  re-enlistment  rates  at  82  percent,  five  points 
higher  than  the  Army  average  as  a  whole.  Twenty-two  chaplain  assistants  were  Sergeants  Major 
(SGM)  or  were  in  SGM  positions. 

Internally,  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  reorganized  in  1985.  The  Administration  and 
Management  Division  became  the  Directorate  of  Information,  Resource  Management,  and  Logistics 
(IRML).   Staff  members  assigned  to  that  directorate  were  affectionately  known  as  "IRMLites."'^' 

One  of  the  major  IRML  initiatives,  the  CARSS  project,  continued  to  expand  in  1985.  In  May 
the  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Army  granted  approval  for  the  procurement  of  63  additional  compatible 
computer  systems  at  the  installation  level  to  supplement  the  218  computers  installed  in  1984. 
Likewise,  an  electronic  mail  procedure  was  installed  to  facilitate  official  communications  between 
chaplain  offices  Army-wide. 

Another  change  in  1985  affected  the  resourcing  strategies  for  the  Chaplain  Corps.  The  Army 
standardized  the  organization  of  installations  by  Army  Regulation  5-3  which  established  a  Chaplain 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Activities  Office  and  a  position  for  a  Chaplain  Resource  Manager.''"' 

Chaplains  assigned  to  that  position  were  called,  in  1985,  Pastoral  Coordinators.  The  U.S. 
Army  Chaplain  School  developed  a  two  week  fijnctional  course  in  resource  management  for  chaplain 
and  chaplain  assistant  Pastoral  Coordinators.  Students  who  completed  the  course  and  served  a  year 
or  more  in  a  resource  management  position  could  be  awarded  the  Army  Skill  Identifier  (ASI),  VF.'"" 

From  March  to  July  a  series  of  meetings,  reports  and  publications  paved  the  way  for  the 
Command  Chaplains  Conference  in  Arlington  which  was  to  feature  General  John  A.  Wickham,  Jr., 
the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  as  its  guest  speaker.  In  March  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Board 
convened  a  Religious  Education  Strategy  and  Planning  Group  in  Hampton,  Virginia,  for  the  purpose 
of  examining  fiJture  religious  education  issues  of  interest  to  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  and  the  85 
directors  of  religious  education  in  the  Army.'^^  Task  forces  were  organized  to  begin  work  on  a 
volunteer  management  program  and  to  discuss  opportunities  for  professional  training  at  civilian 
institutions  using  appropriated  fiands.  Since  the  training  and  utilization  of  volunteers  in  religious 
education  was  a  high  priority  with  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  a  task  force  was  selected  to  produce  a 
"Volunteer  Ministry  Manager's  Handbook"  for  the  Chiefs  Volunteer  Management  Program. '"'^ 

A  New  Regulation 

In  May,  Army  Regulation  165-20,  Duties  of  Chaplains  and  Responsibilities  of  Commanders. 
was  published  after  extensive  preparatory  work  by  Chaplain  Jay  Jalbert,  Director  of  IRML.  A  short 
regulation  of  four  chapters,  it  did  update  the  guidance  for  unmarried  chaplains  to  secure  better 
housing  and  weight  allowances  for  household  goods  equal  to  that  granted  to  accompanied  married 
chaplains.  In  this  regard  Chaplain  Hessian  felt  that  Roman  Catholic  chaplains  in  particular  would  be 
relieved  of  unfair  penalties  due  to  previous  restrictions  on  unmarried  chaplains  The  regulation  also 
expanded  the  religious  duties  of  chaplains  and  gave  a  higher  priority  to  collective  Protestant  services 
for  scheduling  purposes  Chaplains  could  not  "be  required  to  bear  arms."  although  the  Chief 
personally  barred  chaplains  from  carrying  weapons  at  all.'*^ 

The  regulation  did  feature  many  provisions  which  clarified  the  role  of  chaplains,  chaplain 
assistants,  DREs,  denominational  service  leaders,  civilian  contract  clergy,  religious  resource  leaders, 
and  volunteer  workers.  Chaplain  William  L  Hufham,  at  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains'  Plans, 
Programs  and  Policies  Division,  urged  that  a  chapter  be  added  to  implement  the  new  moral  leadership 
training  program.'^'  This  suggestion  was  approved,  and  the  new  chapter  was  added  in  the  1989 
revision  of  AR  165-1. 

Likewise,  in  May,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  sponsored  two  Multi-Cultural  Training  Courses,  one 
at  TRADOC,  the  other  at  FORSCOM.  One  hundred  thirty  chaplains  attended.  The  courses  featured 
techniques  for  making  demographic  and  needs  assessments  and  for  setting  goals  in  the  military 
community.  A  follow-up  survey  by  the  Directorate  of  Evaluation  and  Standardization  at  the  Chaplain 
School  produced  an  unclear  result  on  how  many  participants  actually  initiated  muhi-cultural 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


assessments  following  the  courses. 

The  NTC 

In  June  of  1985  a  number  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  received  their  first  taste  of 
"realistic  training"  at  Fort  Irwin,  California.  The  National  Training  Center  (NTC)  had  been  designed 
in  the  mid-1970s  to  simulate  reahstic  battlefield  conditions  in  the  desert  '""  Brigades  fi'om  most 
combat  divisions  in  the  United  States  were  sent  to  train  under  unforgiving  tactical  conditions  Most 
units  were  "killed"  in  their  first  training  rotation. 

Some  of  the  problems  Brigade  Chaplains  encountered  at  the  National  Training  Center  seemed 
to  be  no  less  severe  than  one  would  expect  in  actual  combat  The  weather  and  terrain  in  the  High 
Mojave  desert  were  not  "user  friendly."  Units  from  the  active  or  reserve  components  without 
chaplains  or  chaplain  assistants  presented  general  support  (area  coverage)  challenges.  There  was 
always  the  possibility  that  soldiers  would  be  killed  or  injured  during  training  Unit  ministry  teams  had 
to  be  prepared  to  stop  training  and  do  emergency  ministry  at  any  time 

Chaplain  Ronald  N  Johnson,  who  trained  twice  at  the  NTC  from  July  1985  to  January  1986, 
reported  that  he  was  intent  "on  adherence"  to  FM  16-5,  The  Chaplain  and  Chaplain  Assistant  in 
Combat  Operations.  "Saturated  coverage,  to  include  denominational  coverage,  before  and  after 
battle,  in  the  tactical  assembly  area  (Dust  Bowl),  while  drawing  equipment,  at  the  end  of  hostilities, 
or  during  reconstitution,"  Chaplain  Johnson  wrote,  meant  "daily  Protestant  and  Catholic  services" 
and  "pastoral  care  to  all  soldiers  "'■** 

Some  unit  ministry  teams,  indeed  the  majority  in  1985,  were  "killed"  by  the  Multiple 
Integrated  Laser  Engagement  System  (MILES)  sensors  several  times  during  the  force-on-force  phase 
of  the  war  games  Forward  Thrust  doctrine  seemed  to  place  many  UMT's  in  the  combat  trains  where 
they  were  exposed  to  direct  fire,  artillery,  gas  attack,  and  nerve  agent  attack  '^'  Chaplain  Curtis 
Heydt  of  the  4th  Battalion,  64th  Armor,  reported:  "I  learned  two  lessons;  I  must  be  more  tactically 
minded,  and  I  must  be  harder  on  myself "''" 

Chaplain  Jesse  Thornton  from  the  Chaplain  School  spent  three  weeks  at  the  NTC  observing 
unit  ministry  teams  in  training  Chaplain  Thornton  was  assigned  to  the  Unit  and  Individual  Training 
Division  at  the  Chaplain  School  and  charged  with  the  responsibility  of  publishing  skill  qualification 
manuals  and  soldiers'  manuals  for  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  He  wrote  of  his  experience  at 
the  NTC; 

Units  are  beginning  to  develop  combat  scenarios  that  include  missions  and  tasks  for 
the  Unit  Ministry  Teams.  When  unit  ARTEPS  include  scenarios  for  the  UMT,  a  vital 
opportunity  is  grasped  for  the  training  and  evaluation  of  ministry.''' 

Colonel  Richard  F  Keller,  Commander  of  the  First  Brigade,  4th  Infantry  Division 
(Mechanized)  from  Fort  Carson,  agreed  with  Chaplain  Thornton  about  the  potential  value  of  NTC 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


training  for  unit  ministry  teams: 

Chaplains  are  God's  constant  reminder  among  us  of  his  care  for  us  all.  That  is  why, 
on  the  battlefield,  chaplains  must  be  at  the  right  place  and  at  the  right  time — with 
soldiers — for  ministry."" 

Chaplain  John  H  Bjarnason  from  the  197th  Infantry  Brigade  thought  the  experience  led  to  growth, 
development,  and  learning  to  be  of  "more  service  to  the  soldier."'"  Chaplain  Ernest  E.  LaMertha, 
from  the  5th  Infantry  Division  at  Fort  Polk,  wrote  that  "our  NTC  coverage  went  well  I  had  a  plan, 
and  1  was  able  to  execute  it,"'"^  while  Chaplain  Curtis  Heydt  of  the  24th  Infantry  Division  said  simply, 
"Thank  you.  Lord,  for  letting  me  come  out  here  twice."'" 

It  was  obvious  that  most  UMT's  received  valuable  training  at  the  NTC,  training  that  could 
enable  them  to  ininister  more  eflFectively  and  save  their  lives  in  real  combat  Nothing  could  have,  or 
did,  prepare  them  better 

Command  Performance 

The  Command  Chaplains  Conference  at  Arlington  during  the  second  week  in  July  was  always 
a  time  for  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  to  discuss  goals,  ideas,  and  initiatives  for  the  future,  especially  with 
MACOM  Chaplains.  The  Council  of  Chaplain  Colonels'  meetings  in  the  preceding  months  had 
reviewed  19  issues  for  the  Chief  ranging  from  a  report  on  female  chaplain  assignments,  training,  and 
acceptance  to  religious  requirements  of  lesser  known  religions.'^''  The  colonels  had  made  numerous 
taskings  for  studies  and  issue  papers  to  be  written  as  the  chaplains  hammered  out  their  goals  with 
Chaplain  Hessian 

In  accord  with  the  Army's  Leadership  Theme  and  General  Wickham's  address.  Chaplain 
Hessian  specified  in  the  Leadership  Goal  for  the  Chaplaincy  that  chaplains  provide  "spiritual,  religious 
and  moral  leadership  to  the  Total  Army  community  They  inform  the  consciences  of  commanders 
and  soldiers  at  all  levels,  provide  comprehensive  programs  to  address  the  issues  of  personal  and 
professional  ethics  and  the  moral  issues  of  war,  identify  and  mentor  chaplain  and  chaplain  assistant 
leaders,  and  participate  in  moral  leadership  instruction."'"  Moreover,  Chaplain  Hessian  decided  that, 
"all  chaplains  would  participate  weekly  in  post  worship  services  and  chapel  religious  education 

^>■>^  SK 


Other  topics  Chaplain  Hessian  stressed  included  familiarization  with  the  CARSS,  the  results 
of  the  Functional  Review  and  Functional  Area  Assessment,  and  issues  involving  religious 
requirements  and  accommodation  of  religious  practices,  confidentiality  in  counseling  and  the  unit 
ministry  team  doctrine. '''  The  last  item  was  particularly  significant  because  the  Combat 
Developments  Directorate  at  the  Chaplain  School,  under  the  leadership  of  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne, 
was  preparing  supplemental  doctrine  for  FM  16-5,  The  Chaplain  and  Chaplain  Assistant  in  Combat 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Opera/ions.  The  supplements  were  in  the  form  of  field  circulars  and  expanded  some  of  the  concepts 
in  the  field  manual  Field  Circular  (FC)  16-50  was  entitled  "The  Unit  Ministry  Team,"  FC  16-5 1  was 
"Ministry  to  Battle  Fatigue  Casuahies,"  and  FC  16-5-4,  written  by  Chaplain  John  Scott  in  the 
Department  of  Military  Ministries,  was  entitled  "The  Unit  Ministry  Team,  General  Support: 

Chaplain  G.T.  Gunhus  at  the  Soldier  Support  Center  worked  with  Chaplain  Kuehne  in  the 
production  of  the  field  circulars  which  were  published  in  December  1985.  Chaplain  Gunhus  said  of 
Chaplain  Kuehne' s  efforts.  "Wayne  Kuehne  worked  for  more  than  a  decade  to  keep  the  chaplaincy 
on  line  with  the  Army,  he  was  and  is  ihe  father  of  our  force  structure  and  doctrine ''^^^^ 

The  Reserve  Component  Advisory  Committee,  composed  of  chaplains  from  the  Chiefs 
Office,  the  National  Guard  Bureau,  the  Army  Personnel  Center,  and  Forces  Command,  had  been 
created  in  1985  to  advise  the  Chief  on  Reserve  Component  issues  The  Committee,  which  included 
Chaplain  Phillip  J.  Rapp  fi-om  the  National  Guard  Bureau,  developed  a  chaplain  and  chaplain  assistant 
Total  Force  Layout,  including  a  notional  force  structure  of  58  AGR  positions,  for  presentation  at  the 
Command  Chaplains  Conference.'" 

Two  other  items  generated  considerable  interest  at  the  Conference.  Chaplain  Henry 
Ackermann,  who  was  writing  the  history  of  chaplain  ministries  during  the  Vietnam  War,  had  designed 
two  separate  but  related  surveys  The  first  he  sent  to  chaplains  and  the  second  to  other  officers  and 
to  enlisted  soldiers  Both  solicited  opinions  on  how  well  the  chaplains  performed  ministry  in  Vietnam 
Chaplain  Ackermann  had  also  conducted  oral  interviews  with  40  chaplains  who  had  served  during 
the  Vietnam  War  including  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Charles  E  Brown  and  Chaplain  (Major 
General)  Francis  L  Sampson,  both  former  Chiefs  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain  Ackermann's  history  was 
due  to  be  completed  in  FY  87.'" 

In  view  of  the  work  Chaplain  Ackermann  was  doing  on  the  Vietnam  War  period.  Chaplain 
Hessian  decided  that  the  Chaplaincy  needed  a  color  slide  presentation  on  the  history  of  the  Corps  and 
the  role  and  fijnction  of  the  Unit  Ministry  Team  to  show  to  chaplains  and  to  commanders.  Ms. 
Jessica  Harding,  who  was  on  Chaplain  Bezanson's  staff  in  IRML  as  the  Public  Affairs  Officer,  had 
requested  photographs  of  chaplains  performing  ministry  from  14  MACOM  chaplains  to  support  this 
project  Chaplain  Hessian  wanted  this  to  be  an  on-going  requirement  so  that  the  presentation  would 
be  constantly  updated  Mrs.  Harding  and  Chaplain  Geoff  Moran  from  the  US.  Army  Chaplain  Board 
began  developing  the  presentation  in  July  '" 

Finally,  chaplain  assistants  in  1985  had  been  issued  new  branch  insignia  The  project  had  been 
completed  by  SGM  Charies  Durr,  but  his  successor  at  OCCH,  SGM  Joseph  A  Pino,  received  the  first 
issue.  The  insignia,  to  be  worn  on  the  Class  A  uniform,  displayed  stylized  hands  enclosing  a  chapel 
and  represented  the  support  provided  by  chaplain  assistants  to  all  religious  programs. 

In  a  special  ceremony  at  the  Chaplain  School  on  the  Chaplain  Corps'  210th  Anniversary  in 
July,  Chaplain  Hessian  presented  SGM  Pino  with  the  first  official  brass  insignia.  SGM  Pino  then 
presented  the  same  insignia  to  Master  Sergeant  Frank  Gugudan,  the  Acting  Sergeant  Major  of  the 
Chaplain  School  who  placed  the  memento  in  the  Chaplain  Museum.""^ 

As  the  Command  Chaplains  Conference  was  adjourning,  an  initiative  from  the  Soldier  Support 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Center  (SSC),  Fort  Benjamin  Harrison,  Indiana,  was  also  bearing  fruit  Chaplain  G  T  Gunhus  at  the 
SSC  had  proposed  to  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel,  after  proper  staffing,  that  the  Chief 
of  Chaplains  become  the  proponent  for  MOS  71  M  Chaplain  Assistants."^*  Chaplain  Hessian 
concurred  in  the  alignment  of  the  MOS  under  the  Office  of  the  Chief  He  became  the  7 IM  proponent 
in  FY  86,  two  years  after  he  became  the  official  proponent  for  chaplains. 

Proposal  for  a  Chaplain  Corps  Regiment 

In  September  1985  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  responded  to  initiatives  from  the  Chief  of  Staff"  of 
the  Army  and  the  New  Manning  Systems  Office  of  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel  to  develop 
a  "whole  branch  regimenf  for  the  Chaplain  Corps  as  part  of  the  US  Army  Regimental  System. 
Under  the  Army's  new  Regimental  System,  the  Chaplain  Corps  would  serve  as  the  regimental 
designator  for  active  duty.  National  Guard  and  Reserve  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants,  just  as  the 
numbered  combat  arms  regiments  would  serve  as  home  regiments  for  combat  soldiers  The  Chaplain 
School  at  Fort  Monmouth  would  serve  as  the  regimental  home  of  the  Corps  and  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains  would  serve  as  the  Commander  of  the  Regiment.  His  responsibilities  would  include  career 
development,  training  and  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  ministry  of  soldiers.  Activation  of  the  regiment 
was  expected  to  occur  in  1986. 

One  of  the  questions  which  most  chaplains  had  about  their  new  regiment  was  what  the  name 
of  the  regiment  would  be.  Some  chaplains  thought  the  name  should  be  the  Regiment  of  Chaplains, 
others  wanted  to  remain  a  part  of  the  Chaplain  Corps.  At  the  Chaplain  School  a  proposal  was  made 
to  call  the  new  regiment  the  "The  Chaplain  Corps  Regiment  "  But  in  the  official  orders  the  name  of 
the  new  regiment  was  simply.  The  Chaplain  Corps.'*' 

In  mid-September  Chaplain  Paul  O.  Forsberg,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains,  announced  his 
retirement.  Chaplain  Forsberg  had  had  a  long  and  very  successful  career,  but  he  said  he  looked 
forward  to  returning  to  the  civilian  parish 

Chaplain  Forsberg's  successor  as  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  Chaplain  Norris  Einertson. 
Chaplain  Einertson  had  served  most  recently  as  the  FORSCOM  Chaplain  and  as  the  Executive  Officer 
for  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain  Einertson  was  well  known  for  his  emphasis  on  the  pastoral  role 
of  chaplains  in  the  ministry  to  soldiers  and  to  family  members.  He  was  an  excellent  administrator  and 
preacher  and  was  already  familiar  with  the  day-to-day  operations  in  the  office  of  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains.  Chaplain  Einertson  was  to  assume  office  on  December  1,  1985 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Ministries  in  Hawaii  and  in  Germany 

In  1985  Hawaii  was  the  headquarters  for  the  U.S.  Army's  Western  Command,  or  as  it  was 
more  popularly  known,  WESTCOM.  WESTCOM  was  responsible  for  the  largest  geographical  area 
of  defense  in  the  Army.  From  1982  to  the  summer  of  1985,  Chaplain  John  Scott  served  as  the 
WESTCOM  Chaplain  Chaplain  Thomas  Norton  was  Chaplain  Scott's  Deputy  from  1982  to  1984. 
In  1984  Chaplain  Norton  replaced  Chaplain  Charles  R.  Savely  as  the  Division  Chaplain  for  the  25th 
Infantry.  In  the  summer  of  1985  Chaplain  Ronald  S.  Bezanson  succeeded  Chaplain  Scott  as  the 
WESTCOM  Chaplain.  Chaplain  Tom  Carter  was  the  Support  Command  Chaplain  in  the  25th 
Infantry  Division  The  three  brigade  chaplains  were  Chaplain  Hugh  Dukes,  Chaplain  Donald 
Hanchett,  and  Chaplain  Joe  R.  Colley. 

Even  though  in  the  1984-85  time  frame  there  was  a  very  low  threat  in  the  WESTCOM  area 
of  responsibility,  there  was  always  a  need  for  soldier  ministry.  Fortunately,  the  chaplains  in  the  25th 
Infantry  Division  were  extremely  creative  and  highly  motivated  to  take  care  of  their  troops.  For 
example.  Chaplain  Hanchett  rented  an  entire  amusement  park  on  Oahu  for  a  division  family  outing. 
Chaplain  Joe  Colley  on  occasion  featured  a  band  on  Sunday  evenings  which  he  called,  "Sunday  Night 
Live."  Even  though  the  Sunday  evening  worship  was  essentially  a  religious  event,  it  was  framed  in 
highly  popular  language  Both  the  soldiers  and  the  commanders  responded  enthusiastically  to  the 
ministry  in  the  25th  Infantry  Divison.  Colonel  Jerry  White,  Chaplain  Hugh  Dukes,  Brigade 
commander,  said  his  chaplain  coverage  was  the  "greatest." 

One  of  the  few  crises  in  the  25th  Division  and  WESTCOM  occurred  in  the  winter  of  1985. 
Some  of  the  planning  officers  suddenly  realized  that  there  was  no  plan  for  the  defense  of  Oahu.  On 
the  64th  anniversary  of  the  bombing  of  Peari  Harbor,  in  December  of  1985,  the  WESTCOM  staff 
began  to  review  the  plans  for  the  defense  of  the  Hawiian  islands.  Since  this  was  primarily  an  exercise, 
rather  than  a  real  wodd  event,  it  generated  more  humor  than  anxiety.'** 

In  West  Germany  the  security  situation  and  the  war  planning  were  much  more  serious.  There 
was  still  protest  in  Germany,  Switzeriand  and  other  European  countries  over  the  deployment  of 
Pershing  Missiles  in  1982  and  1983.  Various  terrorist  groups  continued  to  threaten  defense 
installations.  Following  a  terrorist  attack  on  the  3/59  Air  Defense  Artillery  on  September  6,  1985, 
the  Department  of  the  Army  requested  an  updated  U.S.  Army  Europe  (USAREUR)  security 
program.  After  terrorist  threats  were  received  against  the  personal  safety  of  General  Glenn  Otis,  the 
Commanding  General  for  USAREUR,  a  company  of  infantry  was  stationed  around  USAREUR 
Headquarters  in  Heidelberg.  There  also  were  constant  bomb  threats  against  Ramstein  Air  Force  Base 
near  Frankfijrt  '*' 

In  Heidelberg  the  USAREUR  Chaplain,  Richard  K.  Martin,  was  appointed  the  first  U.S. 
European  Command  USEUCOM  Chaplain  in  addition  to  his  duties  as  the  USAREUR  Chaplain. 
Chaplain  Martin's  responsibilities  were  to  assist  and  advise  the  United  States  Commander  Europe  on 
religious  matters  having  joint  services  implications.  Chaplain  Martin's  appointment  became  effective 
on  December  1,  1985. 

In  spite  of  the  added  security  precautions,  in  1985  the  USAREUR  Chaplains  Office  provided 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


many  and  varied  training  opportunities  for  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  DREs  and  other  personnel 
involved  in  ministry  throughout  U.  S.  Army  Europe  In  addition  to  the  Command  Chaplains  Training 
Conference,  whose  theme  in  1985  was  "Leadership  and  Pastoral  Supervision,"  there  was  also  a 
Protestant  Chaplains  Professional  Development  Conference  attended  by  more  than  500  participants. 
In  total,  the  USAREUR  Chaplains  Office  sponsored  15  workshops  and  conferences  for  chaplains, 
chaplain  assistants,  DREs,  the  youth  of  the  chapel,  church  musicians,  chaplain  candidates,  Protestant 
Women  of  the  Chapel,  and  nonappropriated  fund  custodians  in  FY  1985 

In  addition  to  these  training  events,  many  chaplains  continued  to  conduct  normal  worship 
services  but  with  an  augmented  religious  retreat  and  recreation  program  for  soldiers  and  family 
members.  At  Ramstein,  Army  Chaplain  Irven  Johnson  regularly  took  his  Air  Defense  Artillery 
soldiers  on  cruises  down  the  Rhine  River.  At  least  once  a  year,  during  their  training  on  the  island  of 
Crete,  Chaplain  Johnson  also  would  take  them  to  see  places  of  religious  significance  such  as  the  site 
where  St.  Paul  was  supposedly  ship-wrecked  in  the  first  century.  In  Hanau,  Chaplain  Robert 
Covington,  the  Community  Chaplain,  sponsored  at  least  one  bus  tour  for  soldiers  and  family  members 
each  month.  It  was  not  unusual  for  chaplains  to  visit  1 5  or  more  European  countries  during  their 
normal  rotation  as  retreat  leaders  for  soldiers.'™ 

For  those  soldiers  who  were  unable  to  go  on  bus  trips  on  any  regular  basis,  there  was  always 
the  opportunity  to  attend  the  U.S.  Army  Europe  Religious  Retreat  House  in  Berchtesgaden.  From 
1985  to  1986  Chaplain  Samuel  P.  Lamback  was  the  Religious  Retreat  Director  in  Berchtesgaden. 
Chaplain  Lamback  and  his  staflF  sponsored  numerous  soldier  retreats  which  featured  a  variety  of 
activities  including  musical  programs,  Bible  studies  and,  on  occasion,  guest  lecturers  to  discuss  moral 
leadership  and  the  ethics  involved  in  being  a  soldier.'^' 

Year's  End:  Tragedy  at  Gander 

On  the  morning  of  December  12,  1985,  at  0645  local  time.  Arrow  Airiines  flight  1 285,  a  DC-8 
Charter  carrying  248  passengers  and  a  crew  of  8  crashed  just  after  takeoff  from  Gander  International 
Airport,  Gander,  Newfoundland.  All  on  board  perished.  The  postcrash  fire,  fed  by  the  contents  of 
the  aircraft's  fuel  tanks,  took  local  firefighters  nearly  4  hours  to  bring  under  control  and 
approximately  30  hours  to  completely  extinguish.  The  firefighters  were  hampered  in  their  efforts  by 
the  rugged  terrain. 

The  passengers  on  the  ill-fated  charter  were  U.S.  soldiers,  all  but  12  of  them  were  members 
of  the  101st  Airborne  Division  from  Fort  Campbell,  Kentucky  Most  of  the  soldiers  were  from  the 
3d  Battalion,  502d  Infantry,  1 1  were  from  other  US.  Forces  Command  units;  and  one  was  a  CID 
agent  from  the  Criminal  Investigation  Command.  They  were  all  returning  to  Fort  Campbell  after 
completing  a  six-month  tour  of  duty  in  the  Sinai  with  the  Multinational  Force  and  Observers  (MFO). 
This  international  peacekeeping  organization,  made  up  of  contingents  from  10  nations,  had  been 
established  under  terms  of  a  1981  protocol  agreement  between  Egypt  and  Israel.  The  MFO  had  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


mission  of  implementing  security  provisions  contained  in  the  original  1979  Israeli-Egyptian  peace 
treaty.  The  101st  Airborne  Division  soldiers  who  died  constituted  one-third  of  the  U.  S. 
peacekeeping  task  force. 

Perhaps  no  other  event  in  its  peacetime  history  has  so  wrenched  the  soul  of  the  US.  Army 
as  did  the  Gander  tragedy,  which  ranked  as  the  worst  military  air  disaster  in  the  nation's  history  ''■ 
Colonel  Barry  J  Sottak,  Commander  of  the  101st  Aviation  Group  at  Fort  Campbell,  called  the 
accident  "a  terrible  blow"  to  the  entire  nation  '" 

Ironically  there  was  one  "survivor"  of  the  accident  When  the  chartered  plane  touched  down 
in  Frankfurt,  Germany,  to  refuel.  First  Lieutneant  Chris  Carlin,  a  recent  graduate  of  West  Point  who 
had  requested  leave,  remained  in  Frankfurt  in  order  to  visit  with  his  brother.  It  was  not  until  much 
later  that  the  military  authorities  were  notified  that  Lieutenant  Carlin  was  not  on  board  the  aircraft. 
The  actual  number  of  soldiers  killed  therefore  was  247  in  addition  to  the  crew  of  8. 

Among  the  casuahies  was  Chaplain  (Captain)  Troy  G  Carter,  Task  Force  3-502,  from  the 
2nd  Brigade,  101st  Airborne  Division  Chaplain  Carter  had  been  detailed  to  go  with  the  soldiers  from 
the  101st  to  the  Sinai  in  the  summer  of  1985  Chaplain  Robert  Covington,  the  Division  Chaplain,  had 
selected  Chaplain  Carter  because  of  his  excellent  reputation  in  the  Chaplain  School  Advanced  Course 
from  which  he  had  graduated  that  year  Chaplain  Carter  was  celebrating  the  completion  of  a 
successful  mission  with  his  soldiers  when  they  began  their  redeployment  Although  he  had  a  seat  on 
earlier  flight.  Chaplain  Carter  insisted  that  his  chaplain  assistant  take  that  seat  Carter's  decision  to 
offer  his  seat  to  his  team  member,  while  apparently  a  small  sacrifice  at  the  time,  resulted  in  his 
ultimate  sacrifice."^ 

At  Fort  Campbell  not  only  were  the  commanders  very  busy  helping  soldiers  and  families  to 
deal  with  this  tragedy,  but  the  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  also  were  deeply  involved  as  well. 
The  Post  Chaplain,  Chaplain  Bernard  F  Nass,  dedicated  35  chaplains  and  other  members  of  his  staff 
to  performing  ministry  and  assisting  other  helping  agencies.  In  particular  a  phone  bank  was  set  up 
to  handle  the  enormous  numbers  of  calls  coming  into  Fort  Campbell  inquiring  about  soldiers  on  the 
chartered  flight  Chaplain  John  Allen,  the  Division  Chaplain  for  the  101st  Airborne  Division,  spent 
all  the  available  time  and  resources  he  had  providing  ministry  which  included  the  memorial  and  funeral 
services  for  Chaplain  Troy  Carter  at  Fort  Chaffee,  Arkansas."' 

At  the  OfTice  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  several  staff  members  prepared  to  assist  with  other 
aspects  of  the  tragedy  Chaplain  John  Flaska,  a  Roman  Catholic  priest,  deployed  to  Gander  as  part 
of  the  DA  emergency  assistance  team  Chaplain  Don  Taylor  provided  continuous  ministry  at  the 
Dover  AFB  mortuary,  and  Chaplain  William  Hufham  served  on  the  DA  task  force  to  coordinate 
assistance  and  to  advise  the  Secretary  of  the  Army  on  care  for  families. '''' 

The  shock  waves  from  the  Gander  crash  were  felt  throughout  the  world  '"  At  the  XVIII 
Airborne  Corps,  Fort  Bragg,  North  Carolina,  Chaplain  David  Peterson  led  soldiers  in  prayer  and  then 
immediately  went  to  Fort  Campbell  to  visit  the  chaplains  and  soldiers  at  that  post.''*  At  the  Dover 
Air  Force  Base  mortuary,  900  medical  personnel,  volunteer  Air  Force  and  Army  service  members, 
and  chaplains  prepared  to  receive  the  first  bodies  from  the  crash  Some  of  the  remains  were  so  badly 
burned  that  only  dental  records  permitted  identification.  Chaplains  and  other  staff  members  had  to 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


rotate  on  a  fairly  frequent  basis,  for  the  stress  and  horrors  of  working  constantly  with  body  parts 
proved  extremely  taxing  on  the  emotions.  In  Germany  Chaplain  Jere  Kimmell,  the  chaplain  assigned 
to  the  broadcasting  ministry  at  Armed  Forces  Network  radio  (AFN),  thought  deeply  about  what  kind 
of  tribute  he  could  pay  to  those  who  had  perished  in  the  disaster.  So  close  to  the  holiday  season. 
Chaplain  Kiminell  was  moved  simply  to  play  "Silent  Night"  over  AFN  with  a  brief  meditation  about 
the  meaning  of  Jesus'  birth  and  the  promise  of  eternal  life  '™ 

A  number  of  the  soldiers  who  had  been  killed  were  from  small  towns  throughout  the  south 
and  mid-west.  Chaplains  from  Fort  Bragg  were  called  upon  to  help  provide  funeral  coverage. 
Sergeant  First  Class  Joseph  P.  Millraney,  then  a  chaplain  assistant  at  Fort  Bragg,  recalled:  "We  were 
all  shocked  at  the  news  of  the  Gander  crash  The  101st  and  the  82d  Airborne  Divisions  had  always 
felt  a  certain  kinship  between  them  which  dated  back  more  than  half  a  century  Chaplain  Peterson, 
the  Corps  Chaplain,  in  particular  felt  very  sad  over  the  news  of  so  many  fine  soldiers  losing  their 

A  year  after  the  Gander  disaster,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  dedicated  the  first  annual  Unit 
Ministry  Team  Award  to  the  memory  of  Chaplain  Major  Troy  Carter,  promoted  posthumously. 
Chaplain  Carter  was  one  of  the  few  chaplains  to  give  his  life  in  ministry  to  soldiers  oi^  an  overseas 
deployment  since  the  end  of  the  Vietnam  War.  Chaplain  Matthew  A.  Zimmerman,  the  FORSCOM 
Staff  Chaplain,  remarked: 

I  am  often  asked  by  my  line  officer  brethren  about  the  large  number  of  awards  for 
valor,  bravery  and  meritorious  service  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  have  won. 
And  I  am  asked  about  the  disproportionate  number  of  casualties  among  unit  ministry 
team  members  These  statistics  help  support  our  conviction  that  a  special  ministry  is 
needed  and  is  accomplished  at  the  forward  edge  of  the  battlefield.  You  might  say  a 
chaplain  and  a  chaplain  assistant  are,  and  should  be,  among  the  first  line  professionals 
at  the  battalion  and  the  brigade.'*' 

As  the  year  1985  came  to  a  close,  there  was  no  doubt  in  the  mind  of  any  one  in  the  Chaplaincy  that 
Chaplain  Troy  G.  Carter  was  both  a  first  class  professional  and  an  exceptional  troop  chaplain  as 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  Year  of  Values: 
Modernization  in  Mid-Course 

77?^  Anny  was  in  the  midst  of  the  largest  peacetime  modernization  program  in  our  nation 's 

Department  of  the  Army  Historical  Summary,  1986 

The  state  of  the  Army  in  1986  was  essentially  strong,  with  perhaps  a  few  areas  of  needed 
improvement.  The  equipment  inventory  included  a  wide  range  of  new  or  modernized  conventional 
weapons  envisioned  by  General  Creighton  W.  Abrams  a  decade  earlier.  The  Ml/Ml  Al  Abrams  tank, 
the  Bradley  Infantry  Fighting  Vehicle,  the  Blackhawk  and  Apache  helicopters,  the  Multiple  Launch 
Rocket  System,  and  the  Stinger  and  Patriot  Missile  Systems  were  fielded  in  sizable  numbers.'*"  With 
a  total  active  duty  strength  of  780,000  soldiers.  Department  of  the  Army  forecast  a  28-division  land 
force  with  a  mixture  of  active  and  reserve  component  units.  An  increase  of  6,000  soldiers  in  the  total 
reserve  force  promised  to  accelerate  the  conversion  of  some  units,  such  as  the  29th  Infantry  Division 
of  Normandy  fame,  to  light  divisions  while  others  would  be  modified  to  conform  to  "Division  86" 
designs.  Even  with  a  reduction  in  the  overall  Defense  Budget  in  F  Y86,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for 
Operations  and  Plans  predicted  an  increase  in  the  Army's  divisional  fighting  capability  of  18  percent 
each  year  through  FYSS.'*"* 

Training  initiatives  had  produced  a  record  number  of  field  exercises  in  1986.  In  addition  to 
the  units  sent  through  the  National  Training  Center,  four  major  international  exercises  were 
conducted:  REFORGER  86  in  Europe  with  17,000  soldiers  deployed  from  CONUS  to  work  with 
NATO  general  defense  and  contingency  plans;  TEAM  SPIRIT  in  Korea  with  200,000  Republic  of 
Korea  (ROK)  and  United  States  troops  involved  for  the  first  time  with  the  employment  of  two  field 
Army  headquarters  and  joint/combined  tactical  airdrops  and  subsequent  link  up;  GALLANT  EAGLE, 
a  Central  Command  exercise  at  Fort  Irwin  and  at  the  U.S.  Marine  Corps  Air  Ground  Combat  Center, 
which  involved  35,000  military  personnel  in  joint  operations,  and  U.S.  Southern  Command's 
CABANAS  86  in  Honduras  conducted  concurrently  with  U.S.  Atlantic  Command's  OCEAN 
VENTURE  to  train  service  task  forces  to  protect  the  national  interests  of  friendly  nations.  A  total 
of  8,200  U.S.  personnel,  2,400  of  them  from  the  Army,  participated  in  the  Caribbean  exercises.'*' 

Yet  the  equipment  and  training  of  the  Army  of  Excellence  were  not  the  only  foci  of  interest 
for  General  John  A.  Wickham,  the  Army's  Chief  of  Staff,  in  1986.  One  of  the  Chiefs  goals  was  to 
ensure  that  in  "the  most  thorough  possible  preparation  for  any  fijture  war  or  other  contingency,"  the 
soldiers  would  maintain  America's  basic  values.  Accordingly,  General  John  A.  Wickham,  with  the 
approval  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Army,  declared  1986  to  be  the  Year  of  Values.  Most  basic  among 
the  fundamental  values  of  the  military  profession  were  loyalty  to  the  nation,  the  Army,  and  the  unit, 
personal  responsibility  and  selfless  service.'*''  These  values  were  supported  by  five  soldierly  qualities: 
commhment,  competence,  candor,  courage,  and  integrity. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  Chaplaincy  on  Line 

The  Year  of  Values  was  tailor  made  for  Chaplain  Corps  programs  Virtually  all  of  the 
initiatives,  policies,  training,  and  projections  could  follow  in  tandem  with  the  values  and  qualities  of 
loyalty,  selfless  service,  commitment,  competence  and  integrity.  Even  though  the  Base  Operations 
budget  for  the  execution  of  the  Army's  Religious  Program  through  the  Chaplaincy  had  been  reduced 
from  $15  3  million  to  $14  9  million  in  FY86,  the  1,525  chaplains  on  active  duty  were  generally  well- 
supported  financially  by  appropriated  funds  '^^  Chaplain  support  for  the  Year  of  Values  was  assured 
through  a  Constitutionally  legal,  adequately  funded,  pluralistic  ministry  deployed  world-wide  to  serve 
soldiers  and  their  family  members.'** 

In  terms  of  its  internal  Affirmative  Action  program,  the  Chaplaincy  continued  on  course  to 
produce  a  truly  muhi-racial  and  multi-ethnic  ministry  In  1986,  some  15.2%  of  the  active  duty  force 
was  composed  of  minority  group  chaplains.  The  active  duty  officer  strength  distribution  goals  for 
FY86  raised  the  percentage  to  17%  with  respect  to  Afro-American,  Hispanic,  Asian/Pacific  Islander, 
Native  American,  and  Female  categories.'*'^  The  Chief  of  Chaplains  directed  two  Multi-Cuhural 
Conferences  be  held  during  the  third  quarter  of  FY86  to  discuss  issues  of  concern  to  the  entire 
Chaplaincy's  involvement  with  inclusive  ministries. 

Chaplains  in  formal  resident  and  non-resident  schooling  numbered  550  in  1986  Twenty  of 
these  chaplains  were  studying  in  civilian  institutions,  with  1 1  in  the  discipline  of  pastoral  counseling."" 
Ironically,  even  though  seven  volumes  of  Chaplain  Corps  history  had  been  written  or  were  in 
production,  there  were  no  funded  programs  to  train  chaplains  in  modern  or  military  history. 

Concurrently,  as  a  further  initiative  to  support  the  Army's  emphasis  on  Values,  the  U.S.  Army 
Chaplain  Board  produced  two  handouts  for  chaplains  to  use  in  Moral  Leadership  training.  The 
handouts  were  entitled  "Responsibility"  and  "Loyalty"  and  were  staffed  with  MACOM,  installation, 
community,  and  division  chaplains.  These  materials  were  to  further  support  and  expand  unit  ministry 
teams'  resources  in  implementing  the  Army  theme  of  "Values."'^'  In  the  Fall  of  1986  the  Military 
Chaplains'  Review  was  likewise  dedicated  to  the  same  theme  and  contained  excellent  articles  on 
values,  ethics,  and  the  Chaplaincy's  history. 

U.S.  Army  Europe: 
Ministry  in  Heavy  Weather 

The  winter  of  1985-1986  was  one  of  the  coldest,  snowiest  European  winters  since  1945.''*^ 
The  combination  of  snow,  ice,  and  sub-zero  temperatures  produced  some  almost  unbelievable  effects. 
Trains  were  frozen  to  their  iron  rails  in  England  until  British  Railways  could  heat  the  tracks  Small 
craft  in  Denmark  were  prohibited  from  sailing  across  the  channel  to  Sweden  lest  they  be  trapped  in 
massive  ice.  In  Germany,  even  the  polar  bears  in  the  Frankfijrt  Zoo  were  brought  inside  to  escape 
the  wind  chill!"' 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Chaplain  Ronald  Johnson  of  the  1st  Brigade,  4th  Infantry  Division  (Mechanized),  participated 
with  his  unit  in  REFORGER  exercises  in  Germany  that  winter.  After  a  dismounted  night  march  in 
Siberian  conditions,  the  1  st  Brigade  attacked  and  defeated  the  waiting  opposing  unit,  appropriately 
named  "The  Blue  Force. ""^  It  was  a  cold  winter  to  say  the  least. 

To  compound  the  problems  of  providing  ministry  under  these  conditions,  there  was  also  a 
constant  terrorist  threat  to  USAREUR  Headquarters,  to  General  Glenn  Otis,  the  Commanding 
General,  and  to  various  other  facilities,  airfields  and  bases  throughout  Germany.  For  approximately 
a  month,  a  company  of  U.S.  Infantry  soldiers  guarded  the  street  intersections  and  the  main  gates  of 
Campbell  Barracks  where  the  Headquarters  of  U.S.  Army  Europe  was  located."^ 

USAREUR  Chaplain  Programs 

In  spite  of  these  irritants.  Chaplain  Richard  K  Martin  and  his  staff  at  the  USAREUR 
Chaplain's  Office,  (which  included  Chaplain  R.J.  Ennis,  the  Deputy  USAREUR  Chaplain,  Sergeant 
Major  G.G  Nearhof;  Chaplain  G  W  Conner,  the  Executive  Officer;  Chaplain  Rodger  Venzke, 
Personnel;  Chaplain  Tom  Lucas,  Resource  Manager;  Chaplain  Wilbur  Parker,  War  Plans;  Chaplains 
Sam  Lamback  and  Tony  Imberi  at  the  Berchtesgaden  Retreat  Center,  Chaplain  R.  A.  Brandt  and  Jack 
Raising  at  the  Religious  Resource  Center  in  Mannheim;  and  Chaplain  Jere  Kimmell  at  Armed  Forces 
Radio  Network  in  Frankfurt),  continued  coordinating  and  directing  an  extensive  ministry  of  worship, 
training,  retreats  and  pastoral  care  for  250,000  soldiers  and  families.  '^''  Among  other  activities,  the 
USAREUR  Chaplain's  staff  coordinated  a  Command  Chaplains  Training  Conference  for  chaplains 
and  directors  of  religious  education  on  "Strengthening  Values  and  Valuing  Strengths;"  a  Protestant 
Chaplains  Professional  Development  Conference,  attended  by  500  chaplains,  on  the  theme,  "A 
History  of  Excellence;"  a  Workshop  for  Chaplains  Who  Are  Women  to  discuss  DA  issues  including 
recruitment  and  career  management;  a  Chaplain  Assistant  Professional  Development  Conference  on 
the  theme  of  "Leadership,"  a  Youth  of  the  Chapel  Leaders  Training  Conference  attended  by  206 
chapel  leaders,  a  Protestant  Women  of  the  Chapel  (PWOC)  Conference  celebrating  31  years  of 
service  and  attended  by  457  women,  and  an  Annual  Military  Council  of  Catholic  Women  Training 
Conference  attended  by  approximately  500  dedicated  lay  women  and  chapel  workers. '''^ 

One  of  the  most  popular  "fun"  conferences  was  the  1986  USAREUR  Church  Music 
Conference  attended  by  256  choir  directors,  musicians,  organists,  handbell  choir  leaders,  liturgists  and 
guitarists.  The  conclusion  of  the  music  conference  included  a  talent  show  which  some  observers  said 
was  "worth  the  trip"  by  itself''* 

A  few  examples  of  other  outstanding  ministries  in  Europe  during  this  period  are  worthy  of 
note.  Many  of  these  were  based  in  excellent  chapel  congregations,  but  a  few  reflected  outstanding 
individual  efforts  of  talented  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  and  lay  persons. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


AFN  Radio  Broadcasts 

At  Armed  Forces  Network  (AFN),  the  radio  and  television  facility  in  FrankfUrt  which 
broadcast  to  American  servicemen  and  women  throughout  Europe,  a  series  of  chaplains  trained  in 
communications  specialties  had  produced  religious  programs  on  the  radio  for  soldiers  for  more  than 
12  years.  In  1973  Chaplain  Henry  Ackermann  had  developed  a  radio  media  ministry  of  daily 
devotionals  and  Sunday  worship  which  were  exceptionally  popular  with  soldiers.  Chaplain 
Ackermann  was  succeeded  by  Chaplains  Roy  Plummer,  William  Kreichbaum,  and  Jere  Kimmell. 
Chaplain  Kimmell,  who  had  trained  in  radio  and  television  broadcasting  at  Michigan  State  University, 
built  on  his  predecessors'  work  to  expand  his  daily  audience  to  750,000  soldiers,  sailors.  Marines, 
and  Air  Force  personnel  in  Germany,  England,  Belgium,  and  Italy. '"^^  For  his  excellent  broadcasting 
work.  Chaplain  Kimmell  became  the  recipient  of  a  first  place  Keith  L  Ware  Award  in  Radio 
Entertaininent  and  a  second  place  award  in  Special  Themes.  It  was  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  the 
award  presentation  by  the  Army  Broadcast  Service  that  a  chaplain  received  an  award  and,  in  this  case, 
was  most  unusual  because  Chaplain  Kimmell  received  two  awards.'""  Just  to  show  this  recognition 
was  no  accident.  Chaplain  Kimmell  later  won  two  Thomas  Jefferson  Awards  as  well  for  excellence 
in  broadcasting.  The  Thomas  Jefferson  awards  were  sponsored  by  the  Department  of  Defense  and 
presented  to  Chaplain  Kimmell  by  Tom  Brokaw  of  NBC  News.""^ 

Soldier  Retreats 

The  retreat  ministry  to  soldiers  and  family  members  in  Europe  also  was  a  major  part  of  the 
overall  religious  program.  In  many  communities  and  chapel  centers  throughout  Germany,  religious 
retreats  were  inexpensive  ways  for  soldiers  and  their  families  to  travel  and  to  renew  their  religious 
faith  at  the  same  time.  In  Hanau,  Chaplain  Robert  Covington,  the  Community  Chaplain,  sponsored 
a  retreat  for  one  or  more  of  his  congregations  each  month  '"-  In  Ramstein,  Chaplain  Irven  Johnson 
of  the  2/60  Air  Defense  Artillery  Battalion  arranged  for  his  soldiers  to  take  cruises  down  the  Rhine, 
to  visit  medieval  castles,  and  even  to  tour  Crete  during  exercises  there. ""^  In  Heidelberg  parishioners 
from  Mark  Twain  Village  Chapel  and  Patrick  Henry  Village  Chapel  toured  Waterloo,  Verdun, 
Amsterdam,  London,  Strasbourg,  Florence,  Rome,  and  Israel  in  1986.''" 

For  soldiers  who  were  unaccompanied  as  well  as  for  those  with  families,  the  U.S.  Army 
Europe  Religious  Retreat  House  offered  single  soldier  retreats,  family  retreats,  and  facilities  for  most 
of  the  conferences  sponsored  by  the  USAREUR  Chaplain.  Chaplains  Samuel  P  Lamback,  Jr.,  and 
Anthony  "Tony"  M.  Imberi,  who  directed  activities  at  the  Retreat  House,  also  invited  guest 
musicians,  speakers,  and  retreat  leaders  to  supplement  the  worship,  Bible  study,  and  devotional 
programs.  For  local  touring  during  free  time,  many  soldiers  visited  Salzburg,  Austria,  "The  Sound 
of  Music"  city  and  the  early  home  of  the  composer  W.A.  Mozart.""' 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Cross  Cultural  Programs 

In  many  communities  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  participated  with  German  religious 
leaders  to  share  ideas  and  expertise  and  to  increase  mutual  understanding  and  cooperation.  In  1 985 
Chaplain  Ray  Strawser,  the  Community  Chaplain  for  Heidelberg,  initiated  visits  to  local  German 
churches  to  discuss  joint  holiday  celebrations  and  charitable  activities  Chaplain  Strawser,  a  native 
of  Pennsylvania,  spoke  fluent  German  and  was  instrumental  in  sustaining  excellent  relationships  with 
local  congregations.  Chaplain  Philip  Silverstein,  the  Senior  Jewish  Chaplain  in  USAREUR,  visited 
sites  not  only  in  Germany,  Belgium,  and  Italy,  but  also  in  France  to  coordinate  religious  coverage  for 
Jewish  soldiers  and  to  secure  kosher  food.  Chaplain  Silverstein's  facility  with  the  German,  French, 
and  Korean  languages  made  him  a  valuable  asset  for  the  USAREUR  Chaplain. 

On  a  smaller,  but  no  less  important  scale,  many  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  participated 
in  community  activities  to  support  German  orphanages  and  other  charitable  activities  The  26th 
Signal  Battalion,  whose  Brigade  Headquarters  was  in  Worms,  held  an  annual  Christmas  party  in 
Heidelberg  at  a  local  German  senior  citizens  home  to  foster  better  German- American  relations  The 
chaplain  and  chaplain  assistant  covering  the  26th  were  always  invited  to  be  part  of  the  planning 

German  lay  persons  and  clergy  who  worked  in  U.S.  Army  chapels  likewise  made  important 
reciprocal  contributions  to  religious  work  Sir  Pius  Daucher,  the  Catholic  Religious  Program 
Coordinator  at  Mark  Twain  Village  Chapel,  the  oldest  Army  chapel  in  Europe,  served  American 
Catholic  soldiers  and  German  civilians  alike  beginning  in  1945.-"*  Herr  Monsignor  Gottfried  Merl, 
a  Catholic  contract  priest,  ministered  to  American  soldiers  for  forty  years  in  Regensburg,  Hohenfels, 
and  in  the  border  camps  for  the  2nd  and  1 1th  Armored  Cavalry  Regiments.  For  his  work  Sir  Pius 
Daucher  was  knighted  by  the  Pope;  Monsignor  Merl  also  received  Papal  recognition  as  well  as  the 
USAREUR  Commander's  Outstanding  Civihan  Service  Award  in  1985-1986.-°' 

A  Sample  of  Parish  Activities 

Within  the  military  communities  in  Germany  in  1986,  the  chaplains  and  their  chapel 
congregations  designed  and  executed  a  remarkable  number  of  religious  programs  for  soldiers  and 
their  family  members  Unit  chaplains  recorded  worship  services,  counseling  sessions,  prayer 
breakfasts,  memorial  services,  soldier  suppers,  moral  leadership  discussions,  religious  retreats,  Bible 
studies,  coffee  house  ministries,  adventure  training,  "Duty  DaysAVeeks  with  God,"  and  hospital 
visitations  among  their  normal  religious  leadership  duties.  In  some  of  the  larger  chapel 
communities — Frankfurt,  Heidelberg,  Augsburg,  Stuttgart,  and  Mannheim,  to  name  a  few — unit 
ministry  teams  were  leading  and  coordinating  hundreds  of  lay  volunteers,  contract  clergy, 
denominational  service  leaders,  directors  of  religious  education  and  other  workers 

At  Mark  Twain  Village  Chapel  in  Heidelberg  which  served  a  Support  Group  and  three  major 
headquarters  units,  the  chapel  membership  list  included  1,420  soldiers  and  their  family  members. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Some  225  volunteers  from  the  Roman  Catholic,  Jewish,  and  Protestant  congregations  administered 
more  than  55  programs  which  included  four  choirs,  two  Sunday  Schools,  one  Hebrew  School,  one 
Latter  Day  Saint  Youth  Education  Program,  four  youth  programs.  Vacation  Bible  School,  12  family 
retreats,  12  single  soldier  suppers,  three  Bible  studies  (including  those  offered  by  the  Navigators  and 
the  Officer  Christian  Fellowship),  12  parish  suppers,  a  Spanish-speaking  fellowship.  Alcoholics 
Anonymous,  Marriage  Enrichment,  Senior  Citizens'  Lunches,  Hospital  Ministry,  Protestant  Men  and 
Women  of  the  Chapel,  a  Young  Adult  Fellowship,  Teacher  Recruitment  and  Training,  and  worship 
services  for  all  holidays  and  special  observances.  During  any  one  week,  an  average  of  35  different 
groups  met  in  the  chapel  to  plan,  coordinate,  or  conduct  ministry  '"" 

From  1973  to  1986  the  USAREUR  religious  program  produced  one  for  the  largest  and 
busiest  ministries  for  military  personnel  in  the  world.  Although  there  were  more  troop  chaplains  in 
Europe  at  the  end  of  World  War  H,  there  were  more  active  religious  congregations  for  military 
service  members  in  1986  than  in  any  time  in  the  previous  50  years  The  soldiers  involved  in  the  Cold 
War  in  Europe  received  the  best  and  highest  quality  religious  support  the  Army  Chaplaincy  and  its 
faithful  volunteer  lay  leadership  could  provide. 

Hails  and  Farewells: 
Continuing  a  Firm  Foundation 

In  June  of  1986  the  Chaplain  Corps  marked  a  number  of  personnel  transitions  which  were 
important  not  only  in  terms  of  its  continuity  of  ministry  but  also  in  terms  of  its  historic  direction  for 
the  future  Scores  of  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants  and  DA  civilians  retired  in  1986  Their 
contributions  to  religious  support  over  the  preceding  quarter  century  and  beyond  were  significant. 

Among  the  active  and  reserve  component  chaplains  who  retired  between  January  T'  and  June 
1st  were  Chaplain  Bobby  G  Allen,  Chaplain  Danny  W  Buttram,  Chaplain  Nathaniel  Giannattasio, 
Chaplain  Marvin  C.  Hughes,  Chaplain  Charles  D  Bass,  Chaplain  George  H  Fischer,  and  Chaplain 
Robert  E  Southwell  -"" 

One  of  the  best  known  and  possibly  best  loved  civilian  employees  to  retire  was  Mrs.  Nellie 
Burton,  the  Assignments  Officer  in  the  Personnel  and  Ecclesiastical  Relations  Division,  Office  of  the 
Chief  of  Chaplains.  Mrs.  Burton  had  served  in  the  Chiefs  Office  for  41  years,  following  the  various 
Chiefs  and  their  staff  members  from  the  War  Department,  located  in  1945  in  the  Munitions  Building 
on  Constitution  Avenue,  to  the  Pentagon,  Fort  Leslie  McNair,  the  Forrestal  Building  and  then  back 
to  the  Pentagon 

In  1941,  at  the  beginning  of  World  War  II,  there  were  383  chaplains  of  every  major  religious 
denomination  on  active  duty  In  1945,  when  Mrs.  Burton  arrived  as  a  GS-2  in  the  Chiefs  Office, 
there  were  9, 1 00  chaplains  on  duty 

Among  Mrs.  Burton's  duties  were  the  maintenance  of  chaplain  personnel  records  and  a  color- 
coded,  flip  chart  of  names  for  tracking  the  annual  assignments  and  availability  of  more  than  1,500 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


active  duty  chaplains  The  6,000  color-coded  entries  on  "the  Board"  gave  an  instant  appraisal  of 
chaplains  by  worldwide  assignment  "The  Board,"  replaced  by  computerized  records,  was  retired 
with  Mrs.  Burton  on  May  31,  1986. 

When  Mrs  Burton's  retirement  was  announced,  expressions  of  appreciation  for  her  almost 
half-century  of  work  poured  in  from  chaplains  throughout  the  Army.  Chaplain  Kenneth  V.  Carpenter, 
7th  Engineer  Brigade,  wrote;  "Your  name  is  one  of  the  first  which  a  new  chaplain  associates  with  the 
Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  "  Chaplain  Joseph  E.  Miller,  1st  Armored  Division,  said,  "You  have 
made  a  positive  impact  on  the  Chaplaincy  which  will  be  felt  for  many,  many  years  to  come."  Chaplain 
T.W  Thompson,  777th  Field  Artillery,  Babenhausen,  Germany,  related,  "You  have  made  a  mark  in 
history  and  will  be  remembered  as  one  who  has  helped  many  of  us  to  step  out  in  faith  for  the  cause 
of  God  and  country  "  In  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Mrs  Burton's  impact  was  echoed  by 
Chaplain  Hessian  and  his  staff:  "Your  care  for  others  is  the  measure  of  your  greatness.""'" 

As  these  transitions  were  taking  place.  Chaplain  Norris  L.  Einertson's  Presidential  nomination 
to  become  the  Army's  17th  Chief  of  Chaplains  was  confirmed  by  the  US  Senate  on  18  June. 
Chaplain  Patrick  J.  Hessian  bade  farewell  to  the  Corps  as  he  hailed  his  successor: 

I  attempted  to  be  a  rallying  point  around  which  and  through  whom  your  efforts  would 
be  facilitated,  God's  grace  would  flow  to  His  people,  and  we  would  all  bring  glory  to 
His  name.  I  know  it  has  not  always  been  easy  You  have  tolerated  my  views  even 
when  they  seemed  to  be  bizarre  You  supported  me  as  your  Chief  and  stuck  with  me 
faithfully  You  have  been  my  strength.  I  leave  thinking  and  feeling  that  we've  been 
a  good  team,  and  have  succeeded  in  doing  God's  will  for  the  people  He  entrusted  to 
us.  Each  of  us  contributed,  in  some  significant  way,  to  that  success  My  heart  will 
be  with  you  always.'" 

Chaplain  Hessian's  retirement  dinner  was  held  on  June  25,  1986,  at  Fort  Myer  followed  by 
a  retirement  parade  two  days  later  hosted  by  General  John  A  Wickham,  the  Army  Chief  of  Staff 
General  Wickham  saluted  Chaplain  Hessian's  leadership  with  the  following  comments: 

Chaplain  Pat  Hessian  has  served  the  Army  and  the  Country  since  1958  in  the  Army 
Reserve  and  in  the  Active  Army  A  combat-decorated,  master  parachutist.  General 
Hessian  has  been  a  chaplain  in  three  brigades  and  two  divisions  and  at  XVI 11  Airborne 
Corps,  U.S.  Army  Europe,  and  8th  (US)  Army  in  Korea.  His  ministry  has  always 
been  characterized  by  a  passionate  concern  for  the  needs  of  soldiers 

As  Chief  of  Chaplains,  he  insisted  that  the  chaplain  and  chaplain  assistant,  as  a  "unit 
ministry  team"  be  deployed  to  the  most  exposed  elements  of  the  battlefield  so  that 
soldiers  in  combat  might  have  the  best  pastoral  care.  On  his  watch  he  successfijlly 
defended  the  Constitutionality  of  the  Chaplaincy  and  was  instrumental  in  the 
assignment  of  the  first  chaplain  to  the  National  Guard  Bureau    Chaplain  Hessian  has 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


all  the  qualities  of  a  great  priest.  He  is  never  afraid  to  stand  up  for  what  he  believes 
on  major  moral,  spiritual,  and  ethical  issues.  General  Hessian  lived  up  to  a  memorial 
to  a  minister  in  the  eighteenth  century:  'He  taught  them  how  to  live  and  how  to  die.' 
Soldiers  can  ask  no  more  of  their  spiritual  leaders."'" 

General  Wickham's  remarks  constituted  a  high  tribute  for  Chaplain  Hessian's  leadership,  but  they  also 
reflected  the  accomplishments  of  many  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  who  helped  standardize 
training,  doctrine,  and  policies  throughout  the  Corps  so  that  the  ministry  to  soldiers  and  family 
members  might  rest  on  a  firm  foundation  for  the  decade  ahead. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 



1.  Dr.  William  J  Hourihan,  "Oral  Interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.    )  Patrick  J.  Hessian,"  10 
February  1986,  p.  44.  Unpublished  manuscript  in  the  Historian's  Office,  U.S.  Army  Chaplain 
Center  and  School,  Fort  Monmouth,  New  Jersey. 

2.  IMii.,  p.  B-2. 

3.  Chaplain  Frank  A.  Tobey  served  as  Deputy  Chief  from  1954-1958  and  Chief  from  1958-1962, 
a  total  of  8  years. 

4.  Dr  William  J.  Hourihan,  Op  cit  ,  pp.  2-3. 
5    Ibid.,  p  34 

6.  I  hid 

7.  Ihid.^  p.  24. 
8  /hid,  p.25. 
9.  Ibid.,  p.  26. 
10  Ihid,  p.  26. 

11.  Ibid,  p  24 

12.  Doctor  William  J.  Hourihan,  "Oral  Interview"  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Patrick  J.  Hessian, 
27  May,  1986,  Fort  Monmouth,  New  Jersey,  p.  4.  The  other  three  chaplains  selected  by  Chaplain 
Kelly  as  potential,  ftiture  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  were  Chaplain  James  Murphy,  Chaplain  John 
McCullough,  and  Chaplain  Art  Craig    Chaplain  Hessian  thought  it  was  a  very  fair  thing  for 
Chaplain  Kelly  to  give  a  number  of  people  a  chance  at  being  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.  See  Dr. 
Hourihan's  interview  with  Chaplain  Hessian  dated  10  February,  1986,  p.  94. 

U.  Ibid,  p.  B-3 

14.  Officeof  the  Chief  of  Cbaphins,  Annua/  Historical  Review,  1  October,  1981  -  30  September, 
1992,  p.  2. 

\5  Ihid.,p.  3. 

16.  Department  of  the  Army,  Hislorica/  Summary  OfFisca/  Year  1983,  p.  1-1. 

\l.Ibid.,p.  1-2. 


\S  Ihid 

\9.Jhid,  pp   1-4&  1-5. 

20.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1  October,  1982  -  30  September, 
1983,  p.  A-4. 

21  Ibid ,  Note:  These  statements  are  almost  identical  to  similar  advice  given  to  the  Corps  by 
Chaplain  Orris  Kelly  in  1977. 

22.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.    )  Timothy  Tatum,  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains, 
28  December,  1994 

23.  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Patrick  J.  Hessian,  Command  Chaplains  Conference,  July  1982,  as  cited 
in  the  US  Army  Chaplain  Board,  Iraining  Opportunities  FYH-f.  cover 

24.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annua/  Historical  Review,  1  October  1982  -  30  September, 
1983,  p.  A-4. 

25.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1  October,  1982  -  30  September, 
1983,  pp   10-12 

26  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1  October  1982  -  30  September  1983,  p  A2    The  Total 
Chaplaincy  Goals  reflected  Total  Army  Goals  as  well  as  Army  initiatives  such  as  the  Army  Family 
White  Paper  signed  in  August  of  1983. 

27  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1983-1984,  p. 17    Other  regulations  which  reflected  this 
responsibility  included  AR  600-3  and  AR  105. 

28.  Ibid.,  p.  A4. 

29.  Captain  Linda  Ewing,  "Ministry  to  Women  as  Persons,"  Military  Chaplains  Review,  Winter, 
1983,  pp.  33-37. 

30.  McGeorge  Bundy,  "Missiles  in  Europe:  a  former  security  adviser's  view,"  Address  at  the  New 
York  University  Sesquicentennial  Conference,  1981,  p.  1 

3 1 .  R.  W.  Apple,  Jr.,  "Britain's  Nuclear  Battle,"  The  New  York  limes,  1 1  January  1983. 

32.  Ibid 

33.  Ibid. 

34.  Ibid 


35.  Ihid. 

36.  Ihid. 

Ill .  "United  Methodists  Bishops  Support  Catholic  Nuclear  Stand,"  Wesleyan  Christian  Advocate , 
December  1,  1982,  p   1. 

38.  Richard  Halloran,  "U.S.  Tells  Bishops  Morality  is  Guide  on  Nuclear  Policy,"  New  York  Times, 
17  November  1982,  p.  1. 

39  Jim  Lackey,  "The  Bishops'  Third  Draft,"  Catholic  New  York,  7  April  1983,  p.  1. 

40.  Richard  Halloran,  Op  cit  ,  pi. 

41.  Sue  McCarthy,  "West  Point's  General  Scott,"  Catholic  New  York,  28  February  1982,  p   16. 

42.  John  W.  Coffey,  "The  American  Bishops  on  War  and  Peace,"  Parameters,  vol.  Xlll,  no.  4, 
December  1983,  p.  30. 

43  Donald  L.  Davidson,  "Religious  Strategists;  The  Churches  and  Nuclear  Weapons," 
Parameters,  December  1983,  p.  19 

44.  Office  of  the  C\\\q^  o^  Cha^Xdim^.  Ammal  Historical  Review,  1  October  1982  -  30  September 
1983,  p  6 

45.  Chaplain  (Col  )  Robert  J  Ennis,  "The  Roman  Catholic  Chaplain  in  the  Third  Christian 
Epoch,"  Military  Chaplains  Review,  Fall  1983,  p.  63. 

46.  Jim  Lackey,  Op.  cit,  p.  1. 

47.  Chaplain  (Col.)  James  G  Thompson,  "Introduction  to  the  Fort  Leonard  Wood  Papers," 
MiUtary  Chaplains  Review,  Fall,  1983,  p   1. 

48.  See  the  Military  Chaplains  Review,  Fall  1983,  for  the  published  Fort  Leonard  Wood  Papers. 

49  Of  special  interest  were  the  following  -  Waldo  Burchard,  "Role  Conflicts  of  Military 
Chaplains,"  American  Sociological  Review,  No.  No.  119,  1954,  Robert  Vickers,  "The  Military 
Chaplaincy:  A  Study  in  Role  Conflict,"  Military  Chaplain  Review,  Spring,  1986;  Kermit  Johnson, 
"Factors  Influencing  Job  Satisfaction  Among  Army  Chaplains,"  U.S.  Army  War  College  Study 
Project,  1976,  "Honest  to  God  or  Faithfijl  to  the  Pentagon'^'"  Time,  May,  1969,  Harvey  Cox  :(ed.) 
Military  Chaplains:  From  Religious  Military  to  a  Military  Religion,  1973,  Jack  S .  Boozer,  IJie 
Edge  of  Ministry...  The  Chaplain  Story,  1984,  James  E.  Pierce,  "The  Perpetuation  of 
Denominational  Identity  Among  Military  Chaplains,"  Emory  University  PhD  dissertation  1977; 
Gordon  C.  Zahn,  "Military  Chaplains:  Defending  Their  Ministry,"  America,  August  1982,  and 


John  J  O'Connor,  "A  Chaplain  Responds,"  America,  August  1982 

50  The  legal  crisis  in  the  Chaplaincy,  which  had  begun  with  the  Constitutionality  Case  in  1979, 
received  some  encouragement  in  1983  when  the  Supreme  Court  ruled  that  the  Nebraska  state 
legislature  was  not  violating  the  Constitution's  separation  of  church  and  state  by  having  an  oflficial 
chaplain.  See  "GOP  Decides  to  Keep  Capitol  Hill  Chaplains,"  The  Washington  Times,  3  January 
1995,  p.  A4. 

51.  Personal  interview  with  Sergeant  First  Class  Joseph  P  Millraney,  who  was  the  NCOIC  in 
1983  for  the  Heidelberg  Community  Chaplain,  18  January  1995. 

52.  Department  of  the  Army,  USARI^AIRand  7th  Army  Annual  Historical  Report,  1982  -  1983, 
p.  470.   Copy  in  the  Center  for  Military  History,  Washington,  DC. 

53  1  hid. 

54.  Ibid,  pp.  466-470. 

55.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Wayne  Kuehne,  DACH,  2  May,  1994,  In  fact. 
General  Starry  approved  part  of  it  at  lunch  with  Chaplain  Kuehne  at  the  Fort  Lee  Officers'  Club! 

56.  John  L.  Romjue,  Prepare  the  Army  for  War,  p.  12. 

57.  See  Chaplain  (Col.)  Gordon  M.  Schweitzer,  "Division  86:  A  New  Setting  for  Ministry," 
Military  Chaplains  Review.  Winter  1983,  p.  19-flf. 

58.  Ibid.,  p.  22. 

59.  Ibid,  p.  55. 

60.  Ibid. 

61.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Hannah,  USA  Rtd.,  5  January  1995. 

62.  Harold  Brown,  "Technology,  Military  Equipment,  and  National  Security,"  Parameters,  March 
1983,  p.  18. 

63.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Timothy  Tatum,  DACH,  28  December  1994. 

64.  Ibid 

65.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Wayne  Kuehne,  2  May,  1994. 

66.  "This  issue  had  been  under  discussion  in  the  Corps  for  some  time,  but  this  event  got  things 
moving..."  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Scott,  February  1995 


67  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Tim  Tatum,  28  December  1994. 

68  TRADOC  Chaplain  Annual  Historical  Report,  October,   1 983 

69.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  1 5  August  1983,  p.  28. 

70  Master  Sergeant  Aaron  Gibson  and  Dr  John  Bryan,  "Team  Building  and  the  Army 
Chaplaincy,"  Military  Chaplains  Review,  Fall  1985,  p.  95. 

71 .  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  1 5  August  1 83,  p.  26. 

72  Master  Sergeant  Aaron  Gibson,  Op.  cit.,  p.  95 

73.  The  team  building  manual.  Skills  for  Team  Building,  was  published  by  the  Chaplain  Board  in 

74.  Chaplain  (Col.)  Gordon  Schweitzer,  USA,  Rtd.,  was  a  founding  member  of  the  St.  Hereticus 
Society  which  was  instituted  at  Fort  Lee,  Virginia,  in  1972.  In  response  to  the  St.  Barbara's 
award  given  by  the  Artillery,  the  St.  Hereticus  Society  recognized  universal  skeptics    St. 
Hereticus  Day  was  April  1st  and  always  featured  cake  and  the  motto,  "Remember  Pompeii  "  (The 
theory  was  that  Pompeii  was  destroyed  for  ignoring  St.  Hereticus.)  The  secret  sign  of  the 
Hereticians  was  crossing  the  middle  finger  over  the  index  finger  whenever  saying  anything.  It  is 
not  known  if  the  Society  is  still  active.   Information  comes  from  an  interview  with  Chaplain 
Schweitzer,  Reno,  Nevada,  30  December  1994. 

75.  Personal  interviews  with  the  following:  Chaplain  (Brig.  Gen.)  G.  T.  Gunhus,  29  December 
1994;  Chaplain  (Col  )  Wayne  Kuehne,  2  May  1994,  Sergeant  Major  T  E.  Hatcher,  30  December 
1994;  Sergeant  Major  Aaron  Gibson,  29  December  1994;  Chaplain  (Col.)  Gordon  Schwietzer,  30 
December  1994;  Major  M.  L.  Flom,  2  January  1995,  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Hannah,  5  January 
1995.   See  also  Wayne  Kuehne,  James  Robnolt,  and  Claude  Newby,  "The  Unit  Ministry  Team: 
From  Concept  to  Doctrine,"  Military  Chaplains  Review,  February  1989,  pp.  3-7. 

76.  Interview  with  Chaplain  Kuehne,  29  December  1994. 

77  Interview  with  Major  M.  L.  Flom,  2  January  1995, 

78  Ibid 

79  See  Fm  16-5,  The  Chaplain  and  Chaplain  Assistant  in  Combat  Operations,  December  1984, 
pp  32-33, 

80.  Chaplain  Knox  Hemdon,  who  participated  in  Operation  Urgent  Fury,  pronounced  Grenada 
like  grenade,  not  like  Granada  which  is  a  city  in  Spain 


81.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (COL)  James  Robnolt  ,  Ft  Monmouth  ,  N.J.,  1 1  July  1993. 

82.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Wayne  Kuehne  ,  2  May  1994. 

83.  Personal  interview  with  Major  Morgan  L.  Flom  ,  USA  Retired,  2  Jan  1995.  Note:  For  his 
contributions  to  Chaplain  Corps  doctrine,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  awarded  Major  Flom  the  Aaron 
and  Hur  award  in  1988. 

84.  Some  chaplains  who  had  served  in  combat  in  Vietnam  against  guerrillas  that  observed  no 
"rules  of  warfare"  were  not  enthusiastic  about  an  absolute  prohibition  against  chaplains  bearing 
arms  on  the  battlefield  The  Geneva  Conventions  do  not  require  chaplains  or  other  religious 
personnel  assigned  to  hospitals  to  serve  in  combat  without  arms.  Medical  personnel  are  entitled  to 
carry  side  arms  to  protect  themselves  against  unprincipled  marauders,  and  chaplains  are  included 
in  the  Geneva  Conventions  under  the  topic  of  medical  personnel.  However ,  in  consideration  of 
the  pacifist  position  taken  by  many  civilian  denominational  endorsing  agents.  Chaplain  Hessian 
reinforced  the  World  War  II  JAG  opinion  that  chaplains  should  not  bear  arms  lest  they  lose  their 
status  as  non-combatants  Chaplain  (Col.)  James  E  Pierce  ,  USAR,  a  Vietnam  veteran  ,  reflected 
simply  ,  "Chaplain  Hessian  made  chaplains  quit  carrying  guns."  (Personal  interview  with  Chaplain 
(Col.)  James  E.  Pierce  ,  Valley  Forge,  Pa.,  1  Jan  95.) 

85.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1  Oct  1983-  30  Sept  1984,  p.l4. 

86.  John  J  Romjue,  The  Army  of  Excellence:  The  Development  of  the  1980's  Army,  (Ft.  Monroe, 
Virginia  :  Office  of  the  TRADOC  Historian,  1993  ),  p.  104. 

87.  Ibid.  ,p  103. 
88. /A/6/.,  p.  104. 

89.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains, /^w»/a////5toA-/cfl//?t?v/m,  1  Oct  1983-30  Sept  1984,  p.l5. 

90.  Ibid,  pp.  16- 17. 

91 .  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  James  Robnolt,  Ft.  Monmouth,  1 1  July  1993 

92.  Ibid 

93.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Scott,  Woodbridge,  Va  ,  24  Dec  1994 

94.  Chaplain  (Maj  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  letter  to  Chaplain  (Col  )  John  Brinsfield,  2  May  1995. 
Copy  in  Chaplain  Corps  Archives  This  changed  to  three  per  year  in  1996  due  to  downsizing  of 
the  Army,  the  War  College,  and  branch  quotas. 

95.  Personal  interview  with  Sergeant  Major  T.E.  Hatcher  ,  TRADOC,  30  Dec  1994. 


96  I  hid. 

97  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  84,  p  18 

98  Jhid.  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  Philip  J  Rapp  was  assigned  to  the  National  Guard  Bureau  in  April  of 

1984.  He  was  succeeded  in  May  of  1989  by  Chaplain  (Co!  )  George  Schwantes  who  helped 
furnish  National  Guard  UMT  support  for  Operation  Desert  Shield/Desert  Storm  ,  JTF 
Guantananio,  and  Operation  Andrew  He  was  succeeded  in  turn  in  December  of  1994  by  Chaplain 
(Col  )  Donald  Hill. 

99.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Timothy  Tatum,  16  Jan  1995. 

100  OCCH  ,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  1984,  (Chaplain  (Col )  James  Edgren's  draft),  p.  7. 
Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

101.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Timothy  Tatum,  16  Jan  1995. 

102.  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  1984  ,  p. 8. 

103.  Department  of  Defense,  Report  of  the  Joint  Ser\'ice  Study  on  Religious  Matters,  March 

1 985,  p.    1     Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives 

104  Ibid.,  p.   iv. 

\05  /hid,  p.  ii. 

106  Ihid ,  Conference  Report,  September  26,  1984,  p  25.  Rabbi  Lapp  represented  the  Jewish 
Welfare  Board  while  Rabbi  Landes  represented  the  Conservative  Rabbinical  Assembly. 

\07. /hid,  p.  27. 

108.  M/ J.  Executive  Summary,  p.  xiii.  Other  specific  recommendations  were  also  made  with 
regard  to  the  need  to  develop  special  combat  rations,  permission  for  chaplains  to  wear  religious 
accouterments  with  the  uniform  in  the  performance  of  worship  and  practices  distinct  to  their  faith 
group,  and  the  use  of  administrative  actions  as  a  means  of  conflict  resolution. 

\09  /hid,  p. \5 

WO  /hid 

ill.  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  Cecil  D.  Lewis,  "A  History  of  Parish  Development  in  the  Army 
Chap\aincy,"  Military  Chaplains  Revie\\',  Fall  1981,  p.  14. 

1 12.  Chaplain  (Maj.)  Geoffrey  H.  Moran,  "Parish  Development  in  the  Army  Chaplaincy:  An 
Historical  Update,'''  Mililaty  Chaplains  Review,  Fall  1985,  p.  83. 


1 13.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1  October  1983  -  30  September 

1984,  pp.  19-24. 
\\4.  Ibid,  p.  20. 

1 1 5.  Roger  Able,  Information  Paper  for  the  DA  Historical  Review,  FY  84,  p.  1 .  Copy  in  the 
Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

116.  USAREUR  and  7th  Army  Annual  Historical  Report,  FY  1984,  pp    388-392. 
\n.Ihid.,p.  391. 

\\S.Ibid.,p.  392. 


120.  USAREUR  and  7th  Army  Annual  Historical  Report,  FY  1984,  p.  392. 

\2\.  Ibid,  p.  392. 

122.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Thomas  H.  Norton,  U.S.  Army  War  College,  I 
December  1994. 

123.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Samuel  P.  Lamback,  7  December  1993. 

124.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  CliflF Weathers,  USA  Retired,  19  February  1995. 
The  ceremony  at  Arlington  Cemetery  was  held  on  28  May  1984. 

125.  U.S.  Army  Military  District  of  Washington,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1  October  1983  -  30 
September  1984,  p.II-8;  and  Ibid.,  1  October  1984  -  30  September  1986,  pp.2-1 2  through  2-14. 
Fort  Belvoir  joined  MDW  in  FY  1988. 

126.  Ibid ,  1  October  1984  -  30  September  1986,  p. 2-13. 

127.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  I  October  1983  -  30  September 
1984,  p.  8.  Chaplain  Ackermann  had  begun  a  highly  successfiil  radio  ministry  at  Armed  Forces 
Network  in  Germany  in  1974.  Thereafter  he  trained  many  chaplain  service  school  instructors  in 
audio-visual  techniques  as  well  as  in  "content"  courses,  such  as  ethics  and  effective 
communication,  while  he  served  in  the  TRADOC  Chaplain's  OflFice  in  1977  and  1978. 

128.  Ibid.,  p.  6. 

1 29  Department  of  the  Army,  Historical  Summary  for  FY  85,  p.  I- 1 .  Themes  for  the  Army 
began  in  1981  with  "Yorktown"  (historic  traditions)  and  continued  with  "Physical  Fitness"  in 
1982,  "Excellence"  in  1983  and  the  "Army  Family"  in  1984. 


UO  Ibic/.,p.  1-2. 


132. //)/t/,  p.  1-3. 

\33.IhiJ.,p.  1-4 

\ 34  Ibid 

US.  Ibid,  pp  1-6,  IV-6 

U6.  Ibid.,  p.  VI-7. 

137  Chief  of  Chap\a\ns'  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  15  August  1985,  p.  8. 

138.  Chaplain  (Col  )  H  M.  Grubb,  Issue  Paper  for  the  Council  of  Colonels,  5  December  1985,  p. 

139.  Chaplain  (Col.)  Gary  Councell,  "Resourcing  the  Chaplaincy  in  the  Post- Vietnam  Years," 
Seminar  Paper,  U.S.  Army  War  College,  1994,  p.  5. 

\40.  Ibid,  p.  6. 


142.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Annual  Historical  Review,  1  October  1984  -  30  September 
1985,  p.  19.  DRE  positions  were  popular.   Some  105  qualified  applicants  were  on  file  in  1985  to 
fill  any  vacancies  which  might  occur  among  the  85  DRE  incumbents. 


144.  Department  of  the  Army,  AR  165-20,  paragraph  1-5  (d). 

145  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  William  L  Huftiam,  Issue  Paper  for  the  Council  of  Colonels,  1985,  p  1. 

146.  The  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  85,  p.  16,  reported  that  50%  conducted  post- 
course  assessments.  However,  DOES  reported  to  Chaplain  Hufliam  a  10%  result.   See  Chaplain 
(Lt.  Col ,)  William  L.  Huftiam,  Information  Paper  for  the  Council  of  Colonels,  1985,  p.  1 .  Copy  in 
the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

147.  The  NTC  concept  was  developed  at  TRADOC  in  1976  by  General  Gorman  and  his  staff. 
The  first  force-on-force  maneuvers  were  conducted  in  1982. 


148  Chaplain  (Maj  )  Ronald  N.  Johnson,  "A  Brigade  Chaplain's  Ministry:  The  Plan  and 
ExecuUon,"  Mi/ilaiy  Cliaplains'  Review,  Summer  1986,  p  63. 

149  Chaplain  Ronald  Johnson,  Op.  Cil,  p.  67  and  Chaplain  (Cpt.)  Curtis  Heydt,  "National 
Training  Center  Rotation:  A  Journal,"  M/z/ary  Chaplaitis  Review,  Summer  1986,  p  39 

\50.  Ihid. 

151   Chaplain  (Maj  )  Jesse  L.  Thornton,  "The  UMT  and  Training  at  the  NTC,"  Military 
Chaplains  Review,  Summer  1986,  p.  81. 

\52  Ihid,  p.  16. 

153./A/^.,  p  37 

\54.  Ihid,  p  75. 

155  Ihid,  p  44. 

156.  Chaplain  (Col.)  Leroy  T.  Ness,  "Report  of  the  Council  of  Chaplain  Colonels,"  17  May  1985, 
p.  2  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

1 57  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains'  Total  Chaplaincy  Goals,  FY  87/88,  draft  dated  27 
November  1985,  p.  13.  Chaplain  (Col.)  James  Edgren's  copy  is  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

158.  This  policy  was  not  popular  with  some  chaplains  who  normally  had  no  parish  responsibilities 
due  to  their  positions  on  staffs  or  on  school  facuhies    Chaplain  Hessian  did  not  like  for  chaplains 
to  ignore  the  needs  of  post  chapels,  however,  and  would  ask  chaplains  occasionally  on  staff  visits 
what  they  did  on  Sundays 

159  OCCH,  Annual  Historical  Review,  FY  85,  pp  7-8. 

160.  Ibid ,  p.  16,  and  personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Wayne  Kuehne,  19  April,  1995. 
Chaplain  Kuehne  stressed  the  importance  of  the  work  others  did  in  the  production  of  these  field 

161.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  G  T  Gunhus,  Fort  Monroe,  14  December  1993. 

162.  Ibid,  p   18. 

163.  OCCH,  Annual  HLStoncal  Review,  FY  85,  p   10 

164.  Letter  from  Ms  Jessica  Harding  to  Mr.  John  Baer  and  Chaplain  (Col.)  James  Edgren,  9 
October  1985.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 


165.  OCCH,  Annual  Hislorical  Review,  FY  85,  p.  12.  See  also,  Jessica  Harding,  "Celebrating  the 
210th  Chaplain  Corps  Anniversary;  29  July  1985,"  The  Pentagram,  Washington,  DC,  28  August 

166.  OCCH, /4///^  FY  85,  p   17 
167  /^/J.,  p.  17. 

168.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Thomas  Norton,  U.S.  Army  War  College,  1 
December  1994. 

169.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.)  Irven  W.  Johnson,  18  January,  1995.  Chaplain 
Johnson  was  the  Battalion  Chaplain  for  the  2/60  Air  Defense  Artillery  Battalion  in  Ramstein  in 

170.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.)  Irven  W.  Johnson,  18  January  1995.  And  personal 
interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Robert  Covington,  US.  Army  Retired,  18  January  1995. 

171.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Samuel  P.  Lamback,  Jr.,  U.S.  Army  Retired,  7 
December  1993. 

1 72.  Department  of  the  Army  Historical  Summary  FY  86,  Appendix  A,  p.    1 . 

173.  Larry  D.  Call  and  Douglas  L.  Carver,  "The  Gander  Air  Crash:  Unit  Ministry  Team 
Responses  During  a  Crisis,"  Fort  Campbell,  Kentucky:  10  July  1987,  p.  iii. 

174.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Robert  Covington,  U.S.  Army  Retired,  18  January 
1995,  and  Department  of  the  Army,  Chief  of  Chaplains  Newsletter,  1  January  1986,  p.  2. 

175.  Larry  Call  and  Douglas  Carver,  Op.  cit^,  p.  19. 

176.  Personal  interview  and  comments.  Chaplain  (Colonel)  William  Hufham,  22  February,  1995. 

177.  See  the  Walter  Reed  Army  Institute  of  Research  report,  "The  Human  Response  to  the 
Gander  Mihtary  Air  Disaster,"  Washington,  DC,  1987,  p.  3. 

178.  Personal  interview  with  Sergeant  First  Class  Joseph  P.  Millraney,  U.S.  Army  Intelligence 
and  Security  Command,  18  January  1995. 

179.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.)  Jere  R.  Kimmell,  28  September  1994. 

180.  Personal  interview  with  Sergeant  First  Class  Joseph  P.  Millraney,  18  January  1995. 

181.  Jessica  R.  Harding,  "California  Soldiers  Capture  Ministry  Team  Award,'"  Parag/ide, 
December  3,  1987,  p.   1 .  Note:  Paraglide  was  a  soldier  publication  at  Fort  Bragg,  North 



182.  At  the  Army  Chaplain  School  a  special  Memorial  Service  was  conducted  for  Chaplain 
Carter.  All  students  and  staff  and  several  post  representatives  attended. 

1 83.  Department  of  the  Army  Historical  Summary  for  Fiscal  Year  1986,  p.  Ill- 1 2. 
\%A  Ihid.p.  1-7. 

\S5.Ibid.,p.  Ill- 10. 

\S6.Ibicl.,p.  I-l. 

187.  OCCH,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  31  March  1986,  pp  2,  3,  4,  12.  For  example  a  new  Chapel 
Center  in  Yongsan,  Korea,  was  projected  for  FY86  at  a  cost  of  $2.3  million  and  53  additional 
chapels  and  religious  educational  facilities  scheduled  for  construction  during  1987-1992.  During 
1985  only  two  chapels  were  demolished,  one  at  Fort  Polk,  the  other  at  Fort  Lewis. 

188  On  January  31,  1986  Joel  KatkoflFand  Alan  Wieder  abandoned  their  lawsuit,  Kalkoffv. 
Marsh,  with  prejudice,  thus  ending  the  constitutional  challenge  to  the  chaplaincy.  The  Second 
Circuit  Court  held  that  chaplain  activities  "reasonably  relevant  and  necessary  to  the  furtherance  of 
our  national  defense"  were  constitutional.   See  Major  General  Hugh  R.  Overholt,  the  Judge 
Advocate  General,  Memorandum  for  the  Secretary  of  the  Army,  7  February  1986,  in  the  Chaplain 
Corps  Archives 

189.  OCCH,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  31  March  1986,  p  15. 

190.  Ibid.,  pp.  8-9    The  other  fields  of  study  included  religious  education,  homiletics,  ethics, 
educational  technology,  general  education,  comptrollership,  and  church  management. 

191.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  1  July  1986  Newsletter,  p. 4.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps 

192.  Chaplain  (Maj.)  Ronald  N  Johnson,  "A  Brigade  Chaplain's  Ministry:  The  Plan  and 
Execution,  ''Military  Chaplains  Review,  Summer  1986,  p.  62. 

193.  Personal  memoir  of  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield,  Protestant  Pastor,  Mark  Twain  Village  Chapel, 
Heidelberg,  Germany,  1985-1987. 

194.  Chaplain  Ronald  Johnson,  loc  .cit.,  p  62 

195.  Personal  memoir  of  Chaplain  Brinsfield    Chaplain  (Lt  Col.)  John  Trapold,  the  Senior 
Chaplain  in  Mark  Twain  Village,  provided  a  Roman  Catholic  ministry  for  some  of  the  soldiers  on 
guard.  In  addition,  the  Catholic  and  Protestant  women  in  the  chapel  made  cookies  for  the  troops. 


Chaplain  Trapold  was  General  Otis'  personal  chaplain. 

196.  In  the  summer  of  1986  Chaplain  (Col.)  Donald  W.  Shea  succeeded  Chaplain  Richard  Martin 
as  the  USAREUR  and  EUCOM  Chaplain.  Others  who  joined  the  USAREUR  Chaplain's  staff' in 
1986-1987  included  Chaplain  (Col  )  H.L  Schafter,  Deputy;  Master  Sergeant  D.E  Beistline; 
Chaplain  (Maj.)  Michael  L  Broyles,  Executive  Officer;  Chaplain  (Col )  Otto  Reinbacher, 
Personnel;  Chaplain  (Maj.)  Donald  G  Hanchett,  Resource  Manager,  Chaplain  (Col.)  B.H. 
Lieving,  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  Thomas  R  Smith,  and  SFC  Gary  Powell  in  Mannheim;  and  Chaplain 
(Maj  )  G  E.  Tyson  in  Berchtesgaden    See  HQ,  USAREUR  and  7th  Army  Historical  Review, 
1984,  1986,  1987  at  the  Center  for  Militan/  History,  Washington,  DC. 

197.  IhiJ.,  1985-1986  USAREUR  Chaplain  Activities,  pp  7-80  to  7-82. 

198.  Memoir  of  Mr.  Ed  Matthiessen,  Music  Director,  Mark  Twain  Chapel. 

199.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.)  Jere  Kimmell,  Fort  Belvoir,  Virginia,  28  September 

200  OCCH,  1  January  1986  Chiefs  Newsletter,  p.  1 .  The  Ware  awards  were  named  for  Major 
General  Keith  L.  Ware,  Chief  of  Public  Affairs,  killed  in  Vietnam  in  1968. 

201  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Jere  Kimmell,  28  September  1994. 

202.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Robert  Covington,  18  January  1995. 

203.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Irven  Johnson,  18  January  1995. 

204.  With  the  support  of  the  chaplains  at  these  two  chapels.  Chaplain  Stan  O'Laughlin,  Chaplain 
Richard  Goellen,  Chaplain  John  Lincoln,  and  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield  among  them,  some  55 
parishioners  visited  Jerusalem,  Galilee,  the  Dead  Sea  and  other  Israeli  sites  in  1986.  The  security 
precautions  included  flying  in  an  unmarked  airplane  from  Munich  to  Israel  and  return    Mr  John 
McQueen,  Major  Jesse  Comet,  Lt.  Col.  John  Prysbylski,  Mr.  Ron  and  Mrs.  Daisy  Koehn,  Mr.  Ed 
Matthiessen,  and  Mrs.  Charlotte  Kroger  of  Mark  Twain  Chapel  were  instrumental  in  organizing 
and  supporting  many  of  the  retreat  and  fellowship  programs  in  1986. 

205.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Samuel  P.  Lamback,  Jr.,  Installation  Staff" Chaplain, 
Fort  Monmouth,  New  Jersey,  7  December  1 993 . 

206.  Mark  Twain  Village  Chapel  held  it  40th  Anniversary  in  1986.  Chaplain  Robert  Covington,  a 
former  pastor,  was  one  of  the  guest  speakers 

207.  OCCH,  Public  Affairs  Files,  1985-1986,  Letter  from  Colonel  Donald  L.  Scott,  Hohenfels 
Training  Area  to  CINC,  USAREUR  and  Seventh  Army.  The  project  officer  for  Merl's  award 
was  Chaplain  (Capt.)  David  G.  Reynolds. 


208  Mark  Twain  Village  Chapel  Directory  and  Parish  Council  Organization,  Heidelberg, 
Germany,  8  June  1986,  pp   1-2.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives.  Mr.  Ed  Matthiessen,  the 
Choir  Director  at  Mark  Twain  Chapel,  organized  and  led  one  of  the  finest  parish  music  programs 

in  Europe 

209.  OCCH,  Chief  of  Chaplains  Newsletters,  1  January  -  1  July  1986. 

210.  Jessica  Harding,  "Retirement  of  Mrs.  Nellie  Burton,"  Press  Release,  OCCH,  15  May  1986, 
pp   1-3. 

211.  OCCH,  Chief  of  Chaplains  Newsletter,  1  June  1986,  p  1. 

212.  OCCH,  "Remarks  by  General  John  A.  Wickham,  Jr.  at  the  Retirement  Review,  27  June 
1986,"  pp.  4-5.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

Sergeant   Major   James   Schonefeld  receives    the   Chaplain   Corps 
colors   from   Chaplain   Charles   J.    Mc   Donnell,    Commandant 




As  the  Cold  War  ended  and  the  nuclear  threat  to  the  United  States  diminished,  the  Army 
began  the  painful  process  of  reducing  its  forces  overseas  and  at  home.   One  of  the  challenges  the 
Army  Chaplaincy  had  to  meet  was  how  to  reshuffle  its  personnel  and  materiel  resources  to  meet 
increasing  demands  for  ministry  even  as  the  total  force  decreased  in  size. 


Establishment  of  the  Chaplaincy  as  part  of  the  Amiy  Regimental  System 

Standardized  designs  for  Army  chapels 

U.S.  Army  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency  established 

Directive  for  Accommodation  of  Religious  Practices 

Training  in  Medical  Ethics  approved 

Operation  Just  Cause,  Panama 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter.  229 


Ministry  at  the  End  of  the  Cold  War: 
Pastoring  the  Army,  Preserving  the  Chaplaincy' 

After  twen/y-eighf  years  of  keeping  the  world  divided,  the  Berhn  Wall  came  down  in 
November  of  J  989.  World-wide  tensions  hcn'e  decreased  and  the  prospects  ft)r 
peace  increased.  The  Army  will  get  smaller  and  .so  will  the  ( "haplaincy.  In  times  of 
adversity  the  Army  has  rallied  around  its  Chaplaincy  for  support  -  most  obviously 
on  the  battlefield.  But  as  the  Army  enters  uncharted  waters,  drawing  down  a  quality, 
all  volunteer  force,  the  Army  will  again  rally  around  the  Chaplaincy  for  support.' 

Chaplain  (Major  General)  Norris  Einertson 
Chief  of  Chaplains,  U.S.  Army 

Although  in  retrospect  the  years  immediately  preceding  the  dismantling  of  the  Berlin  Wall, 
and  later  the  Warsaw  Pact,  appear  to  mark  the  slow  disintegration  of  the  Soviet  Union,  such 
conclusions  were  not  yet  clear  in  1986.  There  was  still  a  possibility  of  at  least  a  tactical  nuclear 
confrontation  in  Europe  and  talk  in  Washington  of  fianding  President  Reagan's  Strategic  Defense 
Initiative  or  "Star  Wars"  program  from  the  record  $1  trillion  Federal  budget.'  The  Army  was  facing 
fiscal  constraints  because  Congress  knew  that  the  domestic  economy  was  much  less  vibrant  than  it 
appeared.  In  1985  America  had  become  a  debtor  nation,  importing  more  than  it  exported,  for  the  first 
time  in  history.  Although  1 8  million  new  jobs  were  created  in  the  United  States,  most  were 
temporary,  low  paying  positions  which  went  to  women.*  At  a  time  when  20  percent  of  babies  born 
in  America  were  born  to  single  mothers  and  an  estimated  350,000  Americans  were  homeless,  it 
seemed  incongruous  to  speak  of  a  "booming  American  economy."* 

The  challenges  which  faced  the  Chaplaincy  on  1  July  1986,  when  Chaplain  Norris  Einertson 
became  the  17th  Chief  of  Chaplains,  may  be  consolidated  into  responses  two  questions: 

1 )  How  can  the  Chaplaincy  address  the  needs  of  the  Army  most  effectively  in  a  time  of 

2)  How  will  the  Chaplaincy  defend  and  manage  its  own  resources  to  make  effective 
ministry  possible*^ 

Strong  religious  leadership,  pastoral  care,  and  determined  stewardship  of  resources  were  traits  which 
the  Chief  of  Chaplains  and  his  senior  staff  members  had  to  model  for,  and  inculcate  upon,  the  total 
Chaplain  Corps.  The  seven  Total  Chaplaincy  Goals  which  dealt  with  leadership  ,  human  concerns, 
future  development,  materiel,  readiness,  management,  and  training  were  an  important  focus  for  the 
Chaplaincy  in  answering  these  vital  questions. 

Chaplain  Norris  Einertson,  incidentally  the  third  consecutive  Chief  of  Chaplains  bom  in 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Minnesota,  entered  active  duty  in  1961  after  graduation  from  Luther  Theological  Seminary  and 
ordination  by  the  American  Lutheran  Church  His  assignments,  prior  to  his  selection  as  Deputy  Chief 
of  Chaplains  in  1985,  included  service  with  the  1st  Infantry  Division,  Ft.  Riley;  the  34th  Engineer 
Group  in  Vietnam,  the  US  Army's  VII  Corps  at  Stuttgart;  the  1st  Armored  Division  at  Ansbach;  the 
U.S.  Army  Signal  Center  at  Ft.  Gordon  as  the  Post  Chaplain,  Executive  Officer,  DACH,  and  U.S. 
Forces  Command  at  Ft  McPherson  as  the  FORSCOM  Staff  Chaplain.'' 

Chaplain  Einertson  saw  his  role  as  Chief  of  Chaplains  as  one  application  of  his  primary  role 
as  an  ecumenical  pastor,  enabling  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  to  facilitate  the  free  exercise  of 
religion  in  the  Army.  Defined  ecumenically.  Chaplain  Einertson  had  been  a  pastor  for  25  years,  from 
the  first  day  he  entered  active  duty.'  Chaplain  Einertson  was  also  a  dedicated  manager  and  visionary, 
courageously  stubborn  in  his  defense  of  resources  for  the  Chaplaincy,  and  very  persuasive  with  his 
fellow  general  officers. 

Very  early  in  his  career.  Chaplain  Einertson  realized  that  effective  ministry  required  not  only 
preparation,  motivation,  and  training,  but  also  the  carefijl  stewardship  of  resources  While  assigned 
to  the  Division  Artillery,  1st  Infantry  Division  at  Ft.  Riley,  Kansas,  in  1962,  Chaplain  Einertson's 
supervisory  chaplain  dutiflilly  submitted  a  "productivity  report"  outlining  the  results  of  a  one  day 
religious  retreat  the  number  of  "commitments  to  Christ"  and  "rededications  to  Christ  "  His  Jewish 
commander  made  a  wry  observation  in  the  form  of  a  hand-written  comment  at  the  bottom  of  the 
report:  "Chaplain,  is  there  any  way  you  can  determine  the  number  of  souls  saved  per  pew-hour 
preached?"*  Even  though  the  results  of  much  of  the  work  of  unit  ministry  teams  in  the  religious 
support  of  soldiers  were  hard  to  quantify.  Chaplain  Einertson  learned  that  the  Army  always  looked 
for  measurable  results  in  its  resource  management. 

Command  Chaplain  Issues 

The  Command  Chaplains  Conference  for  1986  was  held  the  second  week  in  July.  Several 
chaplains  in  new  leadership  positions  were  numbered  among  the  participants  including  Chaplain 
Donald  Shea,  the  US  Army  Europe  and  European  Command  Chaplain;  Chaplain  Matthew 
Zimmerman,  the  U.S.  Forces  Command  Chaplain;  and  Chaplain  Charles  Clanton,  who  would  become 
Commandant  of  the  US  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School  in  September  Others,  including 
Chaplain  Roger  Venzke,  the  Chiefs  Executive  Officer  who  set  up  the  conference,  had  been  in  place 
long  enough  to  provide  continuity  as  Chaplain  Einertson  moved  from  Deputy  Chief  to  Chief  of 

Perhaps  the  most  immediate  topic  of  interest  was  the  establishment  of  the  Chaplain  Branch 
as  a  Regiment  in  the  US.  Army  Regimental  System  The  Regimental  System,  a  reflection  of  the  older 
British  model,  established  a  regimental  name  and  a  home  for  each  branch  of  the  Army.  Under 
General  John  A.  Wickham's  order  of  30  May  1986,  the  regimental  name  of  the  Chaplain  Branch, 
effective  on  29  July,  would  be  "the  Chaplain  Corps."  The  home  of  the  Chaplain  Corps  was 
established  at  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  Ft  Monmouth,  New  Jersey.**  The  Chief 
of  Chaplains  was  the  regimental  commander  of  the  Chaplain  Corps. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 

(Above)    Chaplains   Charles  McDonnell,    Commandant    of   the   Chaplain 
Center   and  School,    and  Norris   Einertson,    Chief  of  Chaplains, 
troop    the   line   at    Ft.    Monmouth 

(Above)    Chaplains   James   Robnolt    and  Don    Taylor   with    Chaplain 
Corps    crest    and  flag 

(Above)  Chaplain  Einertson  presents  a  portrait  of  former  Chief  of 
Chaplains  Patrick  Hessian  to  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  • 
School  at  Ft.  Monmouth.   Chaplain  Tom  A.  Carroll,  Director  of 
Training  and  Doctrine,  stands  in  front  of  the  replica  chapel  to 
Chaplain  Einertson' s  right. 

(Above)    Chaplain    (BG)    and  Mrs.    Israel    Drazin,    Chaplain  Alfred 
Brough    and  Chaplain   and  Mrs.    John  Hoogland  attend   ceremonies 


As  the  Chaplain  Corps  was  reaffirming  its  old  name  in  a  new  system,  the  Chaplain  Assistant 
Proponency  staff  at  the  Chaplain  School  was  drafting  some  content  materials  for  AR  6 11 -201  which 
would  recognize  the  official  name  of  soldiers  in  the  71  M  MOS  as  "Chaplain  Assistants."  Other 
provisions  of  AR  61 1-201  would  address  the  grade  structure,  qualifications,  and  duties  of  chaplains 

One  of  the  ongoing  issues  in  1986  for  the  conference  was  the  reducfion  of  the  Chaplain  Corps' 
base  operations  budget  by  $386,000.  The  Base  Ops  budget  provided  for  the  support  of  657  chapels 
and  chapel  facilities  worldwide,  which  was  staffed  by  1,523  active  duty  Chaplains.'"  In  the  spring  of 
1986  two  new  chapel  facilities  had  been  dedicated  at  Ft.  Jackson,  South  Carolina.  Senator  Strom 
Thurmond  was  the  principal  guest  speaker  at  ceremonies  marking  the  dedication  of  the  first  joint -use 
chapel,  religious  education  and  child  care  center  built  by  the  Army  (at  a  cost  of  $5.2  million)  "  From 
FY  87  to  FY  90,  if  money  was  still  to  be  budgeted,  16  more  standardized,  joint-use  chapel  facilities 
were  planned.'" 

Finally,  affer  all  of  the  other  personnel,  policy,  and  administrative  issues  had  been  addressed 
at  either  the  Council  of  Chaplain  Colonels  meeting,  or  at  the  Command  Chaplain  Conference, 
Chaplain  (Brigadier  General)  Israel  Drazin  noted  that  the  Department  of  Defense  was  still  wrestling 
with  questions  concerning  the  accommodation  of  religious  practices.  In  March  of  1986  the  Supreme 
Court  had  deferred  to  the  Air  Force  on  the  request  by  Rabbi  Simcha  Goldman  to  wear  a  yarmuike 
while  on  duty  as  a  clinical  psychologist  at  a  base  in  California.  Chaplain  Drazin  reminded  the 
Chaplaincy  of  Army  Regulation  600-20  ( 1  January  86)  which  gave  commanders  greater  flexibility  and 
guidelines  for  accommodating  soldiers'  religious  practices.  "Military  chaplains  are  dedicated  to 
provide  for  the  free  exercise  of  religion  and  must  do  all  in  their  power  to  assist  commanders  in  finding 
ways  to  accommodate  all  religious  practices,"  Chaplain  Drazin  wrote.  "This  is  the  reason  for  our 
existence  as  a  military  branch  and  this  is  the  hope  and  dream  of  our  country.'^ 

Regimental  Establishment  Ceremonies: 
Some  Things  Old  and  Some  Things  New 

The  ceremonies  on  July  29,  1986,  at  Fort  Monmouth,  recognizing  the  "reorganization  of  the 
Chaplain  Corps  as  a  part  of  the  U.S.  Army  Regimental  System,"  as  well  as  the  21 1th  anniversary  of 
the  Army  Chaplaincy,  lasted  for  three  hours,  not  including  the  time  it  took  to  rehearse  for  the  parade 
and  for  the  various  presentations.  The  weather  was  good,  the  participants  were  excited. 

At  0900  there  was  a  military  review  of  troops  by  Chaplain  Einertson  and  Brigadier  General 
Harry  G.  Karegeannes,  Deputy  Commanding  General  of  the  Army  Communications  and  Electronics 
Command.  The  new  Chaplain  Corps  flag,  designed  by  the  Army's  Institute  of  Heraldry  from  a 
concept  developed  by  Chaplain  James  Robnolt  and  Chaplain  Donald  Taylor,  was  presented  "to 
Chaplain  Charies  McDonnell,  the  USACHCS  Commandant,  by  Command  Sergeant  Major  James 
Schonefeld.'"  The  new  Chaplain  Corps  Regimental  Insignia  (or  Crest),  from  the  same  design  as  the 
flag,  was  presented  by  Chaplain  Einertson  to  several  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  representing 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


the  various  divisions  of  the  Chaplain  Center  and  School  " 

At  1110  hours  in  Watters  Hall,  Chaplain  Einertson  dedicated  a  replica  of  a  World  War  II 
cantonment  chapel,  a  portrait  of  his  predecessor.  Chaplain  Patrick  Hessian,  the  16th  Chief  of 
Chaplains,  and  a  sculpture,  the  "Sky  Pilot,"  by  IVIr.  James  Lykins,  a  Vietnam  veteran  who  wanted  to 
express  his  thanks  for  the  ministry  of  chaplains  in  Vietnam  The  sculpture  depicted  a  Roman  Catholic 
chaplain  anointing  a  dying  soldier  cradled  in  the  arms  of  a  chaplain's  assistant. 

The  dedication  ceremony  included  a  welcome  by  Chaplain  Tom  A  Carroll,  Director  of  the 
Department  of  Military  Ministry;  a  scripture  reading  of  Psalm  91,  "General  Washington's  Psalm,"  by 
Mr.  Ralph  Van  Syckle,  a  World  War  II  chaplain's  assistant,  a  prayer  of  dedication  by  Chaplain  Max 
H.  Daina,  USA  Rtd.,  an  address  on  "The  Religious  Significance  of  Chapels,"  and  a  ribbon  cutting  by 
Chaplain  Einertson;  Chaplain  Museum  Association  Announcements  by  Chaplain  John  Scott;  and  a 
benediction  by  Sergeant  First  Class  Willie  P.M.  Collie.  It  seemed  both  appropriate  and  inspirational 
for  the  many  attendees  fi"om  throughout  the  total  Chaplaincy.'* 

Initiatives  at  DACH 

In  addition  to  the  work  Chaplain  James  Edgren,  Chaplain  Don  Taylor,  and  others  were  doing 
in  drafting  plans  for  118  new  installation  and  unit  chapels  through  FY  1993,  the  Information, 
Resource  Management  and  Logistics  Directorate  (IRML)  completed  the  establishment  of  electronic 
mail  accounts  among  chaplain  offices  throughout  the  Army.  Software  application  programs  were 
developed  for  CARSS  which  included  Gemini  Boards  to  provide  IBM  compatibility  " 

The  Chaplain  Corps  strength  report  from  the  Personnel  and  Ecclesiastical  Relations 
Directorate  (DACH-PER)  indicated  an  actual  strength  of  1,509  against  a  projected  end  strength  of 
1,546.  Mindftil  of  Chaplain  Einertson's  admonition,  "While  money  for  Chapel  construction  and 
programs  are  important ...  our  most  important  resources  are  our  personnel,  we  must  defend  personnel 
spaces  with  all  the  energy  and  intelligence  that  God  gives  us,"  DACH-PER  put  a  major  effort  into 
the  recruitment  of  chaplains  to  fill  all  of  the  positions  possible"*  Against  an  anticipated  loss  of  145 
chaplains,  there  were  148  gains."  Some  20  minority  and  female  chaplains  were  recruited  under  the 
Chaplaincy's  Affirmative  Action  Plan.  At  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year  there  were  213  Catholic 
Chaplains,  24  Jewish  Chaplains,  nine  Orthodox  Chaplains,  and  1,300  Protestant  chaplains  on  active 
duty.-"  Even  during  the  Army's  drawdown,  the  total  Chaplaincy  actually  increased  by  54  slots  due 
to  strong  justifications  for  chaplains  in  units  which  had  had  no  positions  authorized  previously.'" 

As  part  of  the  Chaplaincy's  program  to  increase  multicultural  understanding  and  deal  with 
minority  issues,  especially  among  minority  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants,  the  various  Chiefs  of 
Chaplains  had  fiinded  conferences  each  year  for  more  than  a  decade  Some  of  the  Multicultural 
Conferences  had  been  planned  for  a  year  in  advance  with  nationally  known  guest  speakers.  Others 
seemed  to  be  constructed  in  a  rather  serendipitous  manner.  In  order  to  facilitate  planning  for  these 
events.  Chaplain  William  Hufham,  from  the  Plans,  Policy  Development  and  Training  Division, 
proposed  a  five-year  plan  for  fliture  multicultural  training  with  the  following  themes; 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


1987  -  The  Unit  Ministry  Team 

1988  -  Worship  Activities 

1989  -  The  Installation  Religious  Program 

1990  -  New/Emerging  Religious  Groups 

1991  -  Assessment  and  Planning" 

In  addition  to  the  obvious  advantage  of  dealing  with  multicultural  issues,  the  conferences  also 
supported  the  Chaplaincy's  primary  Human  Goal  of  considering  ways  to  facilitate  the  free  exercise 
of  religion,  denominationally  and  culturally,  for  soldiers  and  their  families.  The  other  Total  Chaplaincy 
Goals  were  considered  as  well  and  met  through  various  plans  and  programs  from  the  DACH 

Other  projects  from  PPDT  in  1986  included  research  on  Family  Strength  and  Family  Values 
for  the  Army  Study  Program,  information  on  women's  issues  affecting  the  22  women  chaplains  on 
active  duty,  and  the  preparation  of  a  Chaplain  Mobilization  Handbook  by  Mr.  Roger  Able  to 
consolidate  mobilization  documentation  and  provide  chaplain  mobilization  planners  with  policies, 
guidance,  and  planning  assumptions.  All  three  of  these  projects  were  important  in  light  of 
prospective  deployments  of  UMTs  and  soldiers  in  the  future  "' 

At  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Board,  Chaplain  William  Noble  taught  a  homiletics  training 
workshop  in  Panama  and  planned  five  others  for  FY  87,  in  addition  to  serving  as  the  editor  of  fhe 
Military  Chaplains  Review.  Chaplain  Tom  Merrill  led  religious  education  training  workshops  from 
Ft.  Lewis,  Washington,  to  Berchtesgaden,  Germany,  with  the  help  of  Master  Sergeant  Ronald 
Bowren.  Chaplain  Richard  Adams  and  Chaplain  Ignatius  Butler  continued  work  in  Marriage  and 
Family  Life  and  Catholic  Priest  Retention  respectively  while  Chaplain  James  Herndon  and  Master 
Sergeant  Bowren  dealt  with  audiovisual  ministries,  organizational  leadership  training,  and  chaplain 
assistant  special  projects."'' 

U.S.  Army  Chaplain  School: 
Describing  Tasks  for  the  UMT 

At  Fort  Monmouth  in  the  summer  of  1986,  Chaplain  Charles  McDonnell,  the  Commandant 
of  the  Chaplain  School,  directed  the  Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division  to  conduct  a  Joint  Task 
Selection  Board  (JTSB)  to  update  and  describe  the  tasks  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  should  be 
trained  to  perform.  This  was  the  first  JTSB  to  be  convened  in  the  recent  history  of  the  Chaplain 
Corps  and  was  composed  of  chaplains,  senior  chaplain  assistants,  and  some  Department  of  the  Army 
civilian  experts  from  throughout  most  of  the  major  commands  worldwide  "' 

The  mission  of  the  JTSB  was  to  select  tasks  which  reflected  the  current  (actual)  and  doctrinal 
duties  of  unit  ministry  team  members  and  to  indicate  the  appropriate  site  for  training  these  tasks, 
whether  at  the  Chaplain  School,  on  installations,  on  in  units  in  the  field.  There  were  more  than  100 
tasks  related  to  unit  ministry  team  duties  ranging  from  typing  a  military  letter  to  performing  battle 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


fatigue  ministry  in  combat.  Each  task  had  a  task  statement,  a  condition  and  a  standard  to  which  it 
would  be  trained.  It  was  the  duty  of  the  Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division  (UITD)  to  prepare  the 
task  list  for  JTSB  consideration. 

The  staff  of  the  UITD  dedicated  to  the  analysis  mission  included  Major  Morgan  Flom,  Chief 
of  UITD;  Chaplain  Herb  Kitchens,  Chief  of  the  Concepts  and  Analysis  Branch  of  UITD,  Chaplain 
Carl  W.  Holtz,  Mrs.  Christine  Hunt  (GS-1 1),  and  Sergeant  First  Class  Robert  Flowers  and,  toward 
the  end  of  the  project,  Major  Michael  W.  Hobson.'^  Chaplain  Jesse  Thornton,  Chief  of  the 
Publications  Branch,  and  his  staff,  as  well  as  the  Division  Secretary,  Ms.  Jennifer  Roman,  assisted  as 

In  order  to  provide  the  JTSB  with  a  current  picture  of  the  tasks  chaplain  assistants  were 
expected  to  perform.  Chaplain  Kitchens  and  Mrs.  Hunt  utilized  the  Army  Occupational  Survey 
Program  (AOSP)  conducted  by  the  Soldier  Support  Center,  National  Capital  Region.-^  The  AOSP 
surveyed  chaplain  assistants  by  rank  and  position  to  determine  what  tasks  they  were  required  to 
perform,  with  what  frequency,  and  under  what  conditions.  This  was  a  very  valuable  tool  for  the 
JTSB's  deliberative  process. 

Chaplain  McDonnell  urged  UITD  to  push  the  ministry  tasks  the  chaplain  assistants  could 
perform  "as  far  as  you  can"  to  fijrther  reinforce  the  independent  validity  of  the  71 M  MOS,  especially 
under  emergency  battlefield  conditions.'*  These  battlefield  tasks  included  ministry  to  battle  fatigued 
soldiers  and,  in  extreme  circumstances,  emergency  baptism  of  the  wounded  or  dying. 

When  Chaplain  Charles  T.  Clanton  succeeded  Chaplain  McDonnell  as  Commandant  on  9 
September  1986,  he  continued  to  emphasize  the  development  of  the  chaplain  assistant  role  in  the 
UMT.  Chaplain  Clanton  thought  emergency  baptism  would  have  to  be  a  voluntary  ministry  by  a 
chaplain  assistant  in  response  to  a  soldier's  request,  since  the  Army  could  not  require  nor  train  tasks 
which  some  religious  denominations  regarded  as  faith-specific  sacraments  or  ordinances.  With  regard 
to  the  vast  majority  of  tasks,  however.  Chaplain  Clanton  continued  the  emphasis  on  enlarging  the  role 
of  assistants. 

In  the  Chaplain  Assistant  Personnel  Proponent  Office  at  the  Chaplain  School,  the  finishing 
touches  were  added  to  input  for  AR  61 1-201  which  was  produced  in  October  by  the  Soldier  Support 
Center."'  The  new  regulation  recognized  the  name  change  of  chapel  activity  specialists  to  chaplain 
assistants,  set  a  new  grade  structure,  established  chaplain  assistant  E9s  (Sergeants  Major)  at  Corps 
Level,  upgraded  brigade-level  assistants  to  E6  (StafT  Sergeant)  and  battalion-level  assistants  to  E5 
(Sergeant)  Chaplain  assistants  were  required  to  1)  maintain  the  highest  moral  and  ethical  behavior, 
2)  demonstrate  a  typing  speed  of  25  words  per  minute,  3)  participate  in  firearms  training  and  bear 
arms,  3)  support  all  religious  faith  groups  approved  by  the  command,  5)  attain  a  high  school  diploma 
or  its  equivalent,  6)  qualify  for  a  secret  security  clearance,  7)  complete  required  resident  schooling 
before  award  of  the  MOS  in  either  active  or  reserve  components.^" 

In  order  to  fijrther  enhance  the  validity  of  the  Proponency  mission  to  manage  the  71  M  MOS 
for  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Sergeant  First  Class  Thomas  Prost  was  selected  to  join  the  Proponency 
staff  at  the  Chaplain  School.  SFC  Prost  became  both  the  NCOIC  and  a  project  manager  in  the  71M 
Personnel  Proponent  Office,  succeeding  SFC  Mike  Pukansky,  the  project  manager  for  career 
progression  and  professional  development  in  the  life-cycle  management  of  the  MOS.^' 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 

Sergeant  Major  Douglas    Carpenter 


New  Faces  in  the  Pentagon 

On  October  1,  Chaplain  Charles  J.  McDonnell  became  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains.  Chaplain 
McDonnell  wrote  to  the  Corps: 

I  will  do  everything  in  my  power  to  support  you  as  members' of  the  Unit  Ministry 
Team  while  I  am  here.  Our  common  mission  is  to  provide  pastoral  and  religious 
support  to  the  greatest  people  in  the  world,  the  soldiers  and  soldier  families  of  the 
U.S.  Army.  Since  the  Unit  Ministry  Team  is  central  to  our  work  in  the  Army,  I  want 
to  focus  our  attention  on  the  role  of  the  Chaplain  assistant  as  a  vital  and  integral 
member  of  that  team.  I  am  convinced  we  can  wait  no  longer  to  prepare  the  total  Unit 
Ministry  Team  to  function  eflFectively  in  giving  soldiers  the  quality  ministry  they  richly 

Chaplain  McDonnell  knew,  as  had  every  Chief  and  Deputy  Chief  for  a  decade,  that  the 
effectiveness  of  the  Chaplain's  ministries  in  garrison  or  in  the  field  depended  directly  on  the  quality 
and  commitment  of  chaplain  assistants.  By  1986  the  Chaplain  Corps  had  possibly  spent  more 
resources,  time  and  energy  to  upgrade  the  training  and  status  of  its  enlisted  personnel  than  had  any 
other  branch  in  the  Army. 

As  if  to  make  the  point  at  DACH,  on  October  31  Sergeant  Major  Joseph  A  Pino  retired  from 
the  Army  and  was  replaced  by  Sergeant  Major  Douglas  R.  Carpenter  as  the  Senior  Staff"  NCO  in  the 
Chiefs  Office.^^  SGM  Pino  had  played  a  pivotal  role  in  supporting  and  implementing  UMT  doctrine 
and  excellence. 

A  Parting  Shot 

As  the  year  1986  drew  to  a  close,  a  short  memorandum  reached  Chaplain  Venzke's  desk  at 
DACH  from  the  Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General  (OTJAG)  in  the  Pentagon.  The  10  December 
1 986  Memorandum  reviewed  an  article  in  the  Yale  Law  Journal  entitled  "Military  Mirrors  on  the 
Wall:  Nonestablishment  and  the  Military  Chaplaincy"  by  a  Yale  law  student  named  L  S  Kaplan. 
Somehow,  Ms.  Kaplan  secured  discovery  materials  submitted  to  the  Court  of  Appeals  during  the 
Katcoff"vs.  Laird  case. 

Ms.  Kaplan,  in  the  view  of  the  Office  of  the  JAG,  raised  "two  powerfijl  issues  worthy  of 
carefijl  consideration:  whether  military  encouragement  of  religious  activity  goes  too  far  beyond  that 
necessary  to  assure  free  exercise,  and  whether  the  chaplaincy  is  intended  to  foster  a  'military  vision 
of  religion'  in  preference  to  opposing  views."  Captain  Chester  P.  Beach,  Jr.,  the  litigation  attorney 
who  reviewed  Ms.  Kaplan's  article,  concluded  that  while  there  was  no  "persuasive  rationale  for  a  new 
attack  on  the  general  constitutionality  of  the  chaplaincy,  the  author  does  raise  concerns  about  the 
permissible  limits  of  chaplain  activity  that  should  be  taken  into  account  in  formulating  and 
promulgating  policy  and  doctrine."^''  The  limits,  reduced  to  one  sentence,  were  simple  in  the  view 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


of  Ya/e  Law  Journal  (as  interpreted  by  the  OTJAG);  "The  Government  may  not  provide  chaplain 
services  for  any  other  purpose  .  than  to  preserve  the  right  of  service  members  to  the  free  exercise 
of  religion,  and  especially  not  to  implement  a  military  vision  of  religion  that  enhances  secular  military 
values  such  as  morale,  patriotism,  and  the  national  interest." 

While  no  action  was  required  by  this  memorandum,  it  did  remind  some  of  the  chaplains  in  the 
Chiefs  Office  that  there  was  often  a  gap  between  what  commanders  desired  of  unit  ministry 
teams — to  help  instill  proper  values  through  moral  leadership  training  for  example — and  in  what  some 
constitutional  legal  scholars  (at  Harvard  and  Yale  for  example)  thought  were  the  limits  of  chaplain 
involvement  with  soldiers.  As  Chaplain  James  Robnolt  reflected  after  he  attended  one  of  the  District 
Court  sessions  during  the  KatcoflFv.  Laird  case,  "The  judges  who  had  actually  served  in  the  military 
had  a  much  broader  tolerance  for  the  range  of  chaplain  ministries  than  did  those  who  argued  from  the 
base  of  theory  alone  I  remember  that  one  judge,  who  was  a  Navy  veteran,  became  quite  irritated 
with  one  of  the  plaintiflFs  and  lectured  him  on  what  military  life,  wherein  everyone  in  a  unit  does 
everything  possible  to  support  the  mission  and  one  another,  was  really  about. "^^ 

Pluralism  and  Personnel  Issues — 1987 

From  1970  to  1985  there  was  a  virtual  explosion  in  the  number  of  independent  religious 
denominations  in  America."^  At  the  end  of  World  War  II  there  were  perhaps  50  major  denominations 
of  Protestants,  Catholics  and  Jews  in  the  United  States.  By  1980  there  were  87  denominations  with 
memberships  of  50,000  or  more.^^  Many  of  the  "new"  religious  groups  had  their  origins  in  the  social 
and  sexual  revolutions  of  the  1960s  and  early  1970s,  in  the  increased  importation  of  indigenous 
religions  from  Asia,  Africa,  and  the  Middle  East  and  in  the  backlash  of  conservative,  evangelical 
Protestants  who  felt  increasingly  alienated,  for  multiple  reasons,  from  mainstream  Protestantism.'* 

As  a  reflection  of  the  larger  American  religious  community,  the  Army  Chaplaincy  likewise  in 
the  early  1980s  began  to  experience  changes  in  its  denominational  composition.  The  denominations 
which  traditionally  furnished  the  most  chaplains  for  the  Army  began  to  offer  fewer  candidates,  while 
the  number  of  applications  for  active  duty  from  independent  evangelical  clergy  increased.  Buddhist 
and  Muslim  religious  leaders  also  began  to  send  inquiries  to  the  Chiefs  office  about  service  as  Army 
chaplains.  Whereas  200  years  before,  during  the  American  Revolution,  the  chaplains  of  the 
Continental  Army  represented  7  denominations,  and  whereas  the  Army  chaplains  in  World  War  II 
represented  approximately  40  faith  groups,  in  1987  there  were  chaplains  on  active  duty  in  the  Army 
from  109  different  denominations  '''  The  Navy  Chaplaincy  from  1945  to  1987  showed  the  same 
trend,  increasing  from  25  denominations  represented  by  Navy  Chaplains  in  August  of  1945  to  83  faith 
groups  represented  in  October  of  1983,  to  more  than  90  by  1987.''" 

In  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  there  were  issues  generated  by  the  growth  in  the 
number  of  faith  groups  represented  in  the  Chaplaincy  and  by  the  variety  of  theological  views  held 
within  those  groups.  The  issues  concerned  a  variety  of  topics:  accommodating  religious  practices, 
proper  terminology  to  use  when  describing  faith  groups,  assignment  policies,  recruitment  and 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


retention  policies,  and  even  the  question  of  what  would  be  appropriate  insignia  for  a  pluralistic,  multi- 
faith,  and  multi-cultural  Corps  of  Chaplains  These  issues  were  not  only  of  interest  to  Chaplain 
Einertson  but  also  to  the  Director  of  Plans,  Policy  Development  and  Training  (PPDT),  Chaplain  Gary 
Bowker,  to  the  Director  of  Personnel  (PER),  Chaplain  Hugh  M.  Grubb;  to  the  Executive  Officer, 
Chaplain  Rodger  Venzke,  and  to  the  other  action  officers  involved  Chaplain  James  Robnolt  in  PPDT 
thought  that  pluralism  would  either  "make  or  break"  the  Chaplaincy  depending  on  how  the  issues 
were  handled  at  that  time  and  in  the  future/" 

A  review  of  strength  reports  from  1987  suggests  that  the  "pluralism  problem"  actually  referred 
to  differences  in  theology  between  liberal  and  conservative  Protestants  more  than  to  any  other  single 
issue.  Of  the  1,524  Army  chaplains  on  active  duty  in  1987,  some  1,277  were  Protestant,  217 
Catholic,  21  Jewish,  and  9  Orthodox  Twenty-three  of  the  active  duty  chaplains  were  female,  16 
Caucasian  and  7  Afro- American/"  In  other  words,  1,254  or  82%  per  cent  of  the  active  duty 
chaplains  were  male  Protestants  The  question  was  how  the  Protestant  chaplains,  some  of  whom 
came  from  denominations  which  did  not  practice  infant  baptism,  recognize  the  ordination  of  women, 
nor  participate  in  ecumenical  worship  services,  would  work  with  other  groups  and  with  one  another. 

In  the  Officer  Basic  Course,  US  Army  Chaplain  School,  chaplain  instructors  would  ask 
chaplains  just  coming  on  duty  if  they  could  help  a  soldier  of  a  completely  different  religion  practice 
his  or  her  faith  "without  qualms  of  conscience  "  New  chaplains  were  also  asked  if  they  could 
cooperate  with  chaplains  of  other  faiths  in  implementing  joint  religious  programs  without 
compromising  their  beliefs.  Most  of  the  new  chaplains  thought  they  could  accomplish  these  tasks. 
The  few  who  could  not  returned  to  their  home  churches 

Accommodating  the  requirements  of  various  faith  groups  in  the  military  was  not  always  a 
simple  matter  of  cooperation  For  years  Jewish  soldiers,  many  from  the  Reserve  Components,  had 
sought  permission  to  wear  the  yarmelke  (cap  on  the  crown  of  the  head)  with  their  military  uniforms 
as  a  mark  of  reverence  for  God.  Likewise,  soldiers  of  the  Sikh  faith  asked  permission  to  wear 
turbans,  long  hair,  beards,  and  to  carry  sacred  daggers  as  required  by  their  religion.'*^ 

After  a  Congressional  study  of  two  years,  monitored  careflilly  by  Chaplain  Ford  G'  Segner 
in  the  Office  of  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff"  for  Personnel  and  by  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains, 
both  the  U.S.  Senate  and  the  US.  House  of  Representatives  passed  legislation  in  January  and  in 
February,  1987,  which  permitted  the  wear  of  "items  of  apparel  not  part  of  the  official  uniform.  "^^  The 
conditions  imposed  required  that  the  article  of  apparel  be  "neat,  conservative,  and  not  interfere  with 
the  performance  of  a  member's  military  duties."  Chaplain  William  Hufham,  PPDT,  advised  the  other 
members  of  the  Chiefs  staff  that  such  legislation  would  possibly  permit  the  wearing  of  yarmelkes  but 
not  turbans.'" 

Accommodating  religious  practices,  whether  involving  the  uniform,  dietary  restrictions,  holy 
days,  sites  and  times  for  worship,  medical  or  burial  requirements,  or  other  matters  was  largely  a 
command  decision,  with  chaplains  as  advisors  to  the  commander.  Such  advice  presupposed  some 
knowledge  of  various  denominations  and  world  religions,  so  the  Chaplain  School  reinstituted  a  course 
in  World  Religions  (which  had  not  been  offered  for  several  years)  for  chaplains  in  the  Basic  and 
Advance  courses.  Likewise,  various  manuals  and  training  materials  on  the  practices  of  various 
religious  groups  were  provided  to  chaplains  and  to  senior  chaplain  assistants."** 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Such  a  response  was  timely,  for  in  1987  the  Buddhist  Churches  of  America  became  the  first 
faith  group  outside  the  Judeo-Christian  tradition  to  be  recognized  as  an  endorsing  agency  for  military 
chaplains/'  Other  faith  groups  also  indicated  an  interest  in  placing  chaplains  in  the  military — The 
Church  of  Ancient  Wisdom,  The  Universal  Life  Church,  The  Hare  Krishnas,  the  B'hai,  The  Center 
for  the  Study  of  Islam,  and  the  Echankar  among  them/*  Chaplain  Hugh  Grubb,  Director  of  Personnel 
at  the  Chiefs  Office,  reported  that  he  would  have  to  ask  for  more  codes  for  denominations  in  order 
to  keep  an  accurate  record  of  all  the  faith  groups  represented  in  the  Chaplaincy/' 

Struggling  for  Balance: 
Spaces  and  Faces 

In  mid-January  1987,  Chaplain  Gary  Bowker,  Director  of  PPDT,  advised  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains  that  the  Department  of  the  Army  would  be  seeking  significant  reductions  in  personnel 
authorizations,  especially  in  TDA  positions/"  U.S.  Army  Personnel  Command  would  seek  to  apply 
a  1 5%  reduction  in  every  branch,  which  in  the  Chaplaincy  would  result  in  a  loss  of  86  chaplain  slots 
Armywide.  Chaplain  Charles  McDonnell,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains,  arranged  to  meet  with 
General  Maxwell  Thurman,  Vice  Chief  of  Staff,  on  10  March  to  discuss  the  reductions.  Chaplain 
James  Robnolt,  an  action  officer  fi^om  PPDT,  prepared  a  list  of  TD A/TOE  spaces  for  consideration.^' 

In  fact,  as  Chaplain  Einertson  later  reported,  the  collapse  of  the  Soviet  Union  had  been 
foreseen  and  the  Army  was  already  preparing  for  reductions  to  include  between  one  and  six  per  cent 
of  the  officer  strength."  Chaplain  Hugh  Grubb,  Director  of  PER,  observed  that  the  Chaplain  Corps 
was  always  "ducking  bullets"  on  space  reductions  because  PERSCOM  always  started  their  action 
with  the  assumption  that  small  branches,  such  as  the  Chaplain  Corps,  could  afford  the  same 
percentage  cuts  as  larger  branches." 

On  3  April,  General  Thurman  asked  the  Chaplaincy  to  prepare  a  force  structure  analysis  and 
audit  of  chaplain  positions.  Chaplain  Robnolt  had  developed  a  data  base  of  692  total  TDA  chaplain 
authorizations  which  revealed  that,  of  the  692  positions,  only  one  location  reflected  an  overstructure: 
the  garrison  in  Stuttgart,  West  Germany."  Chaplain  Einertson  concluded  in  a  memorandum  for 
General  Thurman  that  "it  is  impossible  to  identify  86  chaplain  spaces  for  elimination  and  not  adversely 
affect  mission  support  requirements.  These  86  spaces  represent  6%  of  the  Chaplaincy  authorizations 
and  (if  lost  would)  remove  wartime  and  peacetime  mission  capability."" 

A  week  after  Chaplain  Einertson's  response,  the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  reduced  the 
spaces  to  be  eliminated  in  the  Chaplaincy  from  86  to  54,  and  spread  out  the  reduction  over  two  or 
more  years.  Chaplain  G.  H.  Pingel,  PPDT,  working  with  Chaplain  Robnolt,  noted  that  the  reductions 
for  the  first  two  years  were  "theoretically"  paid  by  a  1%  decrease  the  first  year  and  a  2%  decrease  the 
second  year.'*  Chaplain  Einertson  expressed  his  thanks  to  Chaplain  Robnolt  "for  the  monumental 
job"  he  did  in  helping  to  assure  adequate  chaplain  spaces." 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  Catholic  Problem:  Shortage  of  Priests 

An  associated  personnel  issue,  though  involving  recruitment  and  retention  rather  than  the  size 
of  the  force  structure,  deah  with  the  shortage  of  Roman  Catholic  chaplains  in  the  Army  In  July  of 
1987  the  estimated  need  for  Catholic  chaplains  was  548,  of  the  1500  force  strength.  Yet  there  were 
only  222  Catholic  chaplains  on  active  duty,  leaving  a  shortfall  of  326,  or  60%.'*  "Because  of  the 
shortage,  priests  must  work  longer  hours  and  sometimes  travel  extensively  from  post  to  post  to 
provide  wide-area  coverage,"  Chaplain  McDonnell  observed.  "This  puts  a  burden  on  the  server  and 
the  served. "'' 

The  shortage  of  Catholic  chaplains  in  the  Army  was  only  a  part  of  the  shortage  of  Catholic 
clergy  in  the  United  States.  Some  analysts  argued  that  the  root  causes  were  the  celibacy  requirement 
for  priests,  the  over-worked  condition  of  most  priests  in  parishes,  and  the  decline  in  religious 
vocations  in  a  "secularized"  America.  In  fact,  in  the  late  1980s,  most  "mainline"  Protestant  seminaries 
showed  a  marked  decline  in  male  applicants  as  well.  The  shortfall  of  male  clergy  in  some  Protestant 
churches  was  masked  by  an  increase  in  applications  by  women  who  wished  to  study  theology  and 
enter  the  ministry.  Since  this  was  not  an  option  in  the  Catholic  Church,  the  shortage  of  priests 
appeared  in  even  greater  contrast. 

Whatever  the  causes,  the  shortage  of  priests  was  of  major  concern  to  the  Army  in  1987  There 
were  an  estimated  475,000  Catholic  soldiers  and  family  members  being  supported  by  222  priests,  a 
ratio  of  2,100  per  chaplain.  The  Navy  at  the  same  time  had  a  shortfall  of  142  Catholic  chaplains  and 
a  similar  ratio  of  2, 100  parishioners  per  chaplain  The  Air  Force  in  1987  was  short  59  with  a  ratio 
of  1,800  to  1.*" 

At  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  a  number  of  experiments  were  proposed  to  help 
alleviate  the  shortage.  Chaplain  Jack  Raising  and  Chaplain  Philip  Thoni  were  able  to  get  publicity 
in  the  National  Catholic  Reporter  and  in  The  Catholic  Review  for  a  program  which  required  only  two 
years  of  active  service  before  the  priest  could  return  to  his  diocese  as  a  Reservist.*'  Another  initiative 
called  for  the  recruitment  of  priests  up  to  age  50  (as  opposed  to  a  cutoff  at  age  42  by  the  Air  Force 
and  55  by  the  Navy  )  There  was  a  proposal  (by  Chaplain  McDonnell)  to  recruit  non-ordained 
seminarians  and  then  return  them  to  their  bishops."  There  was  even  a  proposal,  somewhat  tangential, 
to  add  warrant  officers  to  the  Chaplain  Corps  to  help  with  counseling  and  other  "para-ministerial" 
duties.  This  latter  idea  was  discarded  when  it  was  learned  that  chaplain  slots  would  have  to  be  used 
for  the  assignment  of  warrant  officers." 

The  most  productive  approach,  over  time,  was  personal  contact  with  eligible  priests  and  their 
bishops.  One  bishop  in  Rhode  Island  had  allowed  five  of  his  priests  to  serve  on  active  duty  and  two 
others  to  serve  in  the  Reserves.  A  number  of  Irish  and  Filipino  priests,  some  studying  or  teaching  in 
seminaries,  also  responded  to  the  call  from  the  Army  Unfortunately,  in  spite  of  all  efforts,  including 
a  trip  to  appeal  to  Pope  John  Paul  II  by  Chaplain  McDonnell,  the  numbers  of  Catholic  chaplains 
continued  to  decline.*'' 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  Protestant  Problem:   Proper  Identification 

In  the  1980s  the  Chaplaincy  was  also  faced  with  demands  from  some  Protestant  chaplains, 
but  more  often  parish  councils,  that  they  be  recognized  as  a  faith  group  distinctive  from  others  under 
the  over-all  "Protestant"  designation/"'  The  traditional  solution  to  Protestant  worship  for  more  than 
40  years  had  been  the  "General  Protestant"  or  "Collective  Protestant"  service.  More  and  more 
soldiers  from  evangelical  and  charismatic  faiths,  from  particular  ethnic  groups,  and  from  Episcopal 
and  Orthodox  traditions,  demanded  their  own  worship  services  and,  at  times,  their  own  separate 
denominational  fund  accounts '"''  Scheduling  and  supporting  these  without  favoritism  became  a 
problem  even  as  Chaplain  James  Edgren  began  to  revise  AR  165-1,  the  basic  regulation  for  the 
Chaplaincy  which  dealt  with  such  matters. 

As  eariy  as  14  January,  1987,  Chaplain  Rodger  Venzke,  the  Chiefs  Executive  Officer, 
requested  that  the  directors  review  the  term  "Collective  Protestant  Worship  "''^  Chaplain  Grubb 
reflected  that  neither  "Collective"  nor  "General"  were  popular  adjectives ''''  Chaplain  Robnoit, 
tongue-in-cheek,  said  he  had  never  met  a  Collective  Protestant  and  did  not  wonder  that  most  people 
questioned  why  the  service  was  so  named.  The  "Faith  Balance  Rule"  used  by  PER  for  assigning 
chaplains  to  installations,  where  possible,  called  for  Catholic  coverage,  Jewish  chaplain  "availability," 
and  the  assignment  of  conservative  and  liturgical  Protestants  and  Orthodox  priests.  The  terms 
"conservative"  and  "liturgical"  in  the  field  were  quickly  translated  "adult-only  baptizers,"  and  "baby- 
baptizers"  for  practical  purposes 

At  the  end  of  1987  Chaplain  Edgren  published  the  Chiefs  policy  guidance  for  the 
denominational  issues: 

1.  To  protect  and  enhance  the  free  exercise  rights  of  soldiers  and  family  members,  all 
"distinctive  faith  groups"  have  equal  claim  upon  Chaplaincy  services. 

2.  Religious  groups  desiring  to  worship  separately  in  denominational  services  may  be 
viewed  as  distinctive  faith  groups  and  should  receive  an  equitable  share  of  resources, 
including  appropriated  funds. 

3.  These  issues  will  be  fiirther  clarified  in  AR  165-1  to  be  published  in  FY  88.*' 

In  many  chapels  around  the  world  "Collective"  and  "General"  Protestant  services  were  advertised 
simply  as  "Protestant"  worship    Denominational  services  were  then  advertised  separately. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Other  Identity  Issues 

With  the  "explosion"  of  distinctive  faith  groups  and  other  than  Judeo-Christian  religions  in 
the  military,  the  Armed  Forces  Chaplain  Board  (AFCB)  in  May  of  1987  requested  ideas  from  the 
three  services  with  regard  to  a  "third  insignia"  for  newly  accessioned  chaplains  who  were  neither 
Christian  nor  Jewish  ™  The  request  soon  added  a  joint  dimension:  Could  there  be  an  insignia  which 
Army,  Navy,  Marine,  Coast  Guard,  and  Air  Force  personnel  would  recognize  as  signifying  a  chaplain 
regardless  of  the  chaplain's  denomination?'''  Otherwise,  with  the  number  of  religious  faiths  in  the 
world,  military  personnel  would  need  a  published  "guide  for  chaplain  insignia,"  along  the  lines  of  "a 
birdwatcher's  handbook,"  as  Chaplain  Grubb  termed  it'" 

At  first  there  were  all  sorts  of  symbols  proposed  to  the  AFCB  Personnel  Advisory  Group 
There  were  flames  of  fire,  symbols  of  chapels,  the  sun's  rays,  an  open  book,  and  praying  hands 
Perhaps  the  most  practical  was  a  suggestion  that  each  chaplain  be  allowed  to  print  "CHAPLAIN"  on 
his  or  her  name  tags  and  tapes/^ 

Eventually  the  suggestions  were  returned  to  the  Army,  Navy  and  Air  Force  Chiefs  of 
Chaplains.  Since  in  1987  there  were  no  chaplains  on  duty  who  were  not  either  Christian  or  Jewish, 
the  issue  was  left  to  the  services  to  consider  when  appropriate.'^ 

Finally,  in  the  United  States  Army  Reserve  all  Civil  Affairs  chaplain  titles  were  changed  to 
"Religious  Relations  Officer."  Affecting  approximately  thirty  USAR  chaplains,  the  change  signaled 
a  "branch  immaterial"  approach  to  the  positions.  Many  chaplains  serving  in  Civil  Affairs  units  had 
performed  direct  religious  support  for  their  soldiers,  but  some  had  fianctioned  primarily  as  experts  in 
indigenous  religions  in  order  to  advise  commanders  about  the  effect  of  religion  on  missions  in  the  area 
of  operations.  The  change  in  title  did  not  result  immediately  in  the  transfer  of  chaplains  out  of  those 
positions,  but  it  did  make  possible  the  assignment  of  an  officer,  other  than  a  chaplain,  as  a  Religious 
Relations  expert." 

Continued  Attention  to  Training 

At  the  Command  Chaplain's  Conference  in  mid-July,  General  Carl  Vuono,  the  new  Chief  of 
Staff"  of  the  Army,  was  the  featured  speaker.  Chaplain  Einertson's  goals  for  the  Chaplaincy  in  1987, 
"The  Year  of  the  Constitution,"  centered  (as  ever)  on  ministry  to  soldiers.  As  implementing  goals 
Chaplain  Einertson  wanted  to  highlight  the  training  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  to  "minister 
during  the  drawdown,"  construction  of  new  worship  and  religious  educational  facilities,  and  the 
efficient  management  of  personnel  and  materiel  resources.'* 

Certainly  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  there  was  a  tremendous  emphasis  on  training  for  ministry,  as 
there  had  been  for  a  decade — emphasis  on  everything  from  computer  skills  to  survival  on  the 
battlefield  In  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Office,  Chaplain  James  Edgren  and  Chaplain  Louis  R.  Trebus 
from  IRML  monitored  training  in  the  Chaplain  Activity  Religious  Support  System  (CARSS),  in 
electronic  mail,  and  in  other  automated  systems,  not  only  in  the  United  States  but  also  in  Europe, 
Korea,  Japan,  Hawaii  and  Alaska."    At  the  National  Training  Center,  Ft  Irwin,  Chaplain  Richard 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Whaley  sent  progress  reports  to  the  Chiefs  Office  and  to  the  Combat  Developments  Directorate  at 
the  Chaplain  School  on  the  performance  of  unit  ministry  teams  in  training  for  desert  warfare/'* 
Chaplain  Cliff  Weathers,  Director  of  PPDT  in  September,  sent  Chaplain  Whaley's  observations  to  all 
MACOM  Chaplains'*  As  an  extension  of  this  type  of  ministry  to  those  who  must  learn  to  survive, 
a  chaplain  also  was  assigned  as  an  observer  at  the  Joint  Readiness  Training  Center,  Ft.  Chaffee, 
Arkansas,  in  1987.*" 

At  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  School,  training,  plans  for  training,  and  the  production  of  training 
materials  continued  with  imagination  and  energy.  In  the  spring  and  summer  of  1 987,  Chaplain  John 
Scott,  Assistant  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  appointed  a  committee  to  revise 
the  curriculum  and  organization  of  the  Advance  Course  (C22)  to  permit  small  group  instruction. 
Following  a  TRADOC  Mandate,  Chaplains  Robert  Vickers,  Jerry  Malone,  John  Patrick,  Harvey 
Brown,  John  Brinsfield,  and  Major  Al  Swilley  from  the  Military  Skills  Division  of  DTD,  examined 
every  block  of  instruction  and  then  reconfigured  the  Advance  Course  (C22)  curriculum  for  the 
Commandant's  approval.*'  Chaplain  Charles  T  Clanton,  Commandant  since  September  of  1986, 
approved  the  concept  and  the  appointment  of  Chaplain  Jerry  Malone  to  be  the  C22  Course  Director. 
Virtually  everyone  at  the  School,  students  and  faculty  alike,  thought  the  small  group  model  was  a  vast 
improvement  over  large  group  instruction. 

In  the  Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division,  Directorate  of  Training  and  Doctrine,  Chaplain 
Peter  Telencio,  a  veteran  of  the  Grenada  operation  in  1983,  and  Mrs.  Christine  Hunt,  assigned  to  the 
Analysis  Branch  as  an  analyst,  supervised  planning  for  a  Task  Review  Board  for  chaplain  and  chaplain 
assistant  tasks.*-  SFC  Elmer  Castro  and  SFC  Richard  Geiger  took  the  lead  in  UITD  in  collecting  and 
developing  chaplain  assistant  tasks  for  the  board's  consideration 

The  production  and  distribution  of  training  materials  from  the  Directorate  of  Training  and 
Doctrine  at  USACHCS  in  1987  likewise  continued  at  a  lively  pace.  Chaplain  Tom  Carroll,  Director 
of  DOTD,  monitored  the  production  of  military  qualifications  standards  manuals,  soldiers  manuals, 
job  books,  field  manuals  and  reference  books  from  the  Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division. 
Materials  for  non-resident  instruction,  frequently  distributed  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  Frank 
Spang  in  DOTD,  made  important  contributions  to  Reserve  Component  UMT  readiness  by  fielding 
doctrinally-based  training  materials.*' 

Standardized  Designs  for  Army  Chapels*^ 

"On  J  July  1987,  Mr.  John  Baer  from  IRML  announced  that  the  Department  of  the  Army 
Standardization  Committee  had  approved  the  model  of  standards  for  unit  chapels.  " 

Chief  of  Chaplains  Staff  Minutes,  July  1987 

Prior  to  the  mobilization  for  World  War  II,  only  seventeen  of  the  160  Army  posts  in  the 
United  States  had  permanent  military  chapels.  As  a  result  of  the  mobilization,  604  temporary  wooden 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


cantonment  chapels  were  hastily  erected.  Most  soldiers  remembered  them  as  their  churches  away 
from  home.  When  the  Vietnam  War  ended  in  1973,  over  a  third  (323  out  of  953  chapels  in  the 
inventory)  of  these  "temporary"  structures  continued  to  house  chapel  congregations  throughout  the 
Continental  (CONUS)  Army  A  total  "buyout,"  replacing  six  cantonment  chapels  per  year  at  the 
Army  standard  rate  of  two  percent  per  year  would  take  54  years. 

With  so  many  other  pressing  problems  facing  the  Army  in  the  1 970s,  replacing  old  chapels 
with  new  ones  was  not  a  high  priority  New  chapel  construction  lagged  as  military  construction. 
Army  (MCA)  dollars  were  dedicated  to  building  barracks  and  foreign  station  projects.  For  the 
twenty-year  period  prior  to  1987,  the  U.S.  Army  constructed  an  average  of  approximately  two  new 
chapels  per  year  That  average  slipped  to  less  than  one  per  year  during  the  Reagan  years.  The  old 
wooden  cantonment  chapels  with  a  single,  one-toilet  latrine,  no  hot  water,  the  absence  of  religious 
education  classrooms,  and  a  lack  of  fellowship  space  failed  to  meet  congregational  and  family  needs 

Other  important  changes  in  American  religion  impacted  on  the  Army's  chapel  communities. 
Less  than  one  fourth  of  all  Army  chaplains  came  from  fiandamental,  evangelical,  or  conservative 
Protestant  denominations  in  the  early  1970s.  Fifteen  years  later  less  than  a  third  of  all  chaplains 
represented  Catholic  and  mainline  Protestant  faiths.  This  dramatic  flip-flop  reflected  the  steady 
decline  in  clergy,  membership,  and  interest  experienced  by  the  once  popular  mainline  churches. 
Besides  recruiting  and  retention  problems  for  personnel,  the  reversal  also  created  a  definite  need  for 
architectural  change  in  chapels,  for  few  had  immersion  baptistries,  central  pulpits,  or  adequate 
activities  rooms. 

The  Chapel  of  the  Year  Program 

To  address  these  trends  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  and  the  Chief  of  Engineers  announced  a 
"Chapel  of  the  Year"  (COTY)  Program.  It  granted  senior  chaplains  more  flexibility  in  defining 
religious  facility  needs  and  allowed  each  Major  Army  Command  (MACOM)  the  opportunity  to 
submit  project  nominations  to  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

Usually  in  early  spring  a  board  met  to  select  two  nominations  for  COTY  designation.  Board 
members  consisted  of  senior  chaplains  and  representatives  for  the  Assistant  Chief  of  Engineers'  (ACE) 
and  DCSPER's  offices  COTY  projects  received  the  advantage  of  having  design  costs  assured  from 
ACE  fijnds,  but  they  still  required  congressional  authorization  and  appropriation  in  the  MCA  bill. 
The  first  COTYs  entered  the  MCA  process  in  FY  88  The  program  was  successfijl  in  raising 
awareness  of  chapel  needs  and  contributed  to  getting  eight  chapel  projects  flinded  from  FY  88 
through  FY  92 

Standardized  Designs 

During  the  mid-1970s  the  Army  established  criteria  for  designing  community-type  facilities. 
A  design  guide  for  chapels  was  completed  in  1 979  that  attempted  to  meet  the  newly  emerging  needs 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


of  military  congregations.  The  design  was  modernistic  with  a  tetrahedron  shape  (all  seven  built  had 
serious  roof  leaking  problems)  Few  people  liked  them  The  concept  may  have  been  a  good  idea, 
but  it  was  ahead  of  its  time  and  any  available  technology 

Chaplain  James  A.  Edgren,  who  served  as  Director  of  IRML  from  1985  through  1991, 
captured  the  good  ideas  from  the  1979  design  guide  and  modified  the  rest.  He  established  a  series 
of  standardized  designs  for  constructing  religious  facilities.  Chaplain  Edgren  represented  the  Chief 
of  Chaplains  in  the  Army  Facilities  Standardization  Program.  He  chaired  the  Chiefs  subcommittee 
on  standardized  designs  for  chapels,  and  coordinated  supporting  work  from  the  Architectural  and 
Programming  Branch  of  the  Headquarters,  Army  Corps  of  Engineers,  and  from  Ware  Associates,  a 
commercial  architectural  firm  in  Chicago  that  specialized  in  designing  churches. 

Chaplain  Edgren's  leadership  and  guidance  resulted  in  ten  definitive  standardized  facility 
designs,  including  two  sizes  of  large  Army  chapels,  two  sizes  of  small  chapels,  two  sizes  of  chapel 
family  life  centers,  three  types  of  religious  education  facilities,  and  interior  packages  for  each  type 
design.  His  foresight  set  a  precedent  for  the  entire  Army,  as  the  Chaplain  Corps  established  a  model 
for  the  complete  Army  standardization  program.  In  fact,  the  Corps  of  Engineers  made  a  training 
video  featuring  standardized  designs  of  religious  facilities  to  demonstrate  how  the  program  worked. 

Standard  designs  did  not  come  easy  One  problem  was  how  to  design  a  facility  capable  of 
meeting  the  religious  requirements  of  over  a  hundred  faith  groups  in  any  one  religious  building.  Even 
the  external  appearance  of  the  building  could  not  convey  preference  for  one  faith  over  another.  The 
new  Army  chapels  featured  a  pyramid  roof  line,  movable  interior  walls  for  maximum  configuration 
of  worship  arrangements,  fellowship  space  and  religious  education  classrooms.  In  their  work  each 
member  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Standard  Committee  for  Chapels  and  Religious  Education  Facilities 
considered  the  faith  requirements  of  a  very  wide  range  of  distinctive  faith  groups,  and  honestly 
attempted  to  provide  religious  facilities  that  would  make  it  possible  for  all  their  needs  and  practices 
to  be  accommodated 

Depending  on  the  interior  arrangement,  each  standard  Army  chapel  could  seat  from  200  to 
600  people.  The  two  small  chapel  designs  were  drawn  primarily  for  sites  outside  the  U.S.  and  for 
depots  in  CONUS  The  designs  for  chapel  family  life  centers  gave  commanders  a  place  for 
community  activities  as  well  as  for  religious  education.  Because  many  older  chapels  did  not  need 
replacing,  three  types  of  religious  education  additions  were  made  available  to  modernize  them. 

While  COTY  and  standardized  designs  assured  a  high  level  of  interest  in  chapel  construction, 
getting  individual  projects  through  all  the  hurdles  of  the  MCA  process  was  another  story.  Dedicated 
IRML  chaplains  worked  the  system.  They  spent  many  hours  performing  a  "ministry  of  presence"  at 
long  meetings  to  ensure  religious  facility  projects  were  not  canceled  or  delayed.  Their  eflFective 
negotiating  skills  and  intentional  staff  work  tracked  projects  from  MACOMs  through  Construction 
Requirements  Review  Committee  meetings  and  "murder  boards"  at  ACE,  HQDA  and  Department 
of  Defense  (DOD)  levels  to  Presidential  budget  and  Congressional  Committees. 

During  the  fiscal  years  1987  through  1993  the  overall  MCA  budget  declined  significantly. 
But  during  those  years,  as  a  result  of  the  combined  emphasis  of  the  COTY  program,  standardized 
designs,  and  superb  staff  work,  twenty-one  religious  facilities  were  fiinded  by  Congress,  more  than 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


twice  the  number  than  had  been  constructed  in  the  preceding  decade. 

The  United  States  Army 
Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency 

The  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Board  was  organized  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Georgia,  (near  the 
Chicamaga  National  Battlefield),  in  1945.  The  mission  of  the  Chaplain  Board,  which  shared  a 
building  with  the  Chaplain  School  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  was  to  report  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  on  any 
matters  as  might  be  referred  to  it  for  the  improvement  of  the  chaplaincy  "' 

One  of  the  first  Board  projects  was  the  development  of  the  Character  Guidance  Instruction 

program,  complete  with  scripts  and  films,  to  support  the  moral  improvement  of  soldiers  In  its 
subsequent  forty-two  year  history  the  Board  undertook  a  number  of  other  projects  for  the  Chief  of 

Chaplains  to  enhance  ministry  in  the  Army.     Among  these  were  family  life  programs,  parish 

development,  homiletics  workshops,  audio-visual  resource  production  and  procurement,  religious 

education,  Roman  Catholic  chaplain  recruitment,  chaplain  assistant  training  workshops,  multicuhural 

religious  education,  and  the  publication  of  the  Military  Chaplains  Review.^'' 

In  late  1987  Chaplain  Norris  Einertson  made  the  decision  to  redesignate  the  Chaplain  Board 

as  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency  and  to  move  it  from  Fort  Monmouth,  N  J  , 

where  it  had  been  located  for  almost  seven  years,  to  Washington,  DC    In  a  letter  to  the  Director  of 

the  Army  Staff,  Chaplain  Einertson  said: 

I  propose  to  restructure  the  agency  to  respond  more  efficiently  to  my  mission 
requirements  by  relocation  and  reorganization.  The  restructured  agency  is  to  be  more 
responsive  to  soldier  and  family  needs  ...  to  streamline  proponent  issues  ...  and  to 
focus  on  future  issues.^' 

Chaplain  Einertson's  proposal  was  approved  by  the  Army  Chief  of  Staff  and  on  1  December  1987  the 
U.S.  Army  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency  was  activated  by  General  Orders  Number  70  as  a 
Field  Operating  Agency  of  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.^* 

The  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Chaplain  McDonnell,  was  named  Director  of  the  newly 
established  Agency  Chaplain  John  Hoogland,  the  former  President  of  the  Chaplain  Board,  was 
named  the  Deputy  Director  and  charged  with  supervising  the  day-to-day  operations.  Seven  chaplain 
positions  and  six  support  positions  were  included  in  the  new  organization.  The  major  functional  areas 
included  soldier  ministries.  Family  Life  Enrichment,  Religious  Education,  Proponent  Support, 
Homiletics  and  Journalism  Research,  Audio- Visual,  and  Recruitment.*'  In  March  of  1988  the  Agency 
moved  to  offices  on  K  Street  in  Washington,  DC.'" 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter 


Serving  on  the  Edge  of  Freedom:" 

Ministry  in  the  Republic  of  Korea 

1986  -  1987 

Of  all  of  the  geographic  areas  of  interest  to  the  United  States  toward  the  "end"  of  the  Cold 
War,  none  appeared  more  challenging  than  that  of  the  Korean  border.  The  bulk  of  the  North  Korean 
ground  forces  were  deployed  well  forward,  65%  within  75  miles  of  the  demilitarized  zone  (DMZ). 
Less  than  4,000  meters  separated  U.S.  and  Republic  of  Korea  (ROK)  border  units  from  North  Korean 
troops.  Numerically  the  North  Koreans  could  count  850,000  soldiers,  3,000  tanks,  5,000  artillery 
tubes,  2,000  multiple  rocket  launchers,  and  the  world's  largest,  most  capable  special  operations  units 
in  their  offensive  inventory.''^  North  Korea  had  expended  20%  of  its  annual  gross  national  product 
for  military  purposes  since  1970  and  possessed  the  third  largest  army  in  the  Communist  world. '^ 

Opposing  this  threat  were  approximately  600,000  US  and  ROK  soldiers  reinforced,  as 
needed,  by  the  25th  Infantry  Division  from  Hawaii  and  other  units  from  Japan,  Alaska,  and  Fort 
Lewis,  Washington.  The  annual  "Team  Spirit"  deployments  to  Korea  in  1986-1987  were  the  largest 
Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff — directed  Field  Training  Exercises  (FTX)  in  the  world.  More  than  53,000  U.S. 
Army;  26,000  U.S.  Navy;  23,000  U.S.  Marine  Corps,  and  32,000  U.S.  Air  Force  personnel 
participated  in  the  joint  exercises.  For  the  first  time  in  1987  a  complete  U.S.  Marine  Amphibious 
Brigade,  including  the  command  group,  trained  with  ROK  forces — the  2d  ROK  Marine 
Division — and  with  the  soldiers  of  the  2d  Infantry  Division,  US.  Army.^^ 

Religious  support  for  thousands  of  these  soldiers,  both  those  stationed  in  Korea  and  those 
participating  in  exercises,  was  comprehensive  and  inspirational.  There  were  so  many  worship 
services,  retreats,  and  counseling  services  provided  by  the  55  chaplains,  60  chaplain  assistants,  and 
volunteer  lay  leaders  that  Chaplain  Wesley  V.  Geary,  the  Eighth  Army  Staff  Chaplain,  found  it  a 
challenge  just  to  keep  count  of  the  total  number  of  soldiers  served  In  his  1987  annual  historical 
report.  Chaplain  Geary  could  truthfully  list  the  following  achievements  in  soldier  ministries: 

1.  In  1987  more  than  372,321  people  worshiped  in  US  Forces  Korea  chaplain-led 
religious  services.  On  any  given  weekend  approximately  165  services  were  conducted 
with  a  total  estimated  attendance  of  6,800.^^  The  USFK  Family  Life  Center  in 
Hannam  Village,  Yongsan,  provided  services  for  more  than  300  family  members  on 
a  regular  basis. 

2.  Total  religious  education  attendance  for  1987  was  159,648  throughout  U.S.  Forces 
Korea  and  Eighth  Army.  Eighty-five  per  cent  of  the  religious  education  classes  were 
held  in  or  near  Seoul  and  Taegu.'* 

3.  Pastoral  counseling  cases  reported  by  all  chaplains  totaled  22,163. 

4.  Some  37,000  military  personnel  and  invited  guests  used  the  Eighth  Army  Religious 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Retreat  Center,  a  23%  increase  over  1986.  These  figures  included  soldiers  from 
Hawaii  deployed  on  "Team  Spirit,"  and  one  day,  "Duty  Day  with  God"  retreats 
implemented  by  the  2d  ID  unit  ministry  teams. 

5.  The  EUSA  Family  Life  Center  in  Yongsan  counseled  859  people  in  1987.  This  low 
figure  represented  the  success  of  many  unit  ministry  team  programs  implemented  in 
the  division  and  brigades  to  help  soldiers  cope  with  stress,  family  separation,  and 
other  personal  issues.  Chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  also  offered  suicide 
prevention,  assertiveness  training,  and  bilingual  and  cross-cultural  marriage  programs 
which  paid  big  dividends  for  soldier,  family,  and  unit  cohesion  and  readiness. 

6.  A  new  South  Post  Chapel  at  Yongsan,  built  at  a  cost  of  1 .9  million  dollars,  with  a 
seating  capacity  of  650  people  was  dedicated  on  27  September  1987. 

7.  The  U.S.  Forces  Korea  chaplains  in  1987  participated  in  the  first  Joint  Training 
Conference  for  chaplains  in  the  Pacific  Basin.  Some  50  Army,  1 5  Air  Force,  and  4 
Navy  (3  serving  with  Marines)  attended. **' 

Obviously  the  ministry  to  military  personnel  in  Korea  was  impressive,  especially  the  ministries 
of  "presence"  by  unit  ministry  teams  at  each  site.  Given  the  figures  in  Chaplain  Geary's  report,  each 
of  the  55  military  chaplains  in  USFK  ministered  to  an  average  of  200  different  soldiers  in  three 
worship  services,  eight  counseling  sessions,  one  religious  education  or  Bible  study  class,  and 
countless  brief  retreats,  unit  and  hospital  visitations,  moral  leadership  classes  and  staff  meetings  each 
day.  The  effect  of  these  unit  ministry  team  programs  for  soldiers,  as  well  as  the  impact  of  chaplain 
and  soldier  support  for  orphanages  and  other  charitable  projects  for  the  Korean  people,  was  hard  to 
measure.  At  the  least,  the  religious  support  efforts  by  the  unit  ministry  teams  in  Korea  in  1 987 
showed  the  largest  growth  in  soldier  and  family  attendance  in  40  years  both  in  worship  and  retreat 
center  activities  In  a  study  conducted  the  same  year  of  soldier  awareness  of  religious  support 
personnel  and  programs  available  for  them,  approximately  seventy-five  per  cent  of  the  soldier/family 
respondents  had  knowledge  of,  or  personal  experience  with,  the  services  provided  by  their  unit 
ministry  teams. '^ 

RufTles  and  Flourishes 

Toward  the  end  of  1987  Ms.  Jessica  Harding,  the  Public  Affairs  OfBcer  in  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains  Office,  listed  the  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  who  had  been  recognized  for  outstanding 
achievements  in  ministry  during  the  year  in  her  PAO  file.  Ms.  Harding  did  not  intend  to  exclude  the 
hundreds  of  unit  ministry  teams  whose  ministries  were  outstanding  in  every  respect  throughout  the 
Army  She  simply  collected  and  saved,  for  the  historical  record,  the  press  releases  and  news  clippings 
regarding  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  whose  service  had  been  reported  in  the  media.  The  list 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


gives  an  interesting  snapshot  of  the  many  talents  which  chaplains  possessed  and  dedicated  in  their 
lives  of  service  for  God,  for  Country,  and  for  soldiers 

Historical  Achievements 

1.  The  year  1987  was  officially  designated  "The  Year  of  the  Constitution"  because  it 
marked  the  200th  anniversary  of  the  signing  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States, 
the  oldest  democratic  constitution  in  the  world  and  the  document  which  every  soldier 
swore  to  defend  and  protect  upon  entry  into  military  service.  It  was  and  is  the  legal 
guarantor  of  basic  human  rights  for  all  Americans  including  the  right  to  worship 
freely,  to  publish  freely,  to  speak  freely,  to  live  in  a  society  of  law,  to  be  liberated  from 
any  threat  of  tyranny  or  slavery,  and  to  vote,  to  petition,  to  assemble,  to  hold  office, 
and  to  possess  the  blessings  of  liberty  without  fear  of  usurpation  by  any  sovereign 
power.  In  celebration  of  this  commemoration  and  of  the  values  implanted  within  the 
U.S.  Constitution,  the  United  States  Commission  on  the  Bicentennial  of  the  U.S. 
Constitution  in  1987  established  a  series  of  ceremonial  events  and  a  number  of  awards 
for  individuals  making  noteworthy  contributions  in  support  of  this  national 
observance.  One  of  these  national  awards  went  to  Chaplain  William  Noble,  U.S.  Army 
Chaplain  Board,  Editor  of  the  Military  Chaplains  Review,  for  the  Fall  1987  issue  of 
the  MCR  Chaplain  Noble's  work  in  creating  an  outstanding  anthology  of  articles  on 
the  relationship  between  religion,  government,  the  Chaplaincy  and  the  Constitution 
for  wide  dissemination  earned  him  a  well-deserved  award.  A  copy  of  the  Fall  1987 
issue  of  the  MHilary  Chaplains'Review  ,  subtitled  "The  Constitution,"  was  placed  in 
the  Archives  of  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Corps 

2.  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield,  Chief,  Unit  and  Individual  Training  Division,  Directorate  of 
Training  and  Doctrine,  USACHCS,  was  presented  the  TRADOC  Commander's 
Award  for  Outstanding  Contributions  to  the  Bicentennial  of  the  U.S.  Constitution. 
Chaplain  Brinsfield  wrote  two  articles  and  gave  five  addresses  on  the  free  exercise  of 
religion  and  the  history  of  the  Army  Chaplaincy  for  each  of  the  CONUSA  Chaplain 
Training  Conferences,  which  hosted  more  than  1,500  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants 
throughout  the  United  States. 

3.  Chaplain  Robert  G.  Garrett  coordinated  a  rededication  ceremony  for  the  Memorial 
Chapel  at  Fort  Eustis,  Virginia.  The  Transportation  Corps  thereby  became  the  first 
regiment,  under  the  Army's  regimental  system,  to  record  a  Regimental  Memorial 
Chapel  with  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains.** 

4.  Chaplain  Lawrence  E.  Hayworth,  former  Red  River  Army  Depot  Staff  Chaplain, 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


dedicated  the  Veterans  Honor  Park  at  that  Texas  installation.  In  his  keynote  address. 
Chaplain  Hayworth  honored  all  veterans  especially  the  POWs  and  MIAs  who  served 
their  country.'"" 

5.  In  a  special  article  on  Afro- American  Chaplains  during  February,  Black  History 

Month,  Chaplain  John  Allen  DeVeaux  and  Chaplain  John  A.  DeVeaux,  Jr.,  were 
honored  for  their  service  as  father  and  son  chaplains  in  the  Corps.  Chaplain  John  A. 
DeVeaux,  Jr.,  was  the  first  black  Corps  and  MACOM  Chaplain  in  the  history  of  the 

Pastoral  and  Soldier  Ministry  Awards 

1.  Chaplain  Wesley  V.  Geary,  Staff  Chaplain,  Eighth  Army,  Korea,  received  the  Roy 
Wilkins  Meritorious  Service  Award  given  by  the  NAACP.  He  was  cited  for  devoting 
his  ministry  of  24  years  to  soldiers  and  families  and  for  resolving  racial  tensions  in  the 
Army  in  the  1970s. '"^ 

2.  Chaplain  Vance  P  Theodore  and  Specialist  Dwayne  L.  Charlton  were  honored  as  the 
UMT  of  the  year  by  Chaplain  Matthew  A.  Zimmerman,  the  FORSCOM  Staff 
Chaplain,  for  their  ministry  to  soldiers  and  family  members  at  Fort  Ord.  Chaplain 
Theodore  and  Specialist  Charlton  collected  more  than  $22,000.00  and  provided  meals 
and  gifts  for  more  than  700  needy  soldiers  families  during  the  1986  Christmas 
season  '"^ 

3.  Chaplain  Fred  L  Maddox,  Eisenhower  Army  Medical  Center,  Augusta,  Georgia,  was 
honored  for  the  Staff  Chaplain's  Program  in  Drug  and  Alcohol  Abuse  Prevention.  Of 
the  612  soldiers  and  297  spouses  treated  at  Eisenhower  AMC  in  this  program,  71% 
returned  to  full  duty  status.  Chaplain  James  Robnolt,  from  PPDT,  paid  special  tribute 
to  Chaplain  Maddox  and  his  staff  for  establishing  a  spiritual  "role  relationship"  with 
the  patients  which  helped  lead  to  their  recovery.'"'' 

4.  CSM  James  J.  Schonefeld,  US.  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  Ft.  Monmouth, 
received  a  Great  American  Family  Award  for  1987  for  volunteer  help  during  blood 
drives,  food  basket  drives,  and  retiree  support.  CSM  Schonefeld  and  his  family 
exemplified  the  principles  of  "going  the  extra  mile"  to  help  the  Army  "take  care  of  its 

Certainly  there  were  many  other  honors  which  could  have  been  mentioned  as  well  as 
transitions  during  the  year  1987.'"*  In  tribute  not  only  to  the  hundreds  of  unnamed  unit  ministry 
teams  whose  selfless  service  helped  transform  the  lives  of  thousands  of  soldiers,  but  also  to  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


stalwart  leadership  of  Chaplain  Einertson  and  his  staff  in  a  year  of  controversy  over  many  essential 
issues.  Chaplain  Richard  Martin,  former  USAREUR  Chaplain,  wrote; 

Leadership  is  not  an  automatic  response  to  external  forces.  It  is  a  hard,  reasoned,  planned 
process  of  thought  and  action,  of  personal  values  applied  to  organizational  challenges.  A 
worthy  goal  is  to  be  the  effective  leader  that  a  Chinese  philosopher  described,  "when  his  work 
was  done,  his  aim  fijlfilled,  the  people  will  say,  we  did  it  ourselves."'"' 

Hail  to  the  Chief 

One  award  just  before  Christmas  stood  above  the  rest  and  signaled  the  Department  of  the 
Army's  recognition  of,  and  respect  for,  the  work  of  the  Total  Chaplaincy.  On  December  1 6th  General 
Art  Brown,  Vice  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  awarded  Chaplain  Einertson  the  Distinguished  Service 
Medal  as  an  impact  award  for  his  exceptionally  meritorious  service  over  the  20-month  period  from 
December  1985  to  October  1987.'°*  Chaplain  Einertson's  achievements  as  Deputy  and  then  as  Chief 
of  Chaplains  reflected  the  hard  work  of  scores  of  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  and  Department  of 
the  Army  (DA)  civilians  in  the  common  effort  of  performing  and  providing  religious  support  to  the 

Yankee  Go  Home:  Panama,  1988 

The  Republic  of  Panama,  edging  ever  closer  to  sovereign  control  of  the  Panama  Canal, 
presented  an  increasing  problem  for  the  United  States  government  and,  by  extension,  for  the  US 
Army  in  1988.  After  a  lengthy  investigation.  Central  Intelligence  Agency  sources  confirmed  that 
General  Manuel  Noriega  had  made  contact  with  leaders  of  several  drug  cartels  in  Colombia,  including 
Pablo  Escobar,  presumably  for  the  purpose  of  offering  Escobar  a  headquarters  site  in  Panama  to 
support  illegal  drug  trafficking.""  While  it  was  true  that  Noriega  had  been  an  informant  for  the  CIA 
earlier,  he  had  played  a  dualistic,  manipulative  role  in  taking  money  from  the  U.S.  as  well  as  from  the 
enemies  of  the  United  States  President  George  Bush  wanted  Noriega  removed  from  power  in 
Panama.  In  February  a  Federal  grand  jury  had  indicted  Noriega  for  drug  trafficking,  following  the 
testimony  of  some  of  his  former  associates  in  the  Panama  Defense  Force. '"  President  Bush,  a  former 
Director  of  the  CIA,  placed  economic  sanctions  on  Panama  which  gave  Noriega  the  opportunity  to 
blame  the  United  States  for  all  of  Panama's  economic  problems"' 

Life  was  not  easy  for  the  1 3,000  American  soldiers  and  family  members  in  Panama. ' "  Subject 
to  constant  harassment  by  the  native  press  and  by  Panamanians  on  the  street,  most  elected  to  remain 
on  the  US.  Army  installations  as  much  as  possible  After  12  years  of  existence  as  the  193rd  Infantry 
Brigade,  US  Army  South  (USARSO)  had  been  reactivated  as  a  major  command  in  Panama  on  4 
December  1986"*  The  new  joint  headquarters,  U.S.  Southern  Command  (U.S.  SOUTHCOM)  was 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


located  at  Quarry  Heights  (Ancon  Hill)  overlooking  Panama  City.  Both  the  position  and  the  presence 
of  US  SOUTHCOM  rankled  Noriega  who  had  the  local  press  portray  American  soldiers  as  "AIDS 
carriers,  rapists,  and  alcoholics.""^ 

From  January  through  March  of  1988,  a  series  of  senior  chaplains  from  the  Chiefs  Office  and 
U.S.  Forces  Command  visited  Panama  to  offer  spiritual  encouragement  to  the  soldiers  and  to  gather 
information  on  the  developing  problems  in  the  country.  In  January  Chaplain  Quincy  Scott  from 
DACH  joined  Chaplain  Eduardo  Spragg,  Chaplain  of  the  193rd  Infantry  Brigade  and  Pastor  for  the 
Gospel  Service  at  Fort  Clayton,  in  a  service  commemorating  the  birthday  of  Dr.  Martin  Luther  King, 
Jr  In  the  third  week  of  February  Chaplain  Matthew  A  Zimmerman,  the  FORSCOM  Staff  Chaplain, 
led  a  revival  at  Fort  Clayton's  Gospel  Service  during  Black  History  Month  '"■ 

On  March  24,  distressed  by  the  reports  he  had  received  from  Panama  concerning  not  only  the 
anxiety  of  Americans  but  also  the  poverty  of  the  Panamanian  people.  Chaplain  Norris  Einertson  sent 
the  following  message  to  all  staff  chaplains  and  chaplain  ftind  custodians  woridwide. 

As  many  of  you  are  aware,  the  people  of  Panama  are  facing  a  severe  crisis  due 
to  the  deteriorating  economic  situation  within  that  country.  The  USARSO 
Chaplain  has  announced  an  assistance  program  to  provide  aid  for  families  in 
crisis.  As  Chief  of  Chaplains  I  extend  to  each  of  you  this  opportunity  to 
provide  assistance  to  these  needy  families.  I  would  recommend  the  use  of 
designated  offerings  for  this  purpose."^ 

In  July  of  1988  the  Army  Emergency  Relief  dedicated  some  of  its  campaign  funds  to  Panamanian 
relief  By  June  of  1990  Army  chapel  congregations  had  donated  a  total  of  $134,000.00  to  support 
humanitarian  relief  efforts  in  assisting  homeless  and  otherwise  disadvantaged  Panamanian  people."* 

Plans,  Issues  and  Decisions: 
Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 

At  the  same  time  Chaplain  Einertson  was  appealing  for  help  for  Panama,  his  staff  was  setting 
the  agendas  for  the  1988  Chiefs  Conferences.  Among  these  were  the  Command  Chaplain's 
Conference,  the  Mobilization  Conference,  the  Muhi-cultural  Conference,  and  a  new  addition:  the 
Trans-Cultural  Families  (TCF)  Conference  "' 

In  1987  Chaplain  Gary  Bowker,  Director  of  PPDT,  had  designed  a  study  by  Dr.  Gary  L. 
Bowen  and  Dr  Barbara  Janofsky  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill  (called  Caliber 
Associates)  to  examine  "family  values  and  expectations  across  racial/ethnic  groups  and  rank"  among 
military  families.  The  goal  of  the  study,  which  was  published  in  January  of  1988,  was  to  assist 
chaplains  in  planning  for  ministry  to  military  families  of  mixed  cultural  and  ethnic  composition.  The 
study,  which  polled  1 74  Army  members  and  88  "civilian"  spouses,  concentrated  on  Hispanic,  Black 
and  White  racial/ethnic  groups  primarily  in  the  grades  of  El  to  E6  The  recommendation  of  the 
study,  to  use  a  Values-Behavior  Congruency  Model  of  Family  Adaptation  as  a  counseling  and 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


enrichment  tool  by  Army  chaplains  in  Family  Life  Centers,  would  be  explained  and  discussed  at  the 
TCF  Conference.'""  Mrs.  Ida  Butcher  of  PPDT  would  monitor  the  progress  of  these  plans. 

Among  the  many  agenda  items  for  the  Command  Chaplains'  Conference  in  July  was  the  final 
draft  of  AR  165-1  which  Chaplain  Edgren,  Director  of  IRML,  had  prepared.  This  revision  of  the 
Chaplain  Corps'  basic  regulation  was  critical  because  it  addressed  "core  issues"  such  as  priorities  for 
the  scheduling  of  worship  services,  the  duties  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants,  the  status  of 
chaplains  as  noncombatants,  and  the  moral  leadership  program's  concept  and  design.'^' 

The  retirement  of  Chaplain  (Brigadier  General)  Israel  Drazin,  USAR,  Assistant  Chief  of 
Chaplains  for  Mobilization,  in  March  also  was  recognized.  Chaplain  Drazin  had  entered  active  duty 
in  March  of  1981  to  help  prepare  the  defense  for  Katcoff  vs.  Marsh,  the  lawsuit  challenging  the 
constitutionality  of  the  Chaplaincy.  Chaplain  Drazin  performed  many  other  duties  in  an  outstanding 
fashion.  Chaplain  Einertson  awarded  him  the  Legion  of  Merit  upon  his  retirement  and  return  to 
civilian  ministry  and  to  the  practice  of  law.' ^  Chaplain  Drazin  was  succeeded  by  Chaplain  (Brigadier 
General)  George  Field,  a  distinguished  educator,  clergyman,  and  Reserve  Component  Chaplain. 

Other  new  arrivals  in  the  OflBce  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  in  FY  88  included  Chaplain  Robert 
E.  Lair,  Jr  ,the  Reserve  Advisor;  Chaplain  Jerry  W  Black  in  PER,  Chaplain  Quincy  J.  Scott  in  PER; 
and  Chaplain  Frederick  C.  Smith,  the  Pentagon  Pastor.  Mrs.  Norma  J.  Turner,  one  of  the  key 
civilians  in  the  Chiefs  Office,  announced  her  impending  retirement  in  July.  Mrs.  Turner  completed 
38  years  of  service  to  the  Chaplaincy  during  the  terms  in  office  of  eleven  Chiefs  of  Chaplains.  As  a 
specialist  in  ecclesiastical  relations  she  was  a  major  part  of  the  "institutional  memory"  of  the  Chaplain 

Of  the  duties  which  the  members  of  the  Chiefs  staff"  performed  in  the  spring  of  1988,  perhaps 
none  was  so  extraordinary  as  the  symbolic  burial  service  Chaplain  John  J.  "Jack"  Kaising  performed 
at  Arlington  National  Cemetery  for  the  Family  of  William  F.  Buckley.  Mr.  Buckley,  the  Central 
Intelligence  Agency  station  chief  in  Beirut,  Lebanon,  was  kidnaped  on  16  March  1984  and  reportedly 
killed  on  3  June  1985  by  his  captors.  He  was  a  retired  Lieutenant  Colonel  in  the  Army  Reserve  and 
the  recipient  of  two  purple  hearts  and  two  silver  stars  for  service  in  Korea  and  Vietnam.'^'* 

On  Friday,  May  13,  Chaplain  Kaising  read  the  burial  service,  "Lord  hear  our  prayer:  Welcome 
our  brother  to  paradise  and  help  us  to  comfort  each  other  with  the  assurance  of  our  faith.  Give  him 
eternal  rest,  O  Lord,"''*  as  a  headstone  in  memorial  section  1  at  Arlington  was  dedicated  to  Buckley's 
memory  Among  the  many  distinguished  Americans  who  were  present  to  pay  their  respects  were 
Secretary  of  the  Army  John  O  Marsh;  Director  of  the  CIA,  William  H.  Webster;  Ms.  Peggy  Say, 
sister  of  hostage  Terry  Anderson;  and  Ambassador  Bruce  Laingen,  former  hostage  in  Iran. 
Lieutenant  Commander  William  Beck,  USNR,  who  served  with  Buckley  in  Vietnam,  said  that  "in 
Arlington  we  naturally  think  of  heroes.  Many  served  our  country  and  died,  but  few  served  our 
country  as  many  times  or  as  often  as  Buckley  "''*' 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  Timeless  Topics: 

Accommodating  Religious  Practices, 

Managing  Careers,  and  Building  Chapels 

In  the  weekly  staff  meeting  at  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Office  on  19  August  1987,  Chaplain 
Rodger  Venzke,  the  Executive  OflBcer,  had  recommended  that  a  file  of  "timeless  topics"  be  set  up  so 
that  the  Chaplaincy  could  stop  "reinventing  the  wheel"  every  five  years.'''  As  the  author  of  the 
volume  of  Chaplain  Corps  history  which  spanned  the  30-year  period  after  World  War  II  (1945  - 
1975),  Chaplain  Venzke  was  well  qualified  to  make  that  recommendation.  Even  a  casual  survey  of 
Chaplain  Corps  archives  would  reveal  about  20  topics  which  kept  appearing  each  five  to  ten  years. 
Among  those  topics  were  the  constitutional-legal  basis  for  uniformed  chaplains  paid  by  the 
government,  the  justification  of  TDA  chaplain  (and  chaplain  assistant)  positions,  the 
consolidation/collocation  of  chaplain  schools  from  the  three  services,  and  a  wide  variety  of  questions 
concerning  pluralism,  facilitating  the  free  exercise  of  religion,  and  accommodating  religious  practices. 

One  example  of  a  "timeless"  and  recurring  issue  came  to  Chaplain  Einertson's  attention  early 
in  1988  On  February  3,  the  Department  of  Defense  published  DOD  Directive  1300  17  on  the 
accommodation  of  religious  practices  in  the  military.  In  paragraph  g(6)  the  Directive  indicated  that 
in  some  situations  "a  complete  prohibition  on  the  wearing  of  any  visible  items  of  religious  apparel  may 
be  appropriate  under  unique  circumstances"  which  included  "basic  and  initial"  military  training  when 
"absolute  uniformity  is  necessary  to  instill  military  discipline  and  indoctrinate  new  members  in  the 
requirements  of  military  service."'"* 

Chaplain  Einertson  was  opposed  to  the  complete  prohibition  on  the  wearing  of  religious 
apparel  by  basic  entry  soldiers  since  it  would  effectively  deny  Jewish  soldiers  the  right  to  wear  a 
yarmeike  (cap  on  the  crown  of  the  head)  and  thereby  discourage  the  inclusion  of  Jewish  soldiers,  as 
one  example,  in  future  national  military  requirements.'''  Moreover  it  suggested  that  the  military 
regarded  issues  of  conscience  among  basic  trainees  to  be  of  lesser  importance  than  among  soldiers 
with  more  time  in  service.""  Chaplain  Einertson  thought  this  was  an  incorrect  perception  and  a 
departure  from  the  Army's  policy  "to  approve  requests  for  accommodation  of  religious  practices 
when  they  will  not  have  an  adverse  impact  on  military  readiness,  unit  cohesion,  standards,  health, 
safety,  or  discipline  or  otherwise  interfere  with  the  performance  of  the  soldier's  military  duties."'^' 
Accommodating  religious  practices,  within  such  constraints,  was  encouraged  and  supported  by  all 
chaplains  and  by  the  Army  itself  as  part  of  the  free  exercise  rights  of  all  soldiers  in  matters  of  religion. 

In  discussions  with  Chaplain  Ford  G'Segner  who  served  on  the  staff  of  Lt.  Gen.  Allen  K.  Ono, 
Deputy  Chief  of  StaflF  for  Personnel,  and  on  the  Army's  Committee  for  the  Review  of  the 
Accommodation  of  Religious  Practices  at  DA  level,  and  with  Chaplain  William  Hufham,  PPDT, 
Chaplain  Einertson  decided  to  request  a  change  in  Army  Regulation  600-20,  paragraphs  5-6,  which 
was  in  the  process  of  revision.  The  paragraph  in  March  of  1988,  which  reflected  the  wording  of  the 
3  February  1988  DOD  Directive  1300. 17,  read  as  follows: 

6.  A  complete  prohibition  on  the  wearing  of  any  visible  item  of  religious  apparel 

may  be  appropriate  under  unique  circumstances  in  which  the  soldier's  duties. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


the  military  mission,  or  the  maintenance  of  discipline  require  absolute 
uniformity.  Examples  of  this  include  but  are  not  limited  to:  the  wear  of 
historical  or  ceremonial  uniforms,  participation  in  review  formations,  parades, 
honor  or  color  guards,  and  while  undergoing  basic  or  initial  military  skills 
training  (other  than  during  designated  off-duty  hours)  when  absolute 
uniformity  is  necessary  to  instill  military  discipline  and  indoctrinate  new 
members  in  the  requirements  of  military  service. '^^ 

Chaplain  Einertson  thought  the  simplest  change,  to  protect  the  rights  of  basic  trainees,  would  be  to 
delete  the  words  "...and  while  undergoing  basic  or  initial  military  skills  training  ...  to  instill  military 
discipline  and  indoctrinate  new  members  in  the  requirements  of  military  service."  On  1 8  March  1988 
Chaplain  Einertson  recommended  this  change  to  Brigadier  General  John  a  Renner,  Director  of 
Military  Personnel  Management,  whose  office  was  responsible  for  drafting  changes  to  the  regulation. 
Chaplain  Einertson  told  Brigadier  General  John  A  Renner  that  he  feh  "deleting  these  two  phrases 
brings  the  Army  more  in  line  with  the  intent  of  the  legislation  (by  Congress)  than  the  DOD  Directive 

Two  months  later,  the  Hon  Frank  Carlucci,  Secretary  of  Defense,  received  a  letter  from 
Senator  Frank  R.  Lautenberg  asking  about  the  Department  of  Defense  position  on  the  religious 
apparel  question,  which  would  be  addressed  in  an  amendment  to  the  1988  DOD  Authorization  Act.'^'' 
Mr.  Carlucci's  staff  had  taken  a  conservative  position  upholding  the  possible  prohibition  of  the 
wearing  of  visible  religious  apparel  during  basic  training  as  reflected  in  DOD  Directive  1300. 17.  A 
letter  reflecting  this  position,  in  reply  to  Senator  Lautenberg's  question,  was  staffed  through  the 
Pentagon.  At  the  Armed  Forces  Chaplains  Board,  Chaplain  John  L  Mann,  USAF,  the  Executive 
Director,  issued  a  nonconcurrence  with  the  conservative  position.  "Relevant  to  the  discussion  is  the 
issue  of  conscience,"  Chaplain  Mann  wrote,  "also  the  Army  does  allow  basic  trainees  to  wear  visible 
religious  apparel  while  on  duty  during  basic  training,  so  I  am  informed."'" 

At  his  office  Chaplain  Einertson  was  determined  to  keep  the  Army  in  the  lead  on  this  issue. 
In  June  he  heard  that  the  Navy  and  the  Air  Force  wanted  to  support  the  more  conservative  DOD 
position  and  were  trying  to  influence  Lt  Gen  Allan  K  Ono,  the  Army's  DCSPER,  to  concur  with 
them  Chaplain  Einertson  called  Lt.  Gen.  Allan  K.  Ono  and  kept  a  handwritten  record  of  the 
conversation  in  his  notebook: 

I  found  out  that  the  DCSPERs  of  the  Navy  and  AF  are  putting  pressure  on 
General  Ono  for  the  Army  to  join  them  in  forbidding  the  wearing  of  religious 
accouterments  during  initial  entry  training  I  talked  with  General  Ono  and  he 
confirmed  that  this  subject  was  discussed  at  breakfast  this  morning. 

The  Army  has  been  the  leader  in  accommodating  religious  practices,  and  to 
cave  in  to  the  other  services  on  this  issue  would  be  in  my  opinion  a  giant  step 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


The  Army  has  already  said  in  this  regulation  by  implication  that  the  wearing 
of  these  items  would  not  be  detrimental  to  good  order  and  discipline.  The  net 
impact  of  forbidding  it  now  would  be  to  say  that  issues  of  conscience  are  of 
lesser  importance  during  basic  training. 

I  am  prepared  to  discuss  this  (subject)  at  any  length  or  with  whomsoever  I 
must  to  lay  out  the  important  issues  involved.  At  its  base,  it  is  a  readiness 
issue  which  will  loom  large  for  the  Army  particularly  during  full 

Lt.  Gen  Allan  K.  Ono  concurred  with  Chaplain  Einertson's  position  and  issued  a 
memorandum  through  the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army  for  the  Secretary  of  the  Army  on  24  June  1988. 
The  memo  was  entitled,  "Affirmation  of  Policy  on  Wear  of  Religious  Apparel  in  Initial  Entry 
Training."'^'  Lt.  Gen  Ono  observed  that  "the  Army's  current  position"  allows  commanders  to  make 
the  final  decision  and  is  "vigorously"  supported  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  and  endorsed  by  the 
Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Army  for  Manpower.  He  concluded,  "I  recommend  that  the  Army 
maintain  current  policy"  as  the  Office  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense  prepared  a  unified  service  response 
for  Congressional  inquiries.'^* 

On  September  29,  1988,  Mr  Carlucci,  the  Secretary  of  Defense,  rescinded  the  complete 
prohibition  on  "the  wearing  of  visible  items  of  religious  apparel  while  in  uniform  by  military  members 
undergoing  basic  and  initial  training. "  Secretary  Carlucci  ordered  the  deletion  of  words  in  paragraph 
6,  DOD  Directive  1300  17,  which  referred  to  initial  entry  training  (the  same  words  Chaplain 
Einertson  had  suggested  in  March  to  Brig.  Gen.  Renner)  in  order  to  have  full  compliance  with  "this 
poHcy  change."'^' 

Chaplain  Einertson  thought  it  was  one  of  his  "proudest  moments"  during  his  tenure  as  Chief 
of  Chaplains.  The  Chaplaincy  had  protected,  once  again,  the  free  exercise  of  religion  for  all  soldiers 
in  the  Army.'*" 

More  Alligator  Issues''" 

One  would  think  that  affer  such  a  long  and  involved  discussion  over  accommodating  religious 
practices,  the  other  issues  for  the  Chief  of  Chaplains'  consideration  would  be  much  simpler.  Yet  in 
August  some  of  the  staff  members  at  the  Office  of  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel  suggested 
that  PERSCOM  take  over  the  personnel  management  of  the  Chaplain  Corps  This  suggestion  got 
Chaplain  Einertson's  attention  immediately.'''^  If  followed,  such  a  realignment  would  return  the 
Chaplaincy  to  a  mere  part  of  the  personnel  branch  as  had  been  the  case  in  the  1880s! 

Chaplain  Einertson  very  patiently  explained  to  ODCSPER  that  the  endorsing  agencies  would 
never  tolerate  control  of  chaplains  by  line  officers,  that  chaplains  were  best  qualified  to  handle 
pluralism  and  professional  development  issues,  and  that  without  personnel  management  there  was  no 
need  for  a  Chief  of  Chaplains    Brigadier  General  Putnam  from  the  DCSPER  staff  decided  that  "we 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


don't  want  this  mission,"  and  the  DCSPER  himself  directed  his  staff  "to  put  this  issue  to  bed."'"  The 
Chaplaincy  would  be  managed  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

While  Chaplain  Einertson  was  addressing  issues  of  policy  and  management  in  mid- 1988,  his 
staff  was  answering  yet  another  involved  inquiry  concerning  the  construction  of  faith-specific  chapels. 
In  April  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  the  Latter  Day  Saints  had  requested  permission  from  the 
Secretary  of  the  Army  to  build  a  Mormon  (LDS)  worship  center  at  Dugway  Proving  Ground,  Utah, 
to  meet  the  needs  of  LDS  soldiers  and  family  members.  A  second  request,  to  build  an  LDS  "private 
house  of  worship"  on  the  Plain  at  West  Point,  was  made  at  about  the  same  time.''''' 

Since  these  requests  had  gone  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Army,  then  to  the  Assistant  Secretary, 
and  then  to  the  Chief  of  Staff,  the  Director  of  the  Army  Staff  had  to  task  an  agency  to  answer  them. 
The  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  received  the  tasker  Chaplain  Gary  Councell  was  the  point  of 
contact  at  OCCH,  while  Chaplain  Donald  G.  Wilson,  the  Post  Chaplain  at  West  Point,  was  the  action 
officer  for  the  U.S.  Military  Academy. 

In  as  much  as  both  the  Roman  Catholic  and  Jewish  congregations  had  their  own  chapels  at 
West  Point,  the  issues  involved  in  answering  the  Mormon  request  included  a  fair  assessment  of  the 
needs  of  LDS  members  at  West  Point  and  the  facilities  and  resources  available  to  meet  those  needs. 
The  same  considerations  applied  at  Dugway. 

For  more  than  three  months  the  chaplain  project  officers  researched  and  wrote  information 
papers  and  formal  studies  on  the  current  population,  religious  demographics,  and  utilization  of  current 
facilities  at  West  Point.  Chaplain  Councell  and  Chaplain  Wilson  agreed  that,  "while  the  Army  has 
provided  sufficient  space  for  religious  activities  of  all  groups  on  par  with  the  same  level  of  support 
given  other  community  activities,  the  type  of  space  provided  for  religious  education  needs  in  the 
Latter  Day  Saints  program  is  not  flinctionally  adequate."'*'  They  recommended  the  initiation  of  a 
construction  project  in  FY  92  to  provide  a  permanent  education/family  life  facility  for  all  faith  groups 
at  the  U.S.  Military  Academy.'**  Since  there  were  no  married  cadets  at  West  Point,  the  "family  life 
facility"  applied  mainly  to  faculty  members.  The  facilities  at  Dugway  were  deemed  to  be  adequate 
to  meet  current  needs 

In  a  letter  drafted  for  the  signature  of  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Army,  and  addressed  to 
Mr  Robert  D.  Hales,  The  Presiding  Bishopric,  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter  Day  Saints,  Chaplain 
James  Edgren,  Director  of  IRML,  noted  that  the  construction  of  private  churches  on  military 
installations  might  open  the  door  to  charges  of  favoritism  and  establishment.  The  plan  to  construct 
a  religious  education  facility  at  West  Point,  one  of  55  needed  in  the  Army  world-wide,  was  obviously 
"long  range  in  target."'*^  Until  such  time  as  fiarther  consideration  could  be  given  to  priority  fiinding, 
it  was  feh  that"  sufficient  military  resources  can  be  provided  to  meet  the  religious  education  needs 
of  all  faith  groups  at  West  Point."''** 

The  conclusions  involved  in  this  study  were  not  quickly  nor  facilely  derived.  The  LDS  church 
was  a  vital  endorser  of  ministry  to  military  personnel.  More  than  35  LDS  chaplains  served  in  the 
active  Army  in  1988,  including  some  at  the  highest  levels  in  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Yet, 
in  the  case  of  the  U.S.  Military  Academy,  the  59  cadets  (1.5%  of  the  Corps  of  Cadets)  and  the  80 
other  members  of  the  LDS  community  (from  the  faculty,  retirees,  and  surrounding  town  areas)  were 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


using  classrooms  in  Thayer  Hall  and  in  the  Youth  Activities  Center.  Five  other  religious 
denominations  (of  the  10  Protestant  faith  groups  at  West  Point)  were  using  rooms  in  six  other 
buildings.  There  was  simply  not  enough  space  for  every  denomination  to  have  its  own  private  facility. 

Developing  Ministries: 
Innovations  in  Specialized  Settings 

U.S.  Army  Europe 

In  1987-1988  the  ministry  in  US  Army  Europe  was  characterized  and  enhanced  by  a  number 
of  innovations  which  expanded  opportunities  for  even  greater  service  to  soldiers  and  family  members. 
Chaplain  Donald  W.  Shea,  who  had  served  for  two  years  in  a  dual  role  as  command  chaplain  both  for 
Headquarters,  U.S.  European  Command  (USEUCOM),  and  Headquarters,  U.S.  Army  Europe  and 
Seventh  Army,  was  able  to  transfer  his  duties  for  USEUCOM  in  1988  to  Chaplain  Raymond  H. 
Dressier,  Jr.,  USN,  who  became  the  first  full-time  USEUCOM  Command  Chaplain  ''*'* 

In  1987,  "The  Year  of  the  Constitution,"  and  in  1988,  when  the  Army's  annual  theme  was 
"Training,"  the  USAREUR  Chaplain's  Office  adopted  some  new  public  media  ministries,  innovations 
in  automation,  modifications  in  organization,  and  sponsored,  as  usual,  a  wide  variety  of  training 
conferences  for  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants,  directors  of  religious  education,  and  other  volunteers. 
In  Frankfijrt,  for  example,  the  Broadcast  Ministry  Team  provided  ministry  through  the  broadcast 
media  of  AM  and  FM  radio  and  television  in  1988  to  an  audience  of  more  than  625,000  military  and 
civilian  personnel.  Two  ongoing  programs,  the  daily  "The  Word  in  the  World,"  and  the  music 
program,  "The  Sounds  of  Sunday,"  were  exceptionally  popular  "The  Word  in  the  World"  won  first 
place  in  the  Radio  Information  Series  category  for  the  Army-wide  Keith  L.  Ware  Competition  for 
1988  and  second  place  in  the  same  category  for  the  Department  of  Defense  Thomas  Jefferson 
Competition.  Beginning  in  October  1988,  a  radio-TV  producer  was  contracted  to  work  on  religious 
radio  and  TV  spots  with  the  Broadcast  Ministry  Team."" 

In  1988,  following  the  purchase  of  Zenith  248  microcomputers,  the  USAREUR  Chaplain's 
Office  began  the  use  of  fax  machines,  autodial  MODEMs,  and  lap-top  computers  as  well  as  getting 
funded  for  Local  Area  Network  (LAN)  use.  The  USAREUR  Chaplain's  Bulletin  likewise  began  to 
be  pubHshed.'" 

Name  changes  also  reflected  some  new  developments.  The  Catholic  Religious  Education 
Advisory  Group,  which  had  been  formed  in  1987,  added  a  Director  of  Lay  Development  in  1988  and 
changed  its  name  to  the  Catholic  Lay  Development  Advisory  Council  The  USAREUR  Command 
Chaplains  Training  Conference  had  for  years  conducted  separate  annual  training  for  chaplains  and 
chaplain  assistants.  In  November  1987  the  USAREUR  Chief  of  Staff  approved  a  USAREUR  Unit 
Ministry  Team  Training  Conference  to  combine  training  for  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants.  This 
combined  training  was  first  held  in  October  1988.'" 

In  the  retreat  ministry,  soldiers  throughout  USAREUR  were  allowed  annual  5-day  permissive 
TDY  to  participate  in  chaplain-sponsored  religious  retreats. '''  This  program  was  "field  tested"  for 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


one  year.  May  1987  -  May  1988,  and  found  to  be  beneficial  for  soldiers  whose  leave  time  could  be 
reserved  for  family  events. 

The  conference  schedule  in  USAREUR  in  1987  -  1988  continued  to  be  comprehensive  in 
providing  training  for  ministry.  Of  1 8  conferences  and  four  retreats  sponsored  by  the  USAREUR 
Chaplain's  Office,  four  were  targeted  for  chaplains,  four  for  approximately  420  chaplain  assistants; 
five  for  religious  education  directors  and  coordinators,  225  in  number,  one  for  Chaplain  Candidates; 
one  for  Youth  Leaders;  1  for  Church  Music  Leaders;  and  the  rest  targeted  for  general  attendance  by 
military  families.  Two  of  the  most  popular  were  the  international  pilgrimage  to  Lourdes  with  more 
than  500  military  personnel  taking  part,  and  the  1 1th  Annual  Ecumenical  Conference  for  the  Armed 
Forces  in  Bossey,  Switzerland."^ 

Medical  Ethics: 
Health  Services  Command 

For  many  years  U.S.  Army  hospital  chaplains  had  been  dealing  with  issues  of  medical  ethics 
as  they  ministered  to  patients  and  members  of  health  care  teams  including  physicians,  nurses,  medics, 
administrators,  and  other  staff  members  and  as  the  chaplains  were  trained  in  the  clinical  Pastoral 
Education  (CPE)  Program'".  In  the  early  1980s  both  active  and  reserve  component  chaplains  began 
to  apply  for  and  utilize  advanced  individual  training  in  the  specialized  field  of  medical  ethics.'^* 
Between  1978  and  1980  Chaplain  Sanford  L.  Dresin  offered  several  elective  courses  in  bioethics  at 
the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  the  first  of  their  kind  in  the  Chaplaincy.'"  In  1980  and 
in  1982  Chaplain  James  Travis  and  Chaplain  John  Rasmussen,  both  reserve  component  chaplains, 
published  articles  on  medical  and  biomedical  ethics  in  chaplain  journals."*  In  1986  Chaplain  Dresin 
was  assigned  to  the  Army  Surgeon  General's  Human  Subjects  Review  Committee. 

With  the  growth  of  interest  in  medical  ethics  both  in  civilian  and  military  communities  in  the 
United  States,  Chaplain  Einertson  decided  that  Army  Chaplains  as  a  whole  should  be  given  the 
opportunity  for  advanced  study  in  the  field."'  In  consultation  with  Chaplain  Dresin,  then  assigned 
to  Walter  Reed,  Chaplain  Einertson  approved  the  concept  for  the  training  of  chaplains  in  medical 
ethics  in  December  of  1988.'*" 

1989:  The  Year  the  Wall  Came  Down 

As  soon  as  the  people  heard  the  sound  of  the  trumpet,  the  people  raised  a  great 
shout,  and  the  wall  fell  down  flat,  so  that  the  people  went  up  into  the  city 

...Joshua  6:20 

In  his  newsletter  to  the  Chaplain  Corps  in  January  of  1 989,  Chaplain  Einertson  urged  all 
chaplains  to  be  as  influential  as  possible  in  every  area  of  Army  life.  "We  cannot  afford  to  be  perceived 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


as  'marginal'  to  the  system,"  he  wrote,  "We  owe  it  to  our  people  to  be  part  of  the  'fabric'  of  the  unit. 
We  must  speak  out  with  a  'prophetic  voice'  on  the  significant  issues  of  the  day."'*' 

Indeed  in  many  areas  of  ministry,  chaplains  were  addressing  issues  of  importance  to  the  Army. 
In  late  1988  and  early  1989,  for  example,  Chaplain  Timothy  Tatum,  Director  of  Ethical  Program 
Development,  U.S.  Army  War  College,  joined  General  William  Westmoreland,  Peter  Jennings  of 
ABC  News,  and  other  dignitaries  in  a  panel  discussion  of  ethical  issues  in  the  military  which  was 
televised  nationally.  The  total  ten  part  series,  entitled  "Ethics  in  America,"  appeared  on  the  Public 
Broadcasting  System  beginning  the  last  week  in  January.  Chaplain  Tatum  had  flown  to  Boston  for 
the  taping  session  which  lasted  for  four  hours  with  no  breaks  and  no  advance  questions.  His  only 
requirement  for  participation  was  that  he  appear  in  uniform,  be  recognized  as  an  Army  Chaplain  and 
that  any  comments  would  be  his  own  and  not  the  official  position  of  the  U.S.  Army.  "I  would  not 
hang  up  my  cross,"  Chaplain  Tatum  emphasized,  "and  that  was  our  agreement."'*^ 

In  February  the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  General  Carl  Vuono,  initiated  a  monthly  Soldier 
Forum  to  discuss  significant  issues  impacting  on  soldiers  and  their  families  and  ultimately  on 
individuals  and  unit  readiness.  Examples  of  the  most  important  issues  included  the  impact  of  first 
term  soldier  pregnancies,  child  care  plans,  and  exceptional  family  member  programs  on  deployability. 
Chaplain  Einertson  felt  that  the  Soldier  Forum  was  an  important  colloquium  for  the  DCSPER,  the 
Chief  of  Chaplains,  the  Judge  Advocate  General,  the  Inspector  General,  the  Surgeon  General,  and 
representatives  of  other  agencies  and  offices  to  discuss  overall  soldier  welfare.  If  Chaplain  Einertson 
could  not  be  present  personally,  he  always  tried  to  have  a  senior  member  of  his  staff  represent  him 
at  these  meetings"'^  The  Council  of  Chaplain  Colonels  presented  issues  at  times  for  the  Chief  to 
relate  to  the  Forum. 

In  some  cases  Chaplain  Einertson's  desire  to  have  chaplains  involved  in  the  basic  "fabric"  of 
a  unit  or  organization  did  not  work  out  immediately.  For  years  various  Chiefs  of  Chaplains  had  tried 
to  convince  the  Superintendents  of  the  US.  Military  Academy  at  West  Point  to  recommend  that  a 
military  chaplain,  rather  than  a  civilian  minister,  be  appointed  as  the  Cadet  Chaplain.'*^  Even  though 
the  President  of  the  United  States  actually  made  the  appointment,  the  Superintendent's 
recommendation  was  influential.  Chaplains  Orris  Kelly,  Kermit  Johnson  (U.S. MA.  '50),  and  Norris 
Einertson  all  made  trips  to  West  Point  to  discuss  their  desire  for  such  an  appointment,  to  ensure  that 
when  Cadets  entered  active  duty  they  would  know  the  difference  between  a  chaplain  and  a  campus 
minister.  Cadets,  in  the  view  of  the  chaplains  in  the  Pentagon,  needed  to  know  "what  a  chaplain  can 
do,"  before,  during,  and  after  combat  in  support  of  the  command,  the  soldiers,  and  their  family 

The  problem  with  communicating  these  desires  to  the  Superintendent  and  his  staff  at  the 
Military  Academy  was  that  the  Academy's  senior  chaplain,  the  Rev.  Richard  P.  Camp,  was  an 
outstanding  preacher  and  pastor  and  was  very  popular  with  faculty  and  cadets  alike.  Appointed  by 
President  Jimmy  Carter,  Chaplain  Camp  and  his  staff  ministered  to  the  American  hostages  from  Iran 
when  they  landed  at  Stewart  Army  Airfield,  near  West  Point,  in  1981.  A  former  football 
quarterback.  Chaplain  Camp  related  exceptionally  well  to  cadet  athletes  (who  enjoyed  the  highest 
peer  standing  in  the  Corps  of  Cadets)  in  the  1980s.  In  spite  of  the  theoretical  views  of  the  various 
Chiefs  of  Chaplains,  the  idea  of  replacing  an  excellent  DA  civilian  minister'**  who  gave  continuity  and 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


guidance  to  the  whole  religious  program  at  West  Point  with  military  chaplains  of  various 
denominations  (who  might  rotate  each  three  or  four  years)  did  not  seem  advantageous  to  the  West 
Point  leadership.  After  discussions  with  Lieutenant  General  Palmer  and  his  Chief  of  Staff,  Chaplain 
Einertson's  request  of  the  Superintendent  to  support  the  nomination  of  a  military  chaplain  as  the 
senior  chaplain  at  West  Point  was  not  approved  at  that  time.'*' 

A  similar  type  problem  arose  with  the  staff  chaplain  position  at  U.S.  Central  Command 
(CENTCOM)  Early  in  March  the  CENTCOM  Commander,  General  George  D.  Crist,  U.S.  Marine 
Corps,  approved  the  conversion  of  the  staff  chaplain's  slot  to  that  of  a  Regional  Affairs  Officer.  All 
three  Chiefs  of  Chaplains — Army,  Navy,  and  Air  Force — opposed  this  action  They  pointed  out  that 
CENTCOM's  area  of  operations,  the  Middle  East,  was  "heavily  religious"  and  that  without  a  staff 
chaplain  there  would  be  no  coordination  for  coverage  of  American  soldiers  of  various  faiths.'** 

The  staff  of  the  CENTCOM  Commander  had  to  be  reduced,  however,  as  part  of  the  strength 
reduction  of  the  Armed  Forces  There  were  enough  Air  Force  chaplains  at  McDill  to  provide  direct 
support  for  the  staff  In  the  event  of  war,  CENTCOMs  plans  called  for  augmentation  which  included 
the  addition  of  a  staff  chaplain.  The  commander's  decision  stood.'*** 

On  the  17th  day  of  March  1989  the  issue  went  to  the  Office  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense. 
General  H  Norman  Schwarzkopf,  the  incoming  new  CENTCOM  Commander,  decided  that  he 
needed  the  Regional  Affairs  Officer  (MOS  94G)  on  his  staff  and  that  later,  if  war  occurred,  he  could 
add  a  staff  chaplain  If  he  needed  a  chaplain  for  an  immediate  crisis,  he  would  ask  the  Air  Force  to 
supply  one.  General  Szchwarzkopf  "fought  this  issue  hard,"  Chaplain  Einertson  recalled,  and  did 
convert  the  chaplain  slot.'™  The  Director  of  the  Army  Staff  closed  the  issue  for  the  Army  by  noting 
that  "CFNCs  can  configure  their  own  staffs."  '"'  This  decision  would  later  create  problems  during 
the  early  phases  of  Operation  Desert  Shield  (1990). 


Possibly  the  most  successful  initiative  to  keep  the  Chaplaincy  fully  woven  into  the  fabric  of 
the  Army  came  with  the  reorganization  of  WESTCOM  In  the  summer  of  1989  Western  Command 
changed  its  designation  to  US  Army  Pacific  (USARPAC),  a  title  which  had  been  used  earlier,  before 
the  Vietnam  War.  "'  The  name  change  was  not  the  main  subject  of  note,  however.  The  most 
important  change  was  that  USARPAC  assumed  command  supervision  of  Alaska  (from  U.S.  Forces 
Command),  Japan,  and  Okinawa.'"  USARPAC  was  thereby  responsible  for  more  than  100  million 
miles  of  area  coverage,  to  include  cold  weather  training  in  Alaska  and  field  training  as  far  away  as 
Australia  Seven  of  the  world's  ten  largest  armies  were  located  in  the  USARPAC  area  of 
responsibility"^  There  were  even  special  "expanded  relations"  missions  in  Southeast  Asia,  including 
a  program  to  build  elementary  schools  in  Laos,  for  example."' 

Chaplain  Ronald  Bezanson,  the  last  WESTCOM  Chaplain,  was  succeeded  by  Chaplain 
Timothy  Tatum  as  the  USARPAC  Chaplain  in  the  summer  of  1989  Chaplain  Tatum,  assisted  by  an 
excellent  staff,  including  Chaplain  Phil  Touw  and  Chaplain  Wilbur  Parker,  functioned  as  a  MACOM 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Chaplain,  a  CONUSA  Chaplain  (since  USARPAC  managed  its  own  reserve  components)  and,  when 
so  directed,  as  the  senior  joint  staff  chaplain  in  U.S.  PACOM  (U.S.  Pacific  Command  )"* 

The  duties  of  the  USARPAC  Chaplain  and  his  staff  included  sponsoring  regular  training 
sessions  for  unit  ministry  teams  fi^om  units  deployed  throughout  the  Pacific  area,  reviewing  the 
religious  support  annexes  to  war  plans,  and  supervising  religious  support,  personnel  and  resource 
management. '^^  The  USARPAC  Chaplain  also  would  ft^equently  fly  to  Anchorage,  Fairbanks,  Juno, 
or  to  Fort  Greeley,  Alaska,  in  order  to  offer  guidance  and  encouragement  to  the  division  responsible 
for  defending  "the  northern  approach. "  Chaplain  Tatum  regarded  the  I  Corps  Chaplain,  Tom  Norton, 
as  his  most  important  contact  for  reinforcing  religious  support  in  the  event  of  a  crisis  in  the  Pacific.'^' 
Chaplain  Jack  Kaising,  the  Community  Support  (Installation)  Staff  Chaplain  for  the  Hawaiian  Islands, 
managed  direct  religious  support  for  all  soldiers  and  family  members  assigned  to  units  in  the  islands. 

Chaplain  Robert  Loring,  assigned  to  the  1/21  Infantry  Battalion  ("The  Mighty  Gimlets")  of 
the  25th  Infantry  Division,  recalled  a  series  of  training  deployments  by  his  unit'™  which  included  troop 
movements  to  Korea,  Thailand,  and  Australia.  Chaplain  Loring's  chaplain  assistant.  Sergeant  Michael 
Kang,  was  particularly  interested  in  the  exercises  in  Australia  where  there  were  "24  varieties  of  deadly 
snakes"  and  a  few  other  certain  "attention  getters."'*"  The  deployments  to  Korea  ("Team  Spirit"), 
Thailand  ("Cobra  Gold")  and  Australia  ("Diamond  Dollar")  were  excellent  opportunities  for  ministry 
in  very  different  geographic  environments.'*'  The  ministry  to  soldiers,  including  field  services,  Bible 
studies,  retreats,  a  puppeteer/clown  ministry  in  garrison,  and  holiday  observances  helped  them 
immeasurably  in  overcoming  "Rock  Fever,"  the  feelings  of  isolation  and  boredom  common  to  remote 
tours. '*- 

Other  creative  ministries  in  the  25th  Division  included  evangelistic  work  by  the  Fellowship 
of  Christian  Athletes,  organized  and  sponsored  by  the  succeeding  Division  Chaplains,  Herman  Keizer 
and  James  D.  Masteller,  and  by  the  project  officer,  Chaplain  Philip  T.  Guistwite.  Frequently  football 
players  in  Hawaii  for  the  "Pro  Bowl"  would  offer  their  Christian  testimonies  to  encourage  soldiers 
in  their  own  religious  development.'*^ 

The  religious  support  program  in  Hawaii,  the  largest  in  geographical  area  coverage  in  the 
Army,  plainly  kept  chaplains  involved  in  the  "fabric"  of  their  units.  In  the  opinion  of  many 
commanders,  the  deployment  missions  of  the  25th  Infantry  Division  would  have  been  much  more 
difficult,  if  not  impossible,  without  the  unwavering  support  of  the  unit  ministry  teams  and  their 
supporting  chaplain  and  chaplain  assistant  supervisors. 

Command  Chaplain  Issues: 
Questions  of  Plans  and  Standardization 

The  command  Chaplain's  Conference  for  FY  1989  featured  reports  of  solid  achievements, 
insightflil  initiatives  and  a  few  disappointments.  The  Chaplaincy  revised  regulation,  AR  165-1, 
Chaplain  Activities  in  the  United  States  Army,  was  practically  finished  in  its  staffing  phase  and  due 
for  publication  and  distribution  to  the  field  by  30  September.  Chaplain  James  Edgren,  Director  of 
IRML,  and  Chaplain  Don  Hanchett,  fi^om  the  same  directorate,  were  requesting  any  final  "corrections. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


clarifications,  or  updated  irformation"  for  evaluation  and  clearance,  if  not  for  the  present  edition  at 
least  for  fijture  "updates.""' 

Plans  for  a  woridwide.  Total  Chaplaincy  Mobilization  Conference,  to  be  conducted  in  the  fall, 
were  underway  Preliminary  steps  included  revising  and  reviewing  mobilization  plans  at  MACOM 
and  DACH  levels  and  integrating  Senior  Reserve  Component  unit  ministry  team  members  at  every 
level  of  the  review  and  advisory  process.'*^  The  entire  FORSCOM  Chaplain's  staff,  working  with  Mr. 
Roger  Able  from  DACH,  participated  in  one  way  or  other  in  preparing  for  this  conference. 

Chapel  construction  plans,  drawn  according  to  the  new  standardized  plans,  were  continuing 
apace,  although  there  were  some  reports  that  Congress  might  cut  construction  dollars  in  the  near 
fixture.  Training  of  unit  ministry  teams  to  minister  during  the  "drawdown"  was  being  implemented 
at  the  Chaplain  School  and  in  the  field  in  Phase  III  training  With  the  announcement  that  Chaplain 
Matthew  A.  Zimmerman  had  been  selected  to  be  the  new  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains,  thereby  vacating 
his  position  as  the  US  Forces  Command  Chaplain  in  August,  Chaplain  Einertson  nominated  Chaplain 
Charles  T  Clanton  to  succeed  Chaplain  Zimmerman  at  FORSCOM  and  Chaplain  Bernard  Windmiller 
to  succeed  Chaplain  Clanton  as  the  Commandant  of  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School.'** 

Directors  of  Religious  Education 

One  of  the  most  interesting  studies  to  be  initiated  in  the  summer  of  1989,  and  discussed  in 
broad  outline  at  the  Command  Chaplain's  Conference,  was  an  analysis  of  Director  of  Religious 
Education  (DRE)  positions  in  the  Army  Mr  Edward  J.  Horan,  a  Roman  Catholic  DRE  working 
at  the  Chaplain  Services  Support  Agency,  wrote  a  comprehensive  report  concerning  the  DRE  career 
life-cycle,  the  distribution  of  DRE  positions,  and  some  of  the  problems  which  needed  to  be  addressed 
for  the  fiiture  in  the  general  area  of  religious  education  leadership  in  the  Chaplaincy. 

Mr.  Horan  noted  that  the  75  DREs  on  duty  in  1989,  all  of  whom  had  graduate  degrees  and 
experience  in  religious  education,  were  holding  General  Schedule  (GS)  civilian  positions  ranked  from 
GS  9  to  GS  11.  Their  scope  of  responsibility  included  recruiting,  training,  and  supervision  the  large 
volunteer  work  force  that  staffed  the  Chaplaincy's  world-wide  religious  education  program.'*'  Since 
the  first  Army  DRE  was  hired  in  1956  by  the  USAREUR  Chaplain  in  Germany,  the  profession  had 
grown  to  become  an  integral  and  essential  part  of  the  Chaplaincy's  leadership  in  providing 
comprehensive  religious  support  to  soldiers  and  their  family  members 

There  were,  of  course,  some  problems  of  standardization  which  needed  to  be  addressed  in  the 
fijture.  In  spite  of  the  fact  that  in  1989  the  Army  was  the  only  branch  of  service  to  recognize  and 
make  extensive  use  of  DREs  on  chaplaincy  staffs,  there  was  a  lack  of  guidance  to  civilian  personnel 
offices  concerning  DRE  unique  classification  and  grading.'**  There  was  no  standard  definition  of 
"religious  education,"  differing  job  descriptions  and  job  titles  for  DRE's  from  post  to  post,  and  some 
historical  aberrations,  or  "hiccups,"  in  the  distribution  of  DREs  on  installations.'*'  The  mobilization 
sustainment  role  of  DREs  on  installations  during  deployments  also  was  unclear 

Upon  publication  of  Mr.  Horan's  report,  the  issues  he  raised  were  reviewed  by  both  the 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains  and  the  Deputy  Director  of  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency. 
Chaplain  Zimmerman  tasked  Chaplain  Keizer  to  direct  the  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School  to 
add  a  separate  block  of  instruction  on  religious  education  to  the  Basic  and  Advanced  Courses  and 
a  block  of  instruction  on  the  supervision  of  DREs  to  the  curriculum  for  the  Installation  Chaplain 
Course.""  AR  165-1,  Chaplain  Activities  in  the  United  States  Army,  contained  a  section  on  DREs 
which  was  reviewed  for  content  and  completeness.  While  Mr.  Horan  did  not  indicate  a  wide 
dissatisfaction  among  DREs  with  their  positions  or  ministries,  he  did  feel  that  "The  Chaplain  Corps 
would  be  well  served  by  the  standardization  of  DRE  job  descriptions"  and  grading  criteria.'" 

Shortages  and  Retirements 

Some  minority  chaplain  quotas  were  desired  by  Chaplain  Einertson  to  ensure  a  future 
comprehensive  ministry  to  all  ethnic  and  gender  groups  in  the  Army.  Shortages,  especially  the 
shortage  of  Roman  Catholic  Chaplains,  continued  to  plague  the  Chaplain  Corps.  Chaplain  Charles 
E  Gunti,  recruiter  for  Catholic  priests  and  seminarians  at  the  US  Army  Chaplaincy  Services  Support 
Agency,  wrote: 

Like  the  weather,  the  decline  of  Catholic  priests  in  the  U.S.  is  an  interesting  focus  of 
attention.  The  forecast  is  not  comforting.  By  the  year  2000  there  will  be  50%  fewer 
priests  in  the  United  States  and  the  number  of  theology  students  will  decline."" 

The  New  York  Times  had  reported  in  March  that  although  "Catholics  make  up  24.5  percent  of  the 
Army,"  Catholic  Chaplains  comprised  only  13  percent  of  the  Chaplain  Corps,  or  201  priests  for 
189,630  Catholic  soldiers."^  Chaplain  Gunti  confirmed  that  Roman  Catholic  chaplains  comprised 
only  13  percent  of  the  chaplains  on  active  duty,  a  shortfall,  for  the  immediate  fliture,  of  250  priests."'' 
In  America,  as  a  whole,  the  number  of  priests  in  active  ministry  declined  from  62,000  in  1965  to 
56,000  in  1989,  although  there  were  more  than  4,000  married  priests  who  might  have  served  in 
parishes  if  they  could."'  The  forecast  for  the  Chaplaincy's  fliture  indicated  a  predicted  loss,  by  age, 
administrative  requirement  or  retirement,  of  1 19  priests  by  the  year  2000."*' 

On  the  side  of  positive  initiatives  to  help  make  the  ministry  to  Catholic  soldiers  and  family 
members  more  efficient,  Chaplain  D  J  Donahue,  the  United  Nations  Command  and  8th  Army 
Chaplain  in  Korea,  had  encouraged  some  experiments  in  the  utilization  of  Catholic  laity  in  sharing 
ministry  in  the  Catholic  parishes  on  Korean  "rear  area"  installations.  Chaplain  Wayne  L.  Schmid,  the 
Division  Chaplain  for  the  2nd  Infantry  Division,  had  attempted  some  utilization  of  lay  ministers  at 
Fort  Leavenworth  before  his  assignment  to  Korea.  Working  with  Father  Finian  Meis,  Director  of  Lay 
Ministry  for  the  Archdiocese  of  Kansas  City,  Chaplain  Schmid  helped  develop  a  course  in  lay  ministry 
which  he  used  both  at  Fort  Leavenworth  and  at  the  19th  Support  Command  in  Taegu,  South 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Publication  of  FM  16-1: 

Religious  Support  Doctrine 

The  Chaplain  and  Chaplain  Assistant 

By  the  fall  of  1 989  there  was  a  great  deal  of  activity  taking  place  in  the  Directorate  of 
Training  and  Doctrine,  US.  Army  Chaplain  School,  as  the  final  draft  of  Field  Manual  16-1  was  being 
prepared  for  delivery  to  TRADOC's  Soldier  Support  Center  at  Fort  Eustis  for  publication.  After 
approval  by  Chaplain  Bernard  L.  Windmiller,  the  new  Commandant  at  the  Chaplain  Center  and 
School,  the  manual's  camera  ready  pages,  mounted  on  cardboard,  were  carefially  stacked  and  loaded 
into  boxes  for  delivery  to  Fort  Eustis.  The  completed  project  had  to  arrive  at  the  Soldier  Support 
Center  by  1600  hours  on  Friday,  30  September,  or  the  flinding  for  the  manual  would  expire  with  the 
end  of  the  FY.  At  approximately  0600  on  30  September,  two  officers  from  the  Unit  and  Individual 
Training  Division  at  USACHCS  left  Fort  Monmouth  in  two  sedans  (in  case  one  broke  down)  for  the 
seven-hour,  350-mile  drive  to  Fort  Eustis.  The  manual  was  in  the  trunk  of  the  lead  car."" 

The  mission  to  produce  a  new  field  manual  for  the  Chaplaincy  had  originated  early  in  1987 
with  a  request  from  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne,  Director  of  PPDT  at  the  Chiefs  Office,  to  the 
Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School.  Chaplain  Kuehne  had  been  collecting  references  to  the  role, 
functions,  and  duties  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  in  various  Army  regulations  and  field 
manuals  for  use  in  writing  justifications  for  force  structure  and  policy.  He  noticed  that  the  training 
circular  (which  he  helped  write  at  the  Combat  Developments  Directorate)  and  the  old  FM  16-5,  The 
Chaplain  and  Chaplain  Assistant  in  Combat  Operations,  needed  a  stronger  section  defending 
(doctrinally)  the  installation  UMT  BASOPs  positions  as  "sustaining"  positions  during  mobilization 
and  deployment.  A  newly  revised  manual  could  combine  all  of  the  "pieces"  (training  circulars, 
TRADOC  pamphlets,  and  field  manuals)  into  a  single  "battle  focused"  doctrinal  publication  that 
would  justify  not  only  unit  ministry  teams  in  maneuver  battalions,  but  also  UMTs  on  installations  and 
in  hospitals,  sustaining  the  soldiers  deployed  and  the  families  at  home  stations.  At  about  the  same 
time,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Doctrine  (DCSDOC)  at  TRADOC  directed  all  branch  service 
schools  to  consolidate  their  branch  doctrinal  literature.  In  effect,  both  DACH-PPDT  and  DCSDOC 
wanted  the  same  task  accomplished. 

The  mission  to  consolidate,  revise,  edit,  and  publish  the  new  doctrinal  manual  went  first 
through  Chaplain  Wayne  Lehrer,  the  Assistant  Director  of  Military  Ministries,  to  Chaplain  Theodore 
Sirotko  and  other  chaplains  and  staff  in  DMM  including  Chaplain  David  H.  Tessman,  Chaplain  Peter 
K,  Christy,  Chaplain  Dwight  C.  Jennings,  Sergeant  First  Class  Peter  O.  Dissmore,  and  Mrs  Mary 
Anna  Lewis  for  execution.  The  first  draft  of  the  new  manual  was  submitted  for  staffing  late  in  1987. 

In  1988  the  project  was  transferred  to  the  Directorate  for  Training  and  Doctrine  (DTD)  for 
additional  work  Chaplain  Tom  A  Carroll,  Director  of  DTD,  assigned  the  mission  to  the  Unit  and 
Individual  Training  Division  in  August  For  more  than  a  year  the  UITD  personnel  collected,  edited, 
and  circulated  drafts  of  Field  Manual  16-1 .  At  least  35  individual  chaplains,  chaplain  assistants  and 
line  officers  wrote  chapters  and  parts  of  chapters.'*^  Major  Michael  Hobson,  Chief  of  the  Publications 
Branch,  worked  with  each  author  to  standardize  the  submission  according  to  TRADOC  guidelines. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Major  Don  Kiszka  from  UITD  reviewed  content  for  combat  arms  consistency.  No  less  than  700 
editorial  and  content  changes  were  made  to  the  first  coordinating  draft  by  Major  Hobson  and  his  staif, 
Mrs  Doris  Ryan,  Mrs.  Judy  Lyons,  Mrs.  Karen  Dooney,  Master  Sergeant  Richard  Geiger,  Staff 
Sergeant  Gary  Ouellette,  and  Mr.  Jack  Stem.^"" 

The  major  parts  of  each  of  six  chapters  were  assigned  to  senior  subject  matter  experts. 
Chaplain  William  Eberle,  Assistant  Director  of  DMM  in  1989,  revised  Chapter  One,  Chaplain  James 
Robnolt,  Director  of  Combat  Developments,  and  Chaplain  Lou  Scales  from  DCD  wrote  Chapter 
Five,  Chaplain  Peter  Christy  from  DMM  wrote  most  of  Chapter  Six,  Master  Sergeants  Richard 
Geiger,  Lou  Guiliano,  and  Thomas  Prost  wrote  Chapter  Four  on  the  duties  of  chaplain  assistants, 
and  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield,  Chief  of  UITD,  coordinated  the  input  for  the  rest  from  two  dozen 
chaplains  including  Chaplain  Charles  T.  Clanton,  the  Commandant  from  1986  -  1989,  Chaplain  Basil 
Ballard,  the  Director  of  DTD,  Chaplain  Douglas  Pond,  Chief  of  Military  Skills,  DTD,  and  later 
Executive  Officer  for  the  Commandant,  and  from  both  Chaplain  Wayne  Kuehne  and  Chaplain  Gil 
Pingel  (DACH-PPDT),  who  spent  a  week  each  at  the  Chaplain  School  reviewing  every  page  of  the 
manuscript  for  doctrinal  content. 

As  a  final  review  before  submission  to  Chaplain  Windmiller  and  then  to  Chaplain  Einertson 
for  approval.  Chaplain  Ballard  convened  a  committee  to  resolve  any  differences  between  subject 
matter  experts.  Chaplains  Robnolt,  Pond,  Brinsfield,  Christy,  Sergeant  Geiger,  Major  Hobson,  and 
others  who  had  written  or  coordinated  sections  were  invited  to  attend.  Just  before  he  left  to  become 
the  FORSCOM  Chaplain,  Chaplain  Charles  T.  Clanton  approved  the  content,  including  a  new  list  of 
duties  for  chaplain  assistants,  for  Chaplain  Windmiller's  consideration 

The  new  FM  16-1,  reviewed  prior  to  publication  possibly  by  more  chaplains,  chaplain 
assistants,  TRADOC  and  other  MACOM  and  integrating  center  personnel  than  any  other  Chaplain 
Corps  document  in  recent  history,  was  sent  to  Chaplain  Einertson  and  approved  for  publication  in  late 
July  In  August,  Chaplain  Ballard  and  Mrs  Marylou  Corcoran,  Assistant  Director  of  DTD,  fianded 
the  rapid  production  of  the  camera-ready  mechanicals  by  commercial  contract.  At  1300  hours  on  30 
September,  Major  Hobson  and  Chaplain  Brinsfield  delivered  the  manual  "on  time"  (with  three  hours 
to  spare)  to  Fort  Eustis,  Virginia. 

From  Russia  with  Love 

One  of  the  discussions  that  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  conducted  throughout  1989  was 
whether  the  Cold  War  was  over;  and  if  so,  would  there  still  be  PCS  moves  to  Germany?  When  had 
the  first  signs  that  the  Soviets  were  truly  in  trouble  been  evident?  Those  who  did  some  reflecting  may 
have  recalled  many  treaties,  confrontations,  and  other  clues  which  stretched  over  the  entire  quarter 
century  from  the  1963  Cuban  Missile  Crisis  to  the  opening  of  the  Berlin  Wall  in  November  1989.  It 
seemed  almost  irrefutable,  however,  that  the  crumbling  of  the  vast  Soviet  economy  and  all  of  the 
tangible  walls,  fences,  and  barriers  began  with  the  decisions  of  the  Russians  themselves  to  ignore 
resource  conservation  and  their  own  sound  economic  plans  in  favor  of  gargantuan  military 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Professor,  historian,  and  statesman  Eugene  V.  Rostow  believed  that  "the  revolutionary  cycle" 
which  transformed  the  Communist  World  began  in  China  during  the  early  1980s  when  Deng  Xiaoping 
"announced"  a  far-reaching  program  for  shifting  China  to  a  market-oriented  economy,  and  began  to 
allow  its  people  more  freedom  of  speech,  of  assembly,  and  of  travel  than  befbre."-"'  Chinese  students 
and  professors,  in  increasing  numbers,  began  to  study  at  foreign  universities.  Air  travel  to  China  for 
European,  Japanese,  and  Ainerican  business  executives,  not  to  mention  ordinary  tourists,  became 
common  place.  Deng's  agricultural  reforms  began  to  show  positive  results.-"-  Soon  other  Communist 
countries,  including  Vietnam,  were  seeking  the  golden  fleece  of  Western  investment. 

When  Russian  Premier  Mikhail  Gorbachev  came  to  power  in  1985,  he  conveyed  the  sense 
that  he  was  leading  a  revolutionary  movement  intended  to  transform  the  Soviet  Union  as  well  into 
a  free  and  humane  society,  faithful  to  the  rule  of  law.-"'  After  President  Reagan's  first  trip  to  Moscow, 
news  correspondent  John  Chancellor  exclaimed,  "The  Cold  War  is  over  and  we  have  won.  All  that 
remains  is  to  declare  victory,  bring  home  the  troops,  and  have  a  parade."-*^ 

Yet  behind  the  scenes  in  Russia,  where  most  things  in  1985  -  1988  were  behind  the  scenes, 
there  was  evidence  that  Gorbachev  and  his  colleagues  were  maintaining  if  not  accelerating  Soviet 
defense  expenditures.  Russian  plans  called  for  a  public  pohcy  of  "giving  up  expansion  and  cutting 
both  arsenals  and  mihtary  expenditures."-"'  In  fact,  according  to  plans  approved  until  the  very  end 
of  Gorbachev's  rule,  the  gap  between  Soviet  miUtary  power  and  that  of  the  West  would  have  continued 
to  increase.-*  From  1973  to  1988  the  United  States  had  fallen  behind  the  Soviet  Union  in  terms  of 
nearly  every  index  of  mihtary  power;  and  until  1988  that  gap  widened.-"' In  she  final  days  of 
Gorbachev's  authority,  Soviet  military  spending  was  projected  to  rise  from  18  to  21  percent  of  the 
G.N.P.  to  25  percent  while  the  miUtary  share  of  the  American  national  income  fell  from  6  to  about 
4  per  cent.  ™  Even  that  estimate  may  have  been  conservative,  for  in  March  of  1992  the  Institute  of 
World  Economy  and  International  Relations  of  the  Russian  Academy  of  Sciences  suggested  that 
defense  industries  in  1989-1990  constituted  60  to  80  percent  of  the  Russian  G.N.P. — an  astonishing 
revelation  for  Western  Strategists.-"'' 

With  this  excessive  emphasis  on  military  spending  and  preparedness  in  the  Soviet  Union  came 
historic  quotas  on  production  by  farmers  and  workers  throughout  the  U.S.S.R.,  quotiis  which  had  increased 
steadily  since  the  days  of  Stalin  to  shore  up  the  vast  military  capstone  of  the  state.  Personal  loyalty, 
careers,  and  well-being  of  party  members  were  measured  by  the  percentage  of  quotas  met.  Agricultural 
production  quotas  depleted  the  land,  oil  wells  were  over-pumped  until  salt  water  fouled  the  oil,  and 
rivers  were  hopelessly  polluted  in  the-quest  of  meeting  industrial  out  put  goals. 

In  the  satellite  countries,  Poland  in  particular,  the  plight  of  workers  was  ignored  as  they 
were  urged  to  produce  more  with  less.  Machinery  was  obsolete  and  broken,  wages  poor,  and  housing 
for  laborers  barely  survivable.  The  alcohohsm  rate  from  vodka  consumption,  one  of  the  few  cheap 
commodities  in  Cenral  Europe,  went  up  and  created  the  ultimate  communist  conundrum:  "why 
does  production  go  down  when  the  workers'  quotas  go  up?"  The  answers  in  Poland  fell  on  deaf  ears 
until,  surviving  threats  and  the  temporary  imprisonment  of  the  workers'  leaders,  the  Solidarity  labor 
movement  emerged  to  serve  as  the  voice  of  the  people  and  the  base  for  political  and  economic 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


If  Poland  was  somewhat  successful  in  embarrassing  the  Soviet  Communist  leadership,  whose 
60-year  dominance  was  based  on  its  claim  to  be  "the  party  of  the  workers,"  other  Central  European 
Countries  quickly  emulated  the  Poles'  success.  "Decay  of  the  Communist  World  started  with  the 
liberation  of  satellite  countries  of  the  Soviet  bloc,"  wrote  Professor  Antoni  Z.  Kaminski,  Director  of 
the  Department  of  Strategic  Studies,  Polish  Ministry  of  National  Defense,  "and  then  went  through 
the  disintegration  of  the  USSR."'"'  If  disintegration  "always  chaperons  the  end  of  a  social  order," 
reintegration  "must  accompany  the  appearance  of  a  new  order."-"  The  creation  of  "new  orders"  in 
the  satellite  countries,  unfortunately,  involved  the  reawakening  of  old  ethnic  conflicts  and  the 
obliteration  of  artificial  boundaries  which  had  been  imposed  at  the  end  of  one  or  both  of  the  twentieth 
century  World  Wars 

As  the  fever  of  liberation  spread  to  East  Germany,  the  Soviet  strategists  devised  an  interesting 
rationalization  for  supporting  German  reunification.  If  they  could  insist  that  German  reunification 
proceed  only  with  the  proviso  that  Germany  withdraw  from  NATO  and  establish  itself  as  a  neutral 
country,  the  goals  of  Soviet  policy  since  1945  would  be  realized.  As  Professor  Rostow  observed: 

The  neutralization  of  Germany,  now  a  country  of  85  million  people,  would  destroy 
NATO,  force  the  United  States  to  withdraw  fi-om  Europe,  and  leave  former  NATO 
allies,  to  say  nothing  of  China  and  Japan,  incapable  of  self-defense.  Under  such 
circumstances  the  American  nuclear  guaranty  would  lose  all  credibility.^'^ 

In  essence  Russia  would  rule,  rule  the  area,  with  its  nuclear  and  conventional  forces,  fi"om 
Dublin  to  Vladivostok,  and  succeed  where  Napoleon,  Hitler  and  Stalin  had  all  failed  ''^ 

Yet  this  Russian  fantasy,  a  denuclearized  and  neutral  Central  Europe,  itself  failed  because 
again  the  Communists  had  lost  touch  with  their  own  people,  in  a  sense  a  loss  of  touch  with  reality. 
When  a  new  Hungarian  government  tore  down  the  barbed  wire  fence  between  Hungary  and  Austria 
in  1989,  intending  "only  a  fiiendly  gesture  in  the  spirit  of  the  Hapsburg  past,"  tens  of  thousand  of  East 
Germans  began  to  "take  vacations"  in  Hungary,  then  Austria.''^  Soon  they  overwhelmed  the  German 
Embassy  with  requests  to  enter  West  Germany.  "The  movement  became  a  flood,"  wrote  Professor 
Rostow.  "Gorbachev  had  no  chance  to  stop  it  without  a  large-scale  use  of  force,  so  the  miraculous 
unification  of  Germany  within  NATO  took  place,  an  event  no  student  of  European  politics  would 
have  predicted  as  even  a  remote  possibility  without  war."-'' 

For  even  the  hard  of  hearing,  the  "tectonic  plates"  of  the  old  Soviet  bloc,  had  groaned  and 
shifted.-"'  A  new  order  was  at  hand.  Ironically,  in  response  to  pressure  from  the  East  rather  than 
threats  from  the  West.  The  doors  to  fi-eedom  in  the  Berlin  Wall  opened  near  the  Brandenburg  Gate 
on  the  night  of  November  9,  1989.  Not  long  after,  the  search  began  for  East  German  leaders  charged 
with  crimes  against  their  own  people.  In  answer  to  the  questions  of  American  soldiers,  to  include 
chaplains  and  chaplains  assistants,  there  might  not  be  as  many  soldiers  rotating  to  Germany  as  in  the 
past;  but  it  was  certain  that  there  would  be  some. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Operation  Just  Cause' 

While  many  Americans  watched  their  televisions  in  amazement  as  East  Germans  poured  into 
the  West,  other  areas  of  the  world  began  to  demand  a  share  of  attention  as  well  In  Panama  Major 
General  Marc  Cisneros,  commander  of  U.S.  Army  combat  forces,  conferred  with  General  Maxwell 
R.  Thurman,  the  SOUTHCOM  Commander,  over  operation  plans  which  he  and  his  troops  had 
rehearsed  in  August..  There  had  been  some  dangerous  confrontations  between  the  5th  Panama 
Defense  Force  Rifle  Company  and  the  U.S.  508th  Parachute  Infantry  Regiment  during  military 
movements  in  the  "neutral  zone"  at  Fort  Amador."'^  General  Thurman,  everyone  knew,  did  not 
maneuver  his  troops  without  a  reason. 

At  Boiling  Air  Force  Base  near  Washington,  DC,  Chaplain  Norris  Einertson,  Army  Chief 
of  Chaplains,  was  having  Sunday  dinner."'*  Earlier  that  morning.  President  George  Bush  had 
attended  worship  services  at  Fort  Myer  Chapel.  It  was  said  by  some  people  that  when  the  President 
worshiped  at  Fort  Myer,  there  was  likely  to  be  a  job  for  the  military  soon.  Chaplain  Einertson  noticed 
that  the  dinner  host,  Lt.  Gen.  Thomas  Kelly,  JCS  Director  of  Operations,  was  conspicuously  absent. 
Although  it  might  not  signal  anything,  the  absent  friend  was  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for 

The  next  morning  at  the  Pentagon  there  was  a  briefing  on  the  situation  in  Panama.  Units  from 
Fort  Stewart,  Georgia,  to  Fort  Lewis,  Washington,  were  placed  on  alert.  Seventy-two  hours  later 
Operation  Just  Cause  began. 

Ministry  of  Vision  and  Challenge:   1990 

Alexander  Solzhenitsyn,  the  Russian  author  and  Nobel  laureate,  wrote  that  no  matter  what 
restraints  may  be  placed  on  the  human  spirit,  "God  has  laid  on  man  the  duty  to  be  free.""""  In 
numerous  places  and  for  a  variety  of  reasons,  including  the  worldwide  availability  of  instant 
communications,  the  urge  to  challenge  old  boundaries  and  to  assert  ethnic  and  nationalistic  aspirations 
seized  many  societies  from  the  Baltic  to  the  Caribbean  Sea.  Above  all,  the  perception  of  Soviet 
weakness  and  lack  of  resolution  fed  the  separatist  opportunism  of  the  time.  In  America  President 
George  Bush's  advisors  began  to  speak  not  of  a  "balance  of  power,"  but  of  a  "new  world  order  " 

At  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  in  the  Pentagon,  Chaplain  Einertson  challenged  the 
Chaplaincy  in  his  March  1990  newsletter  to  consider  the  events  of  the  previous  year; 

Without  the  luxury  of  historical  distance,  world  happenings  are  passionately  lived  and 
experienced,  not  impassionatley  reflected  upon.  We  are  caught  up  in  the  swirl  of 
world-changing  events.  The  Berlin  Wall  came  down.  Perestroika  and  Glasnost  raced 

'See  Part  Two  for  more  information  on  the  role  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  during 
Operation  Just  Cause  in  Panama. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


through  the  Soviet  Empire  dismanthng  Eastern  bloc  governments  faster  than  anyone 
could  have  predicted.  Jews  desiring  to  leave  the  Soviet  Union  have  increasingly  been 
able  to  do  so.  The  Armenian- Azerbaijani  dispute  signaled  serious  ethnic  problems 
facing  the  Soviet  leadership.  The  threat  to  the  free  world  changed.  America  sent 
troops  to  Panama.  Nelson  Mandela  was  freed  after  27  years  in  prison;  apartheid  is 
unraveling.  The  Sandinistas  were  voted  out  at  the  ballot  box.  The  Congress  and  the 
Administration  examined  base  closings,  reassessed  procurement  priorities  and  troop 
reductions.  The  Peace  Dividend  became  the  target  to  identify  and  redistribute. 
Macro-forces  and  events  demanded  our  attention  and  got  it.  What  is  God  up  to?^^' 

Chaplain  Einertson's  question  was  both  a  challenge  for  thought  as  well  as  a  statement  of  faith.  The 
events  of  1989-1990  seemed  to  verify  John  Chancellor's  comment  made  five  years  earlier,  "The  Cold 
War  is  over  and  we  have  won  " '"  For  many  people  the  hand  of  God  was  evident  in  history,  but  the 
future  "new  world  order"  remained  to  be  defined.  Chaplain  Einertson  counseled  the  Chaplaincy  to 
be  patient  in  a  remark  both  insightful  and  humorous: 

Allowing  God  to  work  his  wonder  in  a  life  is  testimony  to  our  faith  .  God's  education 
processes  when  viewed  in  our  terms  are  slow.  God's  time  cannot  be  hurried.  God 
educated  Israel  by  wilderness  wanderings,  captivities  and  occupations.  Forty  years 
in  the  wilderness  is  a  long  time  to  teach  one  lesson.  '" 

Yet  even  in  patient  waiting,  the  Chaplain  Corps  needed  to  make  plans  and  preparations  for  the  fiiture. 
The  lessons  learned  by  UMTs  during  Operation  Urgent  Fury  in  Grenada  and  Operation  Just  Cause 
in  Panama  revealed  that  one  never  knows  when  "the  balloon  may  go  up."  The  questions  which 
followed  the  Chiefs  Newsletter  in  March  of  1990  were  "what's  next'^"  and  "when?" 

The  UMT  Vision  Conference 

If  there  is  one  thing  that  Chaplains  seemed  to  enjoy,  it  was  talking  with  one  another  about 
their  experiences  in  ministry.  In  order  to  capitalize  on  this  willingness  to  share  and  in  order  to  take 
advantage  of  the  thinking  of  some  of  the  most  perceptive  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  in  the 
Corps,  Chaplain  Einertson  and  Chaplain  Zimmerman  directed  Chaplain  Herman  Keizer,  Deputy 
Director  of  the  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency,  to  support,  organize,  and  coordinate  a  Unit 
Ministry  Team  Vision  Conference  in  the  spring  of  1990.  This  was  not  a  solo  initiative,  for  the  Air 
Force  Chaplain  Service  had  prepared  an  issue  paper  on  "Chaplain  Ministry  in  the  1990s"  for  their 
Command  Chaplains  Conference  at  Homestead  Air  Force  Base  in  April.  The  opening  paragraph  in 
the  Air  Force  publication  was  a  story  about  the  British  philosopher,  John  Stuart  Mill,  which  seemed 
to  summarize  the  challenge  of  efforts  to  think  analytically  about  the  future: 

John  Stuart  Mill  is  reported  to  have  awakened  one  morning  with  an  overwhelming 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


feeling  that  he  had  come  upon  the  answer  to  "the  question  of  the  ages." 
Unfortunately,  he  forgot  what  it  was.  So  he  placed  a  paper  and  quill  beside  his  bed. 
A  few  mornings  later  he  awoke  with  a  similar  feeling.  This  time,  however,  he  found 
on  the  paper  in  his  own  handwriting,  "think  in  different  terms.  "^''' 

There  was  no  questions  that  the  ministry  in  the  1990s  would  require  new  thinking  about  past 
experiences  and  new  opportunities.  The  mission  of  the  UMT  Vision  Conference,  which  met  at  the 
Appleton  Inn  in  Tinton  Falls,  New  Jersey,  the  first  week  in  May  1990,  was  to  put  some  detail  to  these 

In  preparing  for  the  Vision  Conference,  Chaplain  Keizer  and  his  staff  at  USACSSA,  located 
then  on  K  Street  in  Washington,  DC,  gathered  issues  from  UMT's  worldwide  and  then  prepared 
packets  of  informative  articles  from  a  wide  variety  of  civilian  and  military  publications.'"'  In  response 
to  requests  from  Chaplain  Gary  Perkins  and  Chaplain  Maria  Snyder,  who  were  serving  on  Chaplain 
Keizer's  staff  at  the  Agency,  MACOM  chaplains  forwarded  input  addressing  the  vertical,  horizontal, 
and  transitional  dimensions  for  thinking  about  the  future  of  the  Chaplaincy  As  Chaplain  Keizer 
defined  the  terms,  the  vertical  focus  related  to  present  projects,  programs,  and  activities.  The 
horizontal  focus  included  normal  functions,  and  roles  and  missions  that  were  "always  part  of  our 
business."  The  transitional  focus  related  to  "things  moving,  changing,  shifting,  or  needing  to  be 
established."  ''* 

The  response  to  Chaplain  Keizer's  request  for  ideas  from  the  MACOM  staff  chaplains  was 
impressive  though  mixed  Chaplain  G  T  Gunhus,  the  USAREUR  Chaplain,  forwarded  a  packet  in 
April  containing  23  pages  of  reflections  from  10  senior  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants.^^'  From 
Fort  Ord  the  senior  chaplain  assistants  replied  with  one  page  which,  though  brief,  was  packed  with 
thoughtftil  suggestions  for  the  71M  MOS."* 

To  supplement  these  UMT  responses.  Chaplains  Perkins  and  Snyder  gathered  articles  from 
the  Air  Force  Chaplain  Service,  the  US  Navy  Chaplaincy,  the  World  Future  Society,  the  Bama 
Research  Group,  the  Center  for  Christian  Leadership  at  Dallas  Theological  Seminary,  the  Office  of 
the  Secretary  of  the  Army,  and  from  many  other  sources.  All  suggested  trends  and  ideas  for  the 
fiiture,  not  only  in  military  and  religious  organizations  but  in  civic,  educational  and  business 
institutions  as  well."'^  Each  participant  at  the  conference  received  a  packet  which  was  the  size  of  a 
small  telephone  directory!  The  ideas  included  in  the  packet,  however,  were  excellent  stimuli  for 

The  participants  at  the  Vision  Conference  were  the  senior  leaders  of  the  Corps:  Chaplain 
Norris  Einertson,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains;  Chaplain  Matthew  Zimmerman,  the  Deputy  Chief,  Chaplain 
Don  Shea,  the  DACH  Executive  Officer,  Chaplain  Herm  Keizer  and  his  staff  from  the  Agency; 
Chaplain  Bernard  Windmiller,  the  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  and  Chaplain 
Douglas  Smith,  the  Deputy  Commandant;  Chaplain  Billy  Libby  from  the  National  Defense  University; 
Chaplains  Wayne  Kuehne,  John  Scott,  and  James  Edgren,  Directors  of  PPDT,  PER,  and  IRML 
respectively  from  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains;  Chaplain  George  Schwantes  from  the  National 
Guard  Bureau,  Chaplain  George  Fields,  Assistant  Chief  of  Chaplains  (USAR),  Chaplain  James  M. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Hutchens,  Assistant  Chief  of  Chaplains  (ARNGUS),  SM  OHver  "Irish"  Corbett,  Senior  Staff  NCO 
at  DACH;  and  CSM  Aaron  Gibson,  Regimental  Command  Sergeant  Major — to  mention  but  a  few.^^" 

On  30  April  the  Conference  met  for  devotions  and  a  three-hour  discussion  led  by  Chaplain 
Libby  on  "constructing"  the  recent  history  of  the  Chaplaincy  since  1960.  Some  65  major  events  in 
the  history  of  the  Cold  War,  the  United  States  Army,  and  the  Army  Chaplaincy  were  placed  on  a 
timeline.  At  the  bottom  of  the  timeline  the  years  and  the  figures  for  active  duty  chaplain  personnel 
strength  were  listed:  1960  (1,000  chaplains);  1962  (1,100),  1968  (1,900),  1977  (1,475),  1982 
(1,450);  1990  (1,575)."'  Chaplain  Libby  observed  that  a  cyclical  history  of  the  Chaplain  Corps 
would  present  a  view  of  ministry  in  terms  of  organizational  (and  program)  life  cycles,  charting 
personnel  strength,  appropriations,  and  programs  on  a  single  graph.  In  general,  the  personnel 
strength  of  the  chaplaincy  of  recent  history  rose  during  Vietnam  and  then  leveled  off  between  1,450 
and  1,550  for  approximately  15  years  (which  paralleled  the  cap  on  the  active  Army  end  strength  of 
about  750,000  during  the  same  time  fi'ame.)  It  would  normally  be  expected  to  drop  after  1990  with 
the  downsizing  of  the  Army 

The  one  function  which  was  not  graphed  was  an  estimate  of  the  level  of  brilliant  or  inspired 
leadership  in  the  Chaplaincy  over  the  course  of  15  years,  although  most  participants  thought  the  trend 
was  "upward"  in  the  last  decade."'^  Leadership  may  be  independent  of  any  life  cycle  measurement. 
"Hopefully  it  is  trained  at  every  echelon  of  the  chaplaincy  to  emerge  whenever  it  is  needed,"  Chaplain 
Libby  observed."^ 

The  subsequent  topics  discussed  at  the  Conference  were  equally  lengthy  and  fascinating  with 
enough  material  to  fill  a  small  book.  Briefings  were  given  by  Chaplains  Einertson,  Zimmerman,  Shea, 
Kuehne,  Scott,  Edgren,  and  representatives  from  the  Reserve  Components,  USACHCS,  USACSSA, 
and  Command  Sergeant  Major's  group  on  enlisted  issues.  On  the  last  two  days  the  Conference 
discussed  "Building  a  Corporate  Vision,"  "Strategic  Issues  in  Priority,"  and  "Making  Commitmants: 
Integration  of  Plans.  "^  The  final  product  from  the  Conference  was  not  a  list  of  prioritized  program 
initiatives,  although  those  had  been  discussed.  The  final  product  was  a  commitment  to  the 
fiindamental  principles  of  "continuing  to  provide  quality  ministry  and  spiritual  leadership  to  meet  the 
challenging  demand  of  the  future"  and  plans  to  produce  a  brochure,  comprised  of  the  accumulated 
vision  statements,  as  a  corporate  vision  of  the  Chaplaincy  for  use  by  the  new  Chief  of  Chaplains."^ 
The  measure  of  success  for  the  Conference,  however,  was  not  quantified  in  a  final  product  as  much 
as  in  the  analysis  process  and  in  the  enthusiastic  response  of  the  participants."* 

The  Medical  Ethics  Conference 

Ten  days  after  the  UMT  Vision  Conference  adjourned,  another  exceptional  conference 
convened  in  San  Antonio,  Texas,  for  chaplains,  physicians,  nurses  and  health  care  providers.  The  title 
and  theme  for  this  assembly  of  health  professionals  was  "Medical  Ethics  and  the  Health  Care  Provider 
Team  on  the  Battlefield."  Sponsored  by  Chaplain  Robert  Campbell,  Heahh  Services  Command 
Chaplain,  and  coordinated  by  Chaplain  Gerald  Conner  and  Chaplain  David  DeDonato,  the  Conference 
hosted  more  than  300  participants  including  Chaplain  Norris  Einertson,  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  who 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


gave  the  opening  address  on  "Medical  Ethics  and  the  Soldier." 

Chaplain  DeDonato,  the  Conference  project  officer  who  did  the  largest  share  of  preparatory 
work  for  the  gathering,  had  done  pioneering  work  as  the  Chaplain  Instructor  at  the  Academy  of 
Health  Services  in  teaching  medical  and  clinical  ethics  to  both  officer  and  enlisted  personnel. 
Chaplain  DeDonato  also  served  as  the  medical  ethics  advisor  to  the  Brooke  Army  Medical  Center 
Bioethics  Committee,  the  Health  Services  Command  Staff  Chaplain,  and  the  U.S.  Army  Chaplaincy 
Services  Support  Agency.'" 

The  list  of  exceptionally  well  qualified  speakers  authors  and  seminar  leaders  included  Major 
General  William  L  Moore,  Jr  ,  Commander,  Brooke  Army  Medical  Center,  Colonel  James  G  Van 
Straten,  USA  Retired,  Dean  of  Allied  Sciences,  University  of  Texas  Health  Science  Center,  Chaplain 
John  Brinsfield,  U  S.  Army  Chaplain  School;  Chaplain  Albert  Isler,  U  S  Army  Chaplain  School; 
Major  Michael  E.  Frisina,  Philosophy  Department,  U.  S.  Military  Academy,  Lt  Col.  Catherine  Call, 
Army  Nurse  Corps;  Chaplain  Kenneth  M  Ruppar,  Academy  of  Health  Sciences;  Dr.  Robert  Mosebar, 
Academy  of  Heahh  Sciences;  Chaplain  Thomas  J.  Naughton,  Deputy  Post  Chaplain  at  Carlisle 
Barracks;  Father  Douglas  F  Bailey,  Campus  Minister  at  Florida  Institute  of  Technology,  and 
Chaplain  Melvin  G.  Brinkley,  U.  S.  Air  Force,  to  mention  but  a  few. 

The  issues  discussed  for  five  days  at  the  Medical  Ethics  Conference  ranged  from  the  Practice 
of  Battlefield  Health  Care  to  Euthanasia  and  the  Right  to  Die.  Chaplain  Libby  and  Dr.  Van  Straten, 
who  gave  exceptionally  informative  and  moving  accounts  of  their  ministries,  were  equally  engaging 
with  regard  to  their  own  fields  of  expertise. 

Fortunately,  as  a  service  for  the  Army  Chaplaincy  as  well  as  for  many  other  organizations, 
institutions,  and  libraries.  Chaplain  DeDonato  had  collected  the  Conference  papers  and  had 
videotaped  the  presentations.  In  the  spring  of  1991  Chaplain  Granville  E.  "Gene"  Tyson,  Editor  of 
the  Military  Chaplain  Review',  and  Chaplain  David  DeDonato,  who  edited  the  Conference  papers, 
combined  their  skills  to  produce  a  special  issue  of  the  Military  Chaplains  Review  dedicated  to  the 
theme  of  Medical  Ethics.  ^^* 

The  Training  Strategy 

A  project  as  complex  and  as  lasting  as  the  Medical  Ethics  Conference,  but  done  at  a  less 
hectic  pace,  was  the  production  of  the  chief  of  Chaplains  Training  Strategy  in  1990.  Tasked  by 
Chaplain  Bernard  Windmiller,  the  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  to  research  and 
write  a  detailed  plan  for  "bringing  a  system  and  some  organization  to  the  training  of  all  chaplains  and 
chaplain  assistants  in  the  corps,"  Chaplain  Donald  Crippen  of  the  Directorate  of  Training  and 
Doctrine  knew  he  had  a  full-time,  year-long  job."'''  Since  the  new  AR  1 65- 1 ,  Chaplain  Activities  in 
the  United  States  Army,  stressed  the  supervision  and  implementation  of  training  at  every  echelon  in 
the  Chaplaincy,  Chaplain  Crippen's  mission  was  of  interest  not  only  to  the  Commandant  but  also  to 
Chaplain  Kuehne  in  PPDT  and  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  as  well. 

With  support  from  Chaplain  Windmiller,  Chaplain  Basil  Ballard,  Director  of  Training  and 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Doctrine;  and  Chaplain  Stan  Esteriine  from  PPDT  at  the  Chiefs  Office,  Chaplain  Crippen  conducted 
more  than  25  interviews  and  collected  an  impressive  collection  of  documents  in  his  office  in  the  Unit 
and  Individual  Training  Division  of  DTD.  Chaplain  Crippen's  post-graduate  work  in  Educational 
Psychology  at  Vanderbilt  and  his  experience  with  airborne  soldiers,  at  Fort  Bragg  during  a  previous 
assignment,  combined  to  make  him  a  "natural"  for  this  task. 

As  the  project  developed.  Chaplain  Crippen  enlisted  the  help  of  other  chaplains  and  chaplain 
assistants  to  write  short  sections  on  their  areas  of  responsibility  if  they  impacted  on  training.  Chaplain 
Janet  Horton  from  the  Directorate  of  Personnel  and  Ecclesiastical  Relations  at  DACH,  for  example, 
wrote  a  brief  paper  on  personnel  regulations,  selection  boards  and  training  opportunities  for  chaplains. 
Chaplain  Stan  Esteriine  spent  several  days  at  the  Chaplain  School  helping  Chaplain  Crippen 
incorporate  items  of  special  interest  to  Chaplain  Kuehne  and  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

When  the  Training  Strategy  was  completed  and  had  been  staflFed  as  thoroughly  as  possible, 
it  was  approved  by  both  the  Commandant  and  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  as  a  signal  contribution  to 
training  management  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Eventually  the  Chiefs  Training  Strategy  became  the 
guide  and  checklist  for  training  at  MACOMs  and  on  installations  throughout  the  Chaplaincy.''"' 

Downsizing  Challenges 

In  spite  of  the  burst  of  creative  energy  evident  in  much  of  the  Chaplaincy's  leadership  in  the 
spring  of  1990,  there  also  were  some  warning  shots  of  base  closures  and  personnel  reductions  which 
must  inevitably  occur  as  part  of  the  end  of  the  Cold  War  and  of  the  United  States'  forward  deployed 
force  strategy.  For  example,  in  the  winter  of  1 989- 1 990,  the  House  Armed  Services  Subcommittee 
on  Installations  and  Facilities,  chaired  by  Congresswoman  Patricia  Schroeder  (D-Colorado),  selected 
the  Army's  request  to  build  chapels,  religious  education  facilities,  or  child  care  centers  as  specified 
in  the  standardized  chapel  design  program.  The  committee  reported  that  it  deleted  these  projects 
"because,  in  times  of  tight  budgets,  such  facilities  are  of  lower  priority.  Members  of  the  military  can 
attend  religious  services  in  the  communities  surrounding  bases.  Moreover,  the  committee  has  a 
certain  hesitation  about  using  public  flinds  for  the  support  of  religious  activities."""" 

Chaplain  Einertson  was  informed  by  the  Director  of  the  Army  Staff  that  the  House 
Subcommittee  had  deleted  all  FY  90  religious  facility  construction. ^""^  Yet  the  Senate  Subcommittee 
had  voted  separately  at  the  same  time  to  authorize  all  chapel  and  religious  education  facilities  which 
the  Army  had  requested.  Chaplain  Edgren  and  Chaplain  Councell  immediately  began  work  to  help 
the  Chief  reverse  the  House  Committee  report's  impact  and  implement  damage  control  measures.  ^''^ 
Contacting  Senators  Jack  Armstrong  (Colorado),  Dan  Coates  (Indiana),  and  Sam  Nunn  (Georgia) 
to  rally  some  sympathetic  support  on  Capitol  Hill,  Chaplain  Einertson  and  Chaplain  Edgren  worked 
through  the  National  Conference  for  Ministry  to  the  Armed  Forces  (NCMAF)  to  alert  Senators, 
Congressmen  and,  by  extension,  the  American  people  that  service  members  from  all  over  the  United 
States  might  soon  be  denied  suitable  religious  facilities  for  use  by  themselves  and  their  family 
members.  Chaplain  CliflF  Weathers,  U.S.  Army  Retired,  one  of  Chaplain  Einertson's  former  staff 
members,  represented  the  NCMAF.  Chaplain  Weathers  wrote  to  several  congressmen  and  senators 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


indicating  tliat  the  House  Subcommittee's  action  was  inappropriate.  Chaplain  Weathers  reminded 
them  that  the  NCMAF  hada  constituency  of  140  million  Americans,  the  membership  of  the 
denominations  which  endorsed  chaplains  and  which  were,  in  turn,  represented  by  his 
organization. That  figure  always  attracted  attention  in  Congress  ! 

One  representative  who  was  on  the  House  Subcommittee,  Congressman  Dave  K  McCurdy 
of  Oklahoma,  was  troubled  by  the  expenditure  of  federal  funds  for  religious  facilities.  He  asked 
Chaplain  Einertson,  "How  long  has  the  Federal  Government  been  financing  religion  in  the  Army 
anyway?"  With  a  twinkle  in  his  eye  Chaplain  Einertson  answered  respectfijlly,  "For  over  200  yejirs, 
gjj.  .1244  Senator  Armstrong  thought  there  were  some  contacts  which  could  be  made  to  help  the 
chaplains,  especially  through  Senator  Nunn  who  was  Chairman  of  the  Senate  Armed  Forces 
Committee  and  who  would  be  working  on  appropriations  with  his  colleagues  in  the  House  of 
Representatives.  "If  all  else  fails,"  Senator  Armstrong  reportedly  said,  "We  can  build  a  fire  under 
Pat  Schroeder  in  Denver  "^^' 

Evidently,  enough  Congressmen  got  the  message,  for  one  day  in  the  late  spring  of  1990  a  call 
came  to  the  Chief  fi"om  Representative  Schroeder's  office  asking  that  "Chaplains  call  off  their  dogs. 
We  do  not  need  any  more  mail  to  get  the  point "  In  June  of  1990  the  Congressional  mid-year 
emergency  appropriations  restored  everything  that  was  lost  and  "favorable  language  applauding  the 
role  of  chaplains  appeared  in  the  supplemental  bill."'*^ 

Unfortunately  the  closure  of  some  other  facilities  in  1990  could  not  be  avoided  In  his  annual 
historical  report  for  1990,  Chaplain  G  T.  Gunhus  noted  that  while  a  construction  contract  for  one 
chapel  (at  Giebelstadt)  was  awarded,  another  (planned  for  Vilseck)  was  deleted  by  Congress  at  least 
until  FY  1991.  Even  though  the  Retreat  House  in  Berchtesgaden  finished  calendar  year  1989  with 
the  largest  number  of  retreats  in  its  35-year  history,  and  hosted  28  additional  retreats  and  five 
conferences  in  the  first  five  months  of  1990,  the  BASOPS  support  was  withdrawn.  The  Religious 
Retreat  House  Ministry  in  Berchtesgaden  was  therefore  discontinued  on  22  June  1990."''^ 

The  closure  of  facilities  also  brought  some  additional  pressure  on  community  chaplains  to 
justify  chaplain  assistant  positions.  Community  commanders  and  installation  commanders  in  the 
States,  under  pressure  to  reduce  strength  levels,  reasoned  that  if  the  unit  is  being  reduced  and  there 
is  no  chapel,  there  also  must  be  no  need  for  a  chaplain  assistant.  Some  chaplains  thought  that  "our 
Chaplain  Corps  doctrine  covers  this,"  but  Chaplain  Gary  Perkins,  studying  the  issue  at  the  Agency, 
warned,  "Since  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  does  not  hold  any  protective  authority  for  chaplain  assistants, 
battles  are  won  or  lost  at  the  local  level  of  command.  If  civilian  authorizations  are  accepted  in  return 
for  loss  of  chaplain  assistants  spaces  at  any  level  of  command,  the  use  of  chaplain  assistant  in  TDA 
organizations  is  seriously  undermined."'''* 

Ironically,  at  the  same  time  that  chaplain  assistant  positions  were  coming  under  review 
(again),  many  chaplain  assistants  were  demonstrating  outstanding  performance  of  duty  in  tribute  to 
the  upgrading  of  the  71M  MOS  which  had  begun  in  1984.  In  Stuttgart  for  example.  Master  Sergeant 
Thomas  J.  Prost  had  been  selected  to  serve  as  the  first  U.S.  Army  chaplain  assistant  in  the  Joint  Billet 
of  the  Executive  to  the  Command  Chaplain  of  EUCOM.''*''  Master  Sergeant  Prost  was  at  that  time 
a  recent  graduate  of  the  Sergeant  Majors  Academy.  In  the  same  month.  Sergeant  First  Class  Charles 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Butts,  famous  for  years  for  his  physical  fitness  instruction  at  the  Chaplain  School,  was  initiated  into 
the  Sergeant  Morales  Club,  a  signal  honor  for  any  noncommissioned  officer  in  the  Army. 

Retirements:  Turning  Another  Corner 

As  mid-summer  approached,  the  lists  of  retirees  began  to  be  released  by  the  Chiefs  Office. 
In  July,  1 3  field  grade  chaplains  retired  including  Chaplain  Wesley  V.  Geary,  Chaplain  James  D 
Masteller,  Chaplain  George  H.  Gray,  Chaplain  Dorsey  E.  Levell,  USAR,  and  Chaplain  Philip  L. 
Olsen,  USAR  One  general  officer  also  said  farewell.  Chaplain  (Major  General)  Norris  L  Einertson, 
the  Army's  17th  Chief  of  Chaplains 

It  was  with  sincere  regret  that  the  Chaplain  Corps  fell  in  line  for  Chaplain  Einertson's 
retirement  ceremonies  and  parade    As  he  noted  in  his  last  official  newsletter  to  the  Corps: 

My  ministry  as  an  Army  Chaplain  has  spanned  the  entire  period  of  the  Berlin  Wall, 
While  I  will  retire  from  the  Army  Chaplaincy,  I  will  not  retire  from  the  ministry.  I  was 
a  pastor  when  I  entered  the  Army,  have  been  one  during  the  past  29  years,  and  will 
be  a  pastor  as  I  leave.  I  ask  for  your  prayers  as  I  ask  God  to  make  me  sufficiently 
flexible  to  remain  faithfiji  to  my  call  to  ministry."" 

Before  Chaplain  Einertson  left  the  Pentagon,  General  Carl  E.  Vuono,  Chief  of  Staff"  of  the  Army, 
presented  him  with  his  retirement  award,  a  second  Distinguished  Service  Medal.  General  Vuono 
cited  Chaplain  Einertson's  "remarkable  foresight,  unique  ability  to  perceive  key  issues,  and  firm 
leadership  during  this  tenuous  period  which  resuhed  in  a  stronger  and  even  more  dedicated  branch, 
revitalizing  religious  programs  and  providing  uninterrupted  ministry  to  soldiers  and  families 

At  the  US  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  Chaplain  Einertson  bade  farewell  to  the  staff" 
and  faculty  and  to  the  students.  After  his  retirement  parade,  selected  members  of  the  faculty  led  by 
Chaplain  Basil  Ballard  and  Chaplain  Al  Isler  put  on  a  slide-show  skit,  "This  is  Your  Life,  Chaplain 

Chaplain  Einertson's  pastoral  concern  for  all  soldiers  and  families  and  for  every  member  of 
the  Total  Chaplaincy  had  left  a  profound  impression  on  all  who  met  him.  Yet  if  there  was  any  higher 
quality  upon  which  he  had  to  draw  as  Chief,  it  was  the  quality  of  moral  courage.  Chaplain  Cliff 
Weathers,  Director  of  PPDT  in  1988,  said  that  Chaplain  Einertson's  tenure  as  Chief  was  marked  by 
"years  of  battles"  to  defend  and  preserve  the  Chaplaincy  from  those  who  wanted  to  reduce  its  size, 
deny  its  ftinding,  and  manage  its  personnel  Chaplain  Einertson  personally  stood  "toe  to  toe"  with 
senior  officers,  even  those  who  outranked  him,  on  important  issues.  "He  was  a  pastor  with  a 
backbone  of  steel,"  Chaplain  Weathers  reflected.  "Chaplain  Einertson's  character  could  be  described 
in  three  words;  integrity,  integrity,  integrity.""^ 

Chaplain  Matthew  A.  Zimmerman,  who  succeeded  Chaplain  Einertson  as  Chief  of  Chaplains 
on  1  August  1990,  wrote  of  his  predecessor,  "Under  Chaplain  Einertson,  the  Chaplaincy  did  not  just 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


survive  a  difficult  period  ..we  are  stronger  today  than  we've  ever  been  in  our  history.  We  are 
ministering  better,  counseling  better,  preaching  better,  being  better  staff  officers  and  NCOs,  and 
training  smarter  than  we  have  ever  done  before.  And,  given  the  challenges  of  the  "build-down  times" 
in  which  we  find  ourselves,  we  have  an  unquestioned  need  to  continue  down  the  trail  already  blazed 
and  blessed  by  my  and  your  predecessors.  We  owe  them  an  enormous  debt  of  gratitude  for  their 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 



I.  The  editor  is  aware  that  the  word  "pastor"  is  a  noun.  The  semantically  constructed  participle 
"pastoring"  was,  however,  in  common  use  in  the  1980s. 

2  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  "Newsletter",  1  July  1990,  p  1,  draft.  The  Berlin  Wall  was 
opened  near  the  Brandenburg  Gate  on  9  Nov.  1989.  The  Warsaw  Pact  dissolved  in  1991 .  U.S. 
News  and  World  Report,  25  Oct.  1993,  p  64. 

3  Mary  Luthi,  "The  American  Politician:  The  Second  Oldest  Profession,"  Drew  Universily 
Magazine,  Winter,  1994-95,  p.  27    "Star  Wars"  was  a  space-based  anti-ICBM  defense  system 
which  was  proposed  for  development  to  shoot  down  possible  incoming  Russian  missiles. 

4.   U.S.  News  and  Wor/d Report,  Oct.  25,  1993,  p.  60. 

5  Ibid,  p  61. 

6  Jessica  Harding,  Public  Affairs  File,  "Biography  of  Chaplain  (Maj  Gen  )  Norris  Einertson: 
1985,"  Chaplain  Corps  Archives 

7.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  July  1990,  p.  1. 

8  As  cited  from  Chaplain  Einertson's  address  on  Feb  6,  1985,  by  Greg  Kayne,  Public  Affairs 
Officer,  US  Army  Chaplain  Center  and  School,  "The  68th  Anniversary  of  the  Chaplain  School  " 
p   1    Copy  in  PAO  File,  1985,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

9  Department  of  the  Army,  General  Orders  No  24,  30  May  1986  as  cited  in  OCCH  Newsletter, 
1  July  '86. 

10.  OCCH,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  30  Sept  '86,  p.  2. 

I I .  Other  joint  use  facilities  based  on  this  standardized  model  were  built  at  Forts  Rucker,  Sill, 
Belvoir,  Sam  Houston,  Leavenworth  and  Yuma  PG    OCCH  Newsletter,  1  June  '86,  Sect  III 

12  OCCH,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  30  Sept  '86,  p  3. 

13  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  July  86,  pp.  2-3. 

14.  Jessica  Harding,  PAO  File,  July  1986,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

15.  Ibid,  Including  Chaplains  John  Rasmussen  and  Don  Turkelson  and  Sergeant  Barbara  Taylor. 

16  "Dedication  Ceremony"  Bulletin,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives;  "Army  Chaplaincy's  Birthday,"  in 
the  Monmouth  Message,  25  July  1986,  and  Jessica  Harding,  "Chaplain  Corps  Established,"  Aug. 
1986,  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives,  PAO  File,  1986. 


17.  OCCH,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  30  Sept.  1986,  pp.  3-7. 

18.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  July  1986,  p.  1, 

19.  FY  86  Strength  Report,  6  Sept  86.  Among  the  retirees  were  Ch  (Col.)  Leroy  Johnson  and  Ch 
(Col.)  Roy  Peters,  Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School  in  1980. 

20.  OCCH  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  30  Sept  86,  p.  18. 

21.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  Sioux  Falls,  SD,  27  May 

22.  OCCH,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  30  Sept  86,  p.  16.  Later  Chaplain  Einertson  received  special 
recognition  from  General  Max  Thurman  for  the  5-Year  Plan  Chaplain  Hufham  developed. 

23.  Roger  Able,  Information  Paper,  OCCH  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  1986,  p.  19. 

24.  Ibid,  pp.  28-31. 

25.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  July  1986,  p.  2. 

26.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Herb  Kitchens,  Ft.  Gillem,  GA,  29  Dec  1993. 

27.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  July  1986,  p.  2. 

28.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Herb  Kitchens,  29  Dec  93. 

29.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  Oct  1986,  p.  1. 

30.  Ibid 

31.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  Jan  87,  p.  2  and  Ibid,  1  April  88,  p.  1 1. 

32.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  Oct  86,  Op  cil.,  p.  1. 

33.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  Nov  86,  p.  1. 

34.  Captain  Chester  Paul  Beach,  Jr.,  Memorandum  Through  Executive,  OTJAG,  For  Executive 
OCCH,  10  Dec  1986,  pp.  1-3.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

35.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  James  Robnolt,  Ft.  Monmouth,  1 1  July  1993. 

36.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col  )  Hugh  M.  Grubb,  Warm  Springs,  GA  ,  4  March  1995. 
See  also  Anson  P  Stokes,  Church  and  Stale  in  the  United  Slates  (New  York:  Harper  &  Bros., 
1950),  I,  preface  and  pp.  166-167.  Winthrop  Hudson  traced  "pluralism"  back  to  immigration 
patterns  after  World  War  I  in  ^/M<?/"/ca« /'/'o/<?.yto/?/7.vw,  (Chicago:  Univ  of  Chicago,  1968)  p.  129. 


Actually,  America  was  pluralistic  in  its  origins  and  perhaps  not  as  "Protestant"  as  "revivalist." 

37.  C.H  Jacquet,  Yearbook  of  American  Churches,  1978,  p. 897 

38.  Sidney  Meade,  "The  Post-Protestant  Concept,"  Issues  in  American  Protestantism,  1969,  p. 

39.  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield,  "Our  Roots  for  Ministry,"  MiUtary  Chaplains  Review,  Fall,  1987,  p. 
25,  David  Chambers,  "The  Protestant  Prohlem,^^  Mihtary  Chaplains  RevieM',  Fall,  1987,  p.  81, 
Interview  with  Chaplain  Gil  Pingel,  PPDT,  21  March  1989    In  1 987- 1 988  there  were  40  different 
denominations  represented  on  the  Staff  and  Faculty  of  the  Chaplain  School  at  Ft.  Monmouth. 

40.  Ibid,  p.  81. 

41.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  James  Robnolt,  1 1  July  1993. 

42.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  Active  Duty  Fact  Book,  3 1  March  1987,  p.  17 

43.  A  religion  founded  by  Guru  Nanak  in  India  about  1 500  Common  Era. 

44.  Gregory  J.  Darr,  "For  God  and  Country,"  Mihtary  Chaplains  Review,  Winter,  1992,  p   102, 
and  Senate  Bill  248  and  House  Bill  1269  "To  Amend  title  10,  US  Code,"  Appendix  to  Staff 
Notes,  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  as  reported  by  Chaplain  William  Hufham,  PPDT,  28  Jan 
87  and  13  May  87.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

45  Ibid    13  May  1987. 

46.  Chaplain  Ted  Sirotko  in  the  Department  of  Military  Ministries  approved  such  courses  at 
USACHCS  in  1987.  Chaplain  John  Brinsfield  was  the  first  instructor  followed  by  Chaplain 
Joanne  Knight  upon  her  graduation  fi-om  Princeton.  One  course  also  was  provided  for  chaplain 

47.  On  27  Oct.  1987. 

48.  Gregory  Darr,  Op.  cit.,  p.  103. 

49.  OCCH  Staff  Meeting  Minutes,  4  Feb  1987. 

50.  OCCH,  Staff  Meeting  Minutes,  14  Jan  87. 

5\.Ibid,  24  Feb  87. 

52.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  27  May  1994,  OCCH  Staff 
Minutes,  4  Feb  87,  report  by  Chaplain  Jerry  Reynolds,  PER 

53  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Hugh  M.  Grubb,  4  March  95. 


54.  Memo  for  the  Vice  Chief  of  Staff,  SUBJECT:  Officer  Scrub,  8  May  87    Appendix  to  OCCH 
Staff  Minutes,  13  May  87. 

55.  Ibid.,  p.2 

56.  OOCH  Fact  Book,  31  March  87,  p    15.   (Chap  Pingel's  Information  Paper  on  p   15  was 
written  after  14  May  87  ) 

57.  OCCH  StaflFMinutes,  13  May  87,  p  2. 

58.  Jerry  Filteau,  "Uncle  Sam  Wants  You,  Father,"  The  Catholic  Review,  6  Aug  87,  p  A-4. 

59.  Jessica  R.  Harding,  "Army  Chaplain  Meets  with  Pope,"  Chief  of  Chaplains  Newsletter,  19 
Aug  87,  Attachment  4 

60.  Jerry  Filteau,  Op.  cit.,  p.  A-4. 

61.  OCCH  StaflFMinutes,  28  July  87  and  Jerry  Filteau,  loc.  cit. 

62.  OCCH  StaflFMinutes,  18  March  87,  p   1. 

63.  Personal  interviews  with  Chaplain  Hugh  Grubb,  4  Mar  95. 

64.  Chaplain  (Brig.  Gen.)  Charles  McDonnell,  the  Air  Force  and  Navy  Chiefs  of  Chaplains,  and 
other  dignitaries  had  an  audience  with  Pope  John  Paul  II  in  August  1987    OCCH  StaflFMinutes, 
19  Aug  1987. 

65.  Gregory  Darr,  Op.  cit.,  p.  103. 

66.  Ibid. 

67.  OCCH  StaflFMinutes,  14  Jan  87,  p.  1. 

68.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Hugh  Grubb,  4  Mar  95. 

69.  OCCH  Newsletter,  1  Jan  88,  p.  5. 

70.  OCCH  StaflFMinutes,  13  May  1987. 
71. /A/c/.,  28  July  87. 

72.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Hugh  M.  Grubb,  4  March  95. 

73.  During  Operation  Desert  Storm  in  1991  chaplains  in  their  protective  suits  (MOPP  gear)  wrote 
CHAPLAIN  on  masking  tape  and  stuck  it  to  the  outside  of  their  jackets. 

74.  The  Army  Chaplaincy  developed  a  crescent  insignia  in  1993  for  the  first  Muslim  chaplain. 


75.  OCCH  Staff  Minutes,  18  March  1987. 

76  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  27  May  1994. 

77  OCCH,  Staff  Minutes,  30  Sept  87 

78. //)/J.,  16  Sept  87 

79  Ibid.   Almost  prophetically.  Chaplain  Whaley  urged  more  training  in  how  to  function  in 
MOPP  4  for  extended  periods  of  time.  His  observation  in  1 987  was  validated  during  Desert 
Storm  in  1991    See  OCCH,  Chiefs  Newsletter,  1  Jan  87,  Attachment  10. 

80.  OCCH,  Staff  Minutes,  13  May  87. 

81.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Lt  Col)  Harvey  Brown,  Ft  Jackson,  7  Mar  95. 

82  OCCH  Chiefs  Newsletter,  1  July  87    The  Joint  Task  Review  Board  was  scheduled  for  the 
Fall  of  1988. 

83  In  October  1987,  copies  of  The  UMT Handbook  (RB  1-1,  first  edition),  developed  by  Major 
Morgan  Flom,  Chaplain  Jesse  Thronton,  and  Major  Mike  Hobson  in  UITD  were  distributed  to 
each  MACOM  and  CONUSA  for  every  active  and  reserve  component  UMT.  See  OCCH,  Chiefs 
Newsletter,  1  Jan  88,  p.  3. 

84.  This  section  is  taken  primarily  from  Chaplain  (Col.)  Gary  Councell,  "Resourcing  the 
Chaplaincy  in  the  Post- Vietnam  Years,  1973-1993,  "U.S.  Army  War  College  Directed  Study 
Paper,  Carlisle,  PA,  1994,  pp  35-39  and  OCCH  Staff  Minutes,  1  July  1987. 

85  Chaplain  (Col  )  Thomas  R.  Smith,  "The  US  Army  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency," 
Military  Chaplains  Review^  Winter  1992,  p  23. 

86  //>/J.,p  24. 
^7  Ibid,  p  27. 

88.  OCCH,  Chief s Newsletter,  1  Dec  87,  GO.  No.  70,  Attachment  2. 

89.  Ibid ,  p  27  Among  the  outstanding  staff  members  were  Chaplains  John  Hoogland,  Richard 
Adams,  James  Herndon,  Ignatius  Butler,  William  Noble  and  Paul  Vicalvi,  MSG  Ronald  Bowren, 
Mrs.  Patricia  Jennings,  Mrs.  Bess  Ballard,  and  Ms.  Beth  Armstrong. 

90  Ibid.,  In  1992  the  Agency  moved  to  OCCH  in  the  Pentagon  as  a  cost  saving  measure. 
Chaplain  Herman  Keizer  succeeded  Chaplain  John  Hoogland  as  Deputy  Director  and  was,  in  turn, 
succeeded  by  Chaplain  Tom  Smith. 


91   Chaplain  (Col  )  James  B.  Lonergan,  Deputy  FORSCOM  Staff  Chaplain  in  1993,  suggested 
this  title. 

92.  U.S.  Forces  Korea  and  Eighth  US.  Army,  Annual  Historical  Report,  1986  -  1987, 
(unclassified)  p  ix 

93.  Ibid.,  and  USFK  and  EUSA,  Annual  Historical  Report,  1975,  Introduction 

94.  Ibid.,  USFK  and  EXiSk,  Annual  Historical  Report,  1986  -  1987,  (unclassified),  p.  x. 

95.  Ibid ,  p.  15-13,  or  41.2  persons  at  each  service. 

96.  Ibid,  p   15-13. 

97.  Ibid,  p.  15-14. 

98.  Caliber  Associates,  Family  Strengths  and  Adaptation  to  Army  Life,  (Chapel  Hill,  N.C  :  Univ. 
ofN.C,  Jan.  1988),  p.  ii. 

99.  Rededication  Ceremony  Bulletin,  1  Aug  87,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

100.  OCCH,  Chief s  Newsletter,  1  Jan  1988. 

101.  Jessica  Harding,  "Black  History  Month  Story,"  submitted  to  the  Pentagram,  January,  1987. 
PAO  Files,  OCCH 

102  OCCH,  Chiefs  Newsletter,  1  July  1987.  The  award  was  presented  in  New  York  City  on  8 
July  1987. 

103.  Jessica  Harding,  "Chaplaincy  Honors  Its  Own,"  PAO  News  Release,  OCCH,  3  Dec  1987. 

104.  Jessica  Harding,  "Chaplain  Helps  Soldiers,"  Ft.  Rucker  Flier,  30  April  1987. 

105.  OCCH,  Chiefs  Newsletter,  1  Jan  88,  p.  6. 

106.  For  example.  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  John  Lincoln,  one  of  the  most  dedicated  Catholic  chaplains 
in  USAREUR,  died  of  a  heart  attack  while  playing  softball  with  his  parish  members  on  27  May 
1987.  SGM  John  Rainey  retired  and  Chaplain  J  L.  Goudreau  entered  active  duty 

107.  Richard  Martin,"Ten  Leadership  Commandments,"  MC/?,  Winter,  1987,  p.  7. 

108.  Letter  from  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson  to  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Brinsfield,  16 
May  1995.  Copy  in  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 


109.  OCCH,  Chiefs  Newsletter,  1  Jan  1988,  p   1 .  Among  the  specific  achievements  mentioned  in 
the  award  of  Chaplain  Einertson's  DSM  were  supervision  of  the  development  of  a  5-year  training 
plan  for  multi-cultural  ministry,  the  fielding  of  UMT  Training  Doctrine,  Chaplain  Mobilization 
Training,  an  audit  of  all  chaplaincy  spaces,  and  a  comprehensive  study  to  help  alleviate  the 
shortage  of  Roman  Catholic  chaplains 

1 10.  Bob  Woodward,  The  Commanders  (New  York:  Simon  &  Schuster,  1991),  p.  114. 
Ill  Malcolm  McConnell,  Just  Cause  (New  York:  St.  Martin's  Press,  1991),  p.  32. 
112. /^>/a'.,  pp  4,  35. 

113.  Bob  Woodward,  Op.  oil.,  p   135    Less  than  half  of  the  total  of  35,000  Americans  in  Panama. 

1 14.  OCCH,  Chiefs  Newsletter,  1  Dec  86,  p.  4.  USASO  was  deactivated  in  Oct.  74  and 
reactivated  in  Dec.  86. 

1 15.  Malcolm  McConnell,  Jm.sY  Cause,  p.  3;  Dolores  de  Mena,  "Operation  Just  Cause/Promote 
Liberty,  "Supplement  to  USARSO  Annual  Command  History  {\9S9  -  1990),  p.  4.  Copy  in  the 
Center  for  Military  History,  Washington,  D.C. 

WeVSARSO  Annual  Command  History,  1988,  p.  187. 

117.  Routine  message,  241530Z,  Mar  88,  DACH-IMB,  copy  in  the  Papers  of  Chaplain  (MG) 
Norris  Einertson,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives 

118.  OCCH,  Chief  s  Newsletters,  1  July  1988  and  1  July  1990. 

1 19.  OCCH,  Staff  Minutes,  23  March  1988.  Chaplain  William  Hufham,  PPDT,  noted  that  the 
Chief  spent  $16,000  on  conferences  in  1987,  but  had  budgeted  $35,000  in  1988. 

120.  Caliber  Associates,  Op.  cit.,  p.  23.  Ft.  Belvoir,  Ft.  Bragg  and  Ft.  Riley  furnished  the  families 

121.  Chaplain  Henry  L.  Hunt,  Deputy  FORSCOM  Chaplain,  wrote  an  excellent  article  which 
appeared  in  the  Militaiy  Chaplains  Review  in  the  Fall  of  1988.  Chaplain  Hunt  noted  (on  page  4), 
"I  do  feel,  even  firmer  than  I  did  in  1969,  that  we  must  protect  the  status  of  non-combatancy  for 
chaplains."  See  Chaplain  (Colonel)  Henry  Lamar  Hunt,  "Pillars  of  the  Regiment,"  MCR,  Fall, 
1988,  p.  1. 

122.  OCCH,  Chief s  Newsletter,  1  April  1988. 
\23.Ihid.,  1  July  1988. 

124  The  Washington  Post,  14  May  1988;  TJie  Pentagram,  19  May  1988,  p.  2. 


125.  OCCH,  Chiefs  Newsletter,  1  June  1988,  Attachment  4. 

126.  The  Pentagram,  "Service  Honors  Buckley,"  19  May  1988,  p.  2. 

127.  OCCH,  StaflfMeeting  Minutes,  19  Aug  1987,  p  1. 

128.  DOD  Directive  1300.17,  g(6),  3  Feb  1988  in  the  papers  of  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris 
Einertson,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

129.  Memo  for  Brig.  Gen.  Renner,  18  Mar  88,  Einertson  Papers,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

130.  Einertson  telephone  record  of  call  to  Lt.  Gen  Allan  K.  Ono,  DCSPER,  May  1988  in  the 
Einertson  Papers,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

131.  Memorandum  for  the  Secretary  of  the  Army  from  Lt.  Gen.  A.  K.  Ono,  24  June  88,  Chaplain 
Corps  Archives. 

132.  AR  600-20,  para  5-6,  1988  draft,  p  97. 

133.  Memorandum  for  Brig.  Gen.  Renner,  18  Mar  88,  p.  2  in  the  Einertson  Papers,  Chaplain 
Corps  Archives. 

134.  Letter  from  the  Secretary  of  Defense  to  Senator  Lautenberg,  Einertson  Papers,  Chaplain 
Corps  Archives.  (The  letter  was  undated  but  was  written  after  6  May  1988  ) 

135.  Memo  for  Major  Ketler  from  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  L  Mann,  USAF,  24  May  88  in  the 
Einertson  Papers,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

136.  Telephone  record.  Chaplain  Einertson  to  Lt.  Gen  Allan  K.  Ono,  June  1988.  Copy  in  the 
Einertson  Papers,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

137.  Copy  in  the  Einertson  Papers,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

138.  Ibid.,  Note:   Lt  Gen  Ono  polled  eight  basic  training  station  commanders  and  five 
installation  chaplains  to  discover  that  there  had  been  no  requests  by  soldiers  to  wear  religious 
apparel.  It  was  a  policy  issue,  not  a  problem. 

139.  Memo  for  Secretaries  of  Military  Departments,  29  Sept  1988.  Copy  in  the  Einertson  Papers. 

140.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (MG)  Norris  Einertson,  27  May  1994. 

141 .  Issues  which  can  pop  up  and  bite  you  if  you  don't  pay  attention  to  them. 

142.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  27  May  1994. 



\43.  Ibid 

144.  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  "Report  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Army  on  the  Religious 
Needs  at  the  US  Military  Academy,  West  Point,  NY.,  5  June  1988,  p  2    Copy  in  the  Chaplain 
Corps  Archives. 

\45.  Ibid,  p.  11. 

] 46  Ibid,  p   13. 

147.  Undated  letter,  as  cited,  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives  for  1988 

\4S.Ibid,p  2. 

149.  USAREUR  and  7th  Army,  Annual  Historical  Report,  1988,  p.  288. 

\50  Ibid,  p  288 

151.  Ibid 

152.  Ibid,  p.  289. 
\ 53.  Ibid 

154.  Ibid.,  pp  369-370,  (1987). 

155.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col  )  Tom  Harris,  USA  Rtd.,  22  April  1994.   Chaplain 
Harris  and  Chaplain  (Col.)  John  Betzold  helped  design  CPE  training  for  Chaplains  in  1969-1972. 
Chaplain  Harris  served  on  the  staff  of  the  Army  Surgeon  General. 

1 56.  Chaplain  David  M.  DeDonato,  Chaplain-Clinical  Ethicist  for  Walter  Reed  Army  Medical 
Center,  distinguished  between  medical  ethics  which  addresses  any  moral-ethical  decision-making 
process  including  topics  for  research  from  clinical  ethics  (decisions  involving  patients  at  the 
bedside)  and  biomedical  ethics  (any  medical  patient  care  issue  possibly  involving  the  whole  health 
care  team).  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  D.  M.  DeDonato,  22  April  94 

157.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Sanford  L.  Dresin,  USA  Rtd.,  22  April  1994. 

158.  In  the  Military  Chaplains  Review  and  in  Chaplain.  1980-1982. 

159.  Chaplain  David  DeDonato's  article,  "Ministry  to  Critical  Care  Givers,"  Military  Chaplains 
Review,  Fall,  1988,  generated  considerable  interest  among  Chaplains  in  medical  ethics. 

160.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  S.  L.  Dresin,  22  April  1994.  Chaplain  Einertson 
staflFed  the  question  as  well  with  the  Council  of  Chaplain  Colonels  in  1988  and  received  a  positive 
response  for  initiating  the  program. 


161.  OCCH,  Chief  s  Newsletter,  1  Jan  1989,  p.  2. 

162.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Timothy  Tatum,  4  Nov  1994. 

163.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  27  May  1994. 

164.  In  the  late  1980s  this  title  changed  to  "the  Academy  Chaplain"  and  the  old  Post  Chaplain 
position,  once  held  by  Chaplains  Kermit  Johnson,  Al  Brough,  and  later  by  David  Peterson, 
became  known  as  the  Community  Support  Chaplain 

165.  Personal  interviews  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Cliff  Weathers,  23  Feb  95,  and  with  Chaplain  (Maj. 
Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  28  May  94. 

166.  Chaplain  Camp  held  senior  government  service  rank. 

167.  "At  times  the  discussion  grew  quite  heated  and  at  one  point  required  the  mediation  of 
General  Vuono,  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army."  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Cliff 
Weathers,  Director  of  PPDT  in  1988,  23  Feb  95    Chaplain  Einertson  concluded,  as  Chaplain 
Hessian  had  in  1984,  "there  was  no  way  to  carry  on  a  rational  discussion  with  West  Point  on  the 
subject  of  the  Chaplaincy,"  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Einertson,  27  May 

168.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Einertson,  27  May  1994. 

169.  Telephone  interview  with  General  H.  Norman  Schwarzkopf,  Tampa,  Florida,  20  March 

170.  Ibid.  In  1990  CENTCOM  asked  for  a  staff  chaplain  as  Operation  Desert  Shield  began. 
Chaplain  David  Peterson  joined  General  Szchwarzkopf  s  staff 


172.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Timothy  Tatum,  4  Nov  94. 

Ml,.  Ibid 

174.  OCCH,  Chief  s  Newsletter,  1  Oct  1991,  p.  1. 

175.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Wilbur  Parker,  25  May  94. 

176.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Timothy  Tatum,  4  Nov  94. 



179.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Robert  Loring,  Ft.  Belvior,  8  Mar  95.  The  1/21  Infantry 
historically  was  the  first  unit  deployed  in  Task  Force  Smith  during  the  Korean  War. 


\S]   Ibid 

182  Chaplain  Loring's  wife,  Peggy,  had  refined  both  a  puppeteer  and  a  clown  ministry  for 
soldiers  children.  Personal  interview,  Chaplain  Robert  Loring,  8  Mar  95 

\S3  Ibid 

184  OCCH,  Chief  of  Chaplain's  Newsletter,  p.  2. 

185.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  27  May  94. 

186.  In  retrospect,  this  was  an  excellent  shift  for  the  Chaplaincy's  mission  during  Operation  Desert 
Shield/Desert  Storm,  for  both  Chaplain  Zimmerman  and  Chaplain  Clanton  were  intimately  familiar 
with  the  organization  and  fianctioning  of  U.S.  Army  FORSCOM. 

187.  Edward  J.  Horan,  "Director  of  Religious  Education  Positions  in  the  Department  of  the 
Army;   A  State  of  the  Profession  Report  "  July  1989  -  May  1990,  pp.  1-2. 

\SS.Ibid.,pp.  1-2. 

189.  Ibid.,  pp.  7,  58.  Ft.  Belvior,  for  example,  had  three  DREs  while  Ft.  Hood  and  Ft.  Bragg  had 
two  each 

\90.  Ibid,  p  41 

\9]  Ibid,  pp   18,23. 

192.  Charles  E.  Gunti,  "The  Priest  Isn't  There:  Recruiting  Catholic  Chaplains,  Military  Chaplains 
Review,  Spring,  1989,  p  27. 

193.  Richard  Hailoran,  "Military  is  Short  of  Catholic  Chaplains,"  New  York  Times,  4  March 

194.  Ibid.,  and  Chaplain  (Lt  Col.)  Charles  Gunti,  Op.  cit.,  p.  28. 

195.  Ibid.,  and  Chaplain  Gunti,  Op.  cit^,  p.  28. 

196  Chaplain  Gunti,  Op.  Cit.,  p.  28.  Even  if  young  priests  volunteered  in  record  numbers,  they 
would  not  be  able  to  immediately  replace  older  priests,  such  as  Chaplains  Richard  D'Arcy  and 
Charles  D.  Logue  who  retired  in  July,  1989,  in  terms  of  experience  in  the  Army. 


197.  Chaplain  Wayne  L  Schmid,  "Catholic  Chaplain  and  Laity,  Sharers  in  Ministry,"  Military 
Chaplains  Review,  Spring  1989,  p.  15. 

198.  Major  Michael  W.  Hobson,  Chief  of  the  Publications  Branch,  UITD,  and  the  Inspector 
General  for  USACHCS,  drove  the  lead  car  which  was  rented  from  "Rent-a-Wreck"  in  Eatonton. 
Chaplain  (Lt  Col  )  John  Brinsfield,  Chief  of  UITD,  followed  in  his  own  station  wagon. 

199.  Including  Major  Mike  Hobson,  Chief  of  UITD's  Publications  Branch  and  Major  Don  Kiszka, 
Chief  of  UITD's  Analysis  Branch. 

200.  Mrs.  Ryan,  Mrs.  Dooney,  Master  Sergeant  Geiger  and  Major  Hobson  worked  on  FM  16-1 
more  or  less  constantly  for  a  year.  Other  UITD  personnel,  in  a  true  team  spirit,  helped,  whenever 
they  were  asked,  to  do  whatever  needed  to  be  done. 

201.  Eugene  V.  Rostow, /i  Breakfast  for  Bonaparte:   US  National  Security  Interests 
(Washington,  DC:  National  Defense  Univ.,  1993),  p.  412. 

202.  M/c/,  p  413 
202,.  Ibid. 

204. //)/J.,p.  414. 
205  Ihid.,  p.  427 

206.  Ibid. 

207.  Ihid 

208.  Ihid 

209.  Ibid.,  p.  428. 

210  Jeffrey  Simon,  NATO  ITie  Challenge  of  Change  (Washington,  DC:  National  Defense 
University  Press,  1993),  p  41. 


212.  Eugene  V.  Rostow,  Op  tit.,  p.  432. 

2\2.  Ibid.,  p.  433. 

2\4.  Ibid 



2\6.  Ibid,  p.  4\2. 

217.  Malcolm  McConnell,  Jtist  Cause  (New  York:   St  Martin's  Press,  1991),  p  36. 

218.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Norris  Einertson,  27  May  1994. 


220  A  I  Solzhenitsyn,  a  veteran  of  service  in  the  Soviet  Army  from  1941-1945,  was  imprisoned 
and  then  exiled  for  anti-Stalinist  remarks.  He  wrote  3  novels  denouncing  censorship  and 
government  oppression.  In  1970  he  was  awarded  the  Nobel  Prize  in  literature.  Norma  Dickey 
(ed.)  Fu?ik  and  Wagtialls  Encyclopedia,  1986,  v.  24,  p.  105 

221.  OCCH,  Chief  s  Newsletter,  1  March  1990,  p   1. 

222  Eugene  V.  Rostow,  Op  cil.,  p.  414. 

223.  OCCH,  Chief s  Newsletter,  1  March  1990,  p.  2. 

224.  Air  Force  Chaplain  Service,  "Thinking  in  Different  Terms,"  30  Mar  1990.  Copy  in  the 
Chaplains  Corps  Archives. 

225.  Chaplain  Einertson  wrote  in  1995,  "Chaplain  Herm  Keizer  was  a  strong  right  arm  for  me 
while  he  headed  the  Agency.  He  and  Wayne  Kuehne  worked  extremely  hard  and  smart  together 
on  many  systems  issues.  Herm's  work  reflected  great  intelligence,  dedication  and  integrity. 
Einertson  letters  to  Chaplain  Brinsfield,  16  May  1995,  p. 2. 

226.  Chaplain  (Col  )  Herman  Keizer,  Vision  Conference  Papers,  1990,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives, 
"Memo  for  MACOM  Staff  Chaplain,"  2  Feb  1990,  message  format,  p.  1. 

227  Ibid.,  "Memorandum  for  Chaplain  (Col.)  Herman  Keizer,  13  April  1990.  "Responses  were 
from  Chaplains  Ron  Benzing,  J.L  Young,  Roger  Schalm,  Lawrence  A.  Kelly,  Sanford  Dresin, 
Master  Sergeant  E.  S.  Pippin,  Don  Turkelson,  Gary  Mayer,  David  O.  Davis  and  Jerry  D. 

228. Ibid 

229.  Ibid 

230.  Ibid.,  "Revised  Schedule  for  Vision  Conference  " 

231.  Ibid.,  photocopy  of  timeline  in  Chaplain  Keizer's  Vision  Conference  Papers. 

232.  Ibid.,  Notes  from  Vision  Conference,  Monday,  30  April  1990,  p. 4. 

233.  Ibid 


234.  Ibid.,  "Revised  Schedule,"  p.l. 

235.  The  UMT  Visions  Conference  was  the  first  Chaplaincy-wide  UMT  Conference,  although 
Chaplain  Shea  had  used  that  title  in  USAREUR  in  1988.  Later  Chaplain  Zimmerman 
"rebaptized"  the  Command  Chaplains  Conference  as  the  Chiefs  UMT  Conference. 

236.  Ibid.,  Chaplain  Herm  Keizer,  Vision  Conference  Papers,  Friday  4  May    Three  months  after 
the  Conference,  Chaplain  Edgren  suggested  a  reality  check  on  the  issue  of  money  to  publish  the 
brochure.  In  a  memo  to  Chaplain  Keizer  dated  1 7  August  90,  Chaplain  Edgren  advised,  "Because 
of  the  current  Mideast  crisis  &  Gramm-Rudman-HoUings — the  Army  is  curtailing  all  dollar 
authority  for  anything  they  view  as  non-mission  essential  ...  will  have  to  hold  on  to  this  [brochure] 
until  the  new  FY." 

237.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Lt.  Col.)  David  M.  DeDonato,  22  April  1994. 

238.  As  cited:  Military  Chaplains  Review,  Spring  1991. 

239.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  Stan  Esterline,  Pentagon  Chaplain,  16  March  1995. 

240.  In  addition  to  these  duties.  Chaplain  Crippen  wore  a  second  hat  as  a  Branch  Chief  in  UITD 
at  the  Chaplain  School.  As  evidence  of  his  "team"  spirit,  he  took  a  break  from  his  Training 
Strategy  work  to  help  edit  and  proof  the  final  copy  of  FM  16-1,  Religious  Support  Doctrine. 

241.  Chaplain  (Col.)  Gary  Councell,  "Resourcing  the  Chaplaincy  in  the  Post-Vietnam  Years," 
U.S.  Army  War  College  directed  study,  1993,  p.  39. 

242.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Einertson,  27  May  1994. 

243.  Chaplain  Gary  Councell,  Op.  cit.,  p.  39. 

244.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Einertson,  27  May  94. 

245.  Ibid 

246.  Chaplain  Gary  Councell,  loc.  cit. 

247.  USAREUR  and  7th  Army  Annual  Historical  Report,  1990,  p.  399.  Copy  in  the  Center  for 
Military  History. 

248.  OCCH,  Chief  s  Newsletter,  1  July  1990. 

249.  Biographical  sketch.  Sergeant  Major  Thomas  J.  Prost,  Jr.,  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 

250.  OCCH,  Chief  s  Newsletter,  1  July  1990. 

251.  Chaplain  Einertson's  DSM  Citation,  1 1  May  1990.  Copy  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  Archives. 


252.  Chaplain  Einertson  told  humorous  stories  about  two  "Hittites"  named  Sven  and  Olle  from  his 
home  state  of  Minnesota.  These  stories  could  not  offend  any  ethnic  group.  Chaplain  Einertson 
reasoned,  because  the  Hittites  presumably  have  been  extinct  for  3,000  years. 

253.  Personal  interview  with  Chaplain  (Col.)  Cliff  Weathers,  USA,  Rtd,  23  Feb  95. 

254.  OCCH,  Chiefs  Newsletter,  1  Aug  1990,  pi 


Chaplain  (COL)  Henry  L.  Hunt      Chaplain  (COL)  Eugene  S.  Peterson 

Chaplain  (LTC)  Stephen  W.  Leonard 
Personnel  Management  Officer 

Chaplain  (LTC)  James  D.  Bruns 
Chaplain  Candidate  Program  Manager 


Chaplain  (BG)  Paul  G.  Durbin 
ARNG  Special  Assistant 


:iifford  T.  Weathers,  Coordinaror 

National  Conference  on        Chaplain  (COL)  Robert  E.  Lair,  Jr. 
Ministry  to  the  Armed  Forces         Reserve  Affairs  Advisor 








After  fifteen  years  of  modernization  and  training,  a  new  Army  had  come  into  existence. 
Much  better  motivated,  educated,  and  technologically  equipped,  the  United  States  Army  was  ready 
for  worldwide  deployment.  In  every  sense  of  the  word,  this  was  a  fortuitous  development;  for 
within  the  two  years  following  the  dissolution  of  the  Soviet  Union,  American  soldiers  were 
scattered  over  ten  thousand  miles  of  the  earth 's  surface,  punishing  aggression,  feeding  migrants 
and  reftigees,  and  rebuilding  cities  devastated  by  natural  disasters.  In  every  instance,  from  Saudi 
Arabia  to  Antarctica,  wherever  soldiers  went,  unit  ministry  teams  accompanied  them. 


Religious  Support  During... 

Operation  Desert  Shield/Desert  Storm 

Joint  Task  Force  Guantanamo 

Operation  Andrew 

Hurricane  Initci  Relief 

Los  Angeles  Riots 

Operation  Restore  Hope— Somalia 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 



Bringing  Peace  to  the  World  and 

Spiritual  Strength  to  the  Army 

The  American  success  in  the  Cold  War  is  our  most  important  achievement,  at  least  since 
World  War  II.  Everything  was  at  stake  for  the  United  States  and  the  world  in  the  Cold  War.  Not 
swprisingly,  it  dominated  U.S.  foreign  policy,  national  security  strategy,  major  defense  decisions, 
including  alliances  and  defence  budgets,  and  some  key  domestic  issides.  Despite  occasional  lapses, 
we  maintained  our  military  strength ...  and  we  applied  the  containment  strategy  over  a  long  time. 
Our  success  in  the  Cold  War  was  achieved  at  enormous  costs.  We  should  recognize  and  honor  this 

Zalmay  Khalilzad 
Assistant  Undersecretary  of  Defense  for  Policy 


We  have  drawn  a  line  in  the  sand. 

President  George  Bush 
on  the  deployment  of  the  S2"^  Airborne  Division  to  Saudi  Arabia 


We  ha\>e  the  finest  Chaplaincy,  in  the  best  Army,  in  the  world. 

Chaplain  (Maj  Gen.)  Matthew  A.  Zimmerman 
Retirement  Address,  Fort  Myer,  Virginia 


From  the  end  of  the  Vietnam  War  to  the  end  of  the  Cold  War  the  United  States  Army  went 
through  a  1 5-year  period  of  reorganization,  modernization  and  reformation  in  every  aspect  from 
weapons  development  to  moral  leadership.  The  Army  was  prepared  to  serve  in  any  climate,  at  any 
time,  in  any  place,  and  to  fight  if  necessary,  at  any  intensity  the  President  and  Congress  might  direct. 
The  combat  service  support  branches,  to  include  the  Army  Chaplain  Corps,  followed  suit  in 
modernizing  doctrine,  equipment  and  training. 

Beginning  in  1989  and  lasting  through  1994,  the  strategic  environment  in  which  the  Army  had 
to  plan  for  operations  changed  dramatically  The  Berlin  Wall  cracked  in  1989,  followed  by  the 
disbanding  of  the  Warsaw  Pact,  the  Communist  Party  in  the  Soviet  Union,  and  the  Soviet  Union 
"itself  in  1991.  The  Iranian  Ayatollah  Ruhollah  Komeini  died  in  1989  and  Kim  II  Sung  of  North 
Korea  in  1994.  Libya  and  Cuba  were  left  to  stand  alone  as  major  foes  of  the  United  States.  The 
greatest  threats  to  the  security  of  the  American  democracy  seemed  to  be  its  own  domestic  crime  rate 
and  its  ever-mounting  deficit. 

Yet  the  fall  of  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  temporary  confiision  in  other  nations  was  a  mixed 
blessing.  Although  9,000  strategic  nuclear  warheads  were  no  longer  targeted  on  American  cities  after 
1994,  neither  was  the  Red  Army  a  dependable  force  for  law  and  order  within  the  bounds  of  former 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Communist  countries  As  Professors  PA  Sorokin  and  Francis  Beer  hypothesized  in  their  respective 
studies  on  war  and  peace,  the  absence  of  a  strong  military  power  may  have  encouraged  rather  than 
discouraged  localized  geographical  conflict.' 

With  the  dissolution  of  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  perception  of  a  power  vacuum  in  many 
formerly  dependent  regions,  including  ten  former  Soviet  Republics,  came  a  number  of  military 
adventures  led  largely  by  political  amateurs.  Civil  war  broke  out  in  some  locations  along  the  old 
Soviet  border  as  well  as  in  the  nation  previously  known  as  Yugoslavia.  In  satellite  nations  such  as 
Somalia  and  Cuba,  which  had  been  dependent  for  years  on  Soviet  aid,  governments  held  on  to  power 
with  desperation  or  not  at  all 

In  the  Caribbean,  the  Middle  East,  and  in  many  other  Third  World  regions,  power  struggles 
erupted  between  and  among  ethnic  groups,  tribes,  and  former  neighbors.  In  some  cases  ethnic  wars 
were  waged  for  no  purpose  other  than  acquisition  of  territory  and  control  of  resources. 

In  order  to  keep  a  balance  of  order,  if  not  of  power,  in  parts  of  the  world  gone  mad  for  "self- 
rule,"  the  United  Nations  began  to  undertake  its  most  active  peace  keeping  role  in  40  years.  Most 
particularly  in  the  Middle  East  and  in  Africa  where  war,  famine,  disease  and  death  threatened  25 
million  people,  the  United  Nations  performed  essentially  police  functions.  As  the  largest  and 
wealthiest  single  member  of  the  United  Nations,  the  United  States  found  itself,  in  the  period  from 
1990  to  1994,  restoring  and  guarding  borders  from  Korea  to  Kenya  to  Kuwait. 

Spiritual  Leadership  for  the  Army  and  for  the  World 

On  1  August  1990,  the  day  Chaplain  Matthew  A.  Zimmerman  was  promoted  to  Major 
General  and  assumed  office  as  the  Army's  18th  Chief  of  Chaplains,  the  Army  was  on  the  brink  of 
thirteen  separate  operational  deployments  ranging  from  heavy  combat  to  humanitarian  relief  missions. 
Eleven  of  these  deployments  took  place  within  two  years,  from  1990  to  1992  The  leadership  skills 
required  to  inspire,  encourage,  manage,  and  sustain  the  spiritual  strength  of  550,000  soldiers  and 
1,200  unit  ministry  teams  deployed  to  every  continent,  including  Antarctica,  during  this  period  were 
extraordinary.  Blessed  with  years  of  hard  preparation  and  by  an  outstanding  staff  and  outstanding 
unit  ministry  teams  throughout  the  Chaplain  Corps,  Chaplain  Zimmerman  met  each  challenge 
successfully  for  the  spiritual  benefit  of  soldiers,  the  Chaplaincy,  the  Army  leadership,  and  the 
American  people 

Throughout  his  27-year  career,  Chaplain  Zimmerman  liked  to  refer  to  himself  simply  as  "a 
Baptist  preacher."  While  that  self-effacing  description  was  true  and  warranted  a  high  degree  of 
respect  as  would  be  due  to  a  preacher  of  the  Gospel,  it  was  too  modest.  To  describe  Chaplain 
Zimmerman  as  "a  Baptist  preacher"  without  further  qualification  would  be  akin  to  describing 
Benjamin  Franklin  as  "a  printer,"  George  Washington  as  "a  planter,"  or  Albert  Einstein  as  "a 
mathematician  " 

Chaplain  Zimmerman  would  be  better  described  as  one  of  the  finest  preachers  in  the  history 
of  the  Chaplain  Corps,  an  outstanding  chaplain  at  every  echelon  in  the  Army,  a  genius  at  organization 
and  conflict  resolution,  and  a  courageous  and  intuitive  leader  who  rarely  needed  to  hear  the  same 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


information  twice.  Perhaps  one  of  Chaplain  Zimmerman's  most  remarkable  qualities,  however,  was 
his  ability  to  genuinely  relate  to  every  person  he  met  regardless  of  rank,  gender,  race,  age  or  class. 
Without  pretense,  he  enjoyed  people.  Throughout  the  Pentagon  and  indeed  throughout  the  Army  he 
was  the  best  known  chaplain  in  the  Corps 

Chaplain  Matthew  A  Zimmerman,  Jr  ,  was  bom  in  Rock  Hill,  South  Carolina,  and  educated 
at  Benedict  College  and  Duke  University.  After  his  graduation  fi^om  Duke  Divinity  School  where  he 
was  the  first  Afro- American  to  attain  a  Master  of  Divinity  degree.  Chaplain  Zimmerman  served  as 
the  campus  pastor  for  Idaho  State  University  and  later  for  Morris  College  in  Sumter,  South  Carolina. 
He  was  ordained  by  the  National  Baptist  Convention  of  which  his  father  was  a  ministerial  member 
also.  He  entered  the  Army  Chaplaincy  as  a  captain  by  direct  appointment  in  April  of  1967. 

Chaplain  Zimmerman's  initial  assignments  included  serving  as  Battalion  and  then  Brigade 
Chaplain  of  the  3d  Advanced  Individual  Training  Brigade,  Ft  Gordon,  Georgia,  Assistant  IV  Corps 
Tactical  Zone  Chaplain,  Vietnam;'  Assistant  Division  Support  Command  Chaplain,  1st  Armored 
Division,  Ft.  Hood,  Texas;  DIVARTY  Staff  Chaplain,  3d  Armored  Division,  Hanau;  and  Assistant 
V  Corps  Chaplain,  Frankfurt,  West  Germany  His  senior  assignments  later  included  service  as  the 
Division  Staff  Chaplain,  3d  Infantry  Division;  Deputy  Staff  Chaplain,  Training  and  Doctrine 
Command;  and  United  States  Forces  Command  Staff  Chaplain,  Fort  McPherson,  Georgia.  Chaplain 
Zimmerman  was  nominated  and  confirmed  as  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains  in  1989  and  as  Chief  of 
Chaplains  in  1990. 

At  the  time  of  Chaplain  Zimmerman's  assumption  of  office  as  Chief  of  Chaplains,  the  Chaplain 
Corps  was  staffed  from  top  to  bottom  with  many  outstanding  leaders.  In  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains,  the  Executive  Officer  was  Chaplain  Donald  W.  Shea,  a  Roman  Catholic  priest  and  a 
former  Special  Forces  chaplain  in  Vietnam.  Chaplain  Shea's  most  recent  assignment  prior  to 
reporting  to  DACH  was  as  the  U.S.  Army  Europe  and  Seventh  Army  Staff  Chaplain,  Heidelberg, 
West  Germany  When  Chaplain  Shea  became  the  Deputy  Chief  in  November,  he  was  succeeded  in 
due  time  by  Chaplain  Henry  F  Wake,  previously  the  1st  Infantry  Division  Chaplain  at  Fort  Riley. 
Chaplain  Wayne  E.  Kuehne,  also  a  Vietnam  veteran  and  a  War  College  graduate,  was  the  Director 
for  Plans,  Policy  Development  and  Training  For  more  than  1 5  years  Chaplain  Kuehne  had  worked 
on  force  structure  and  doctrinal  issues  for  the  Chaplaincy.  Chaplain  Kuehne's  staff  included  Chaplain 
Gilbert  H  Pingel,  one  of  the  principal  contributors  to  FM  16-1,  Chaplain  Stanley  R  Esterline,  one 
of  the  project  officers  for  the  Chiefs  Training  Strategy,  and  Mr.  Roger  Able,  the  Mobilization  Plans 
Officer  Chaplain  John  C.  Scott,  formeriy  the  WESTCOM  Chaplain  in  Hawaii  and  later  the  Assistant 
Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  School,  served  as  Director  of  Personnel  and  Ecclesiastical  Relations 
with  the  excellent  assistance  of  Chaplains  Gregory  P.  Sykes,  Janet  Y  Horton,  Hugh  L  Dukes,  Jr., 
and  Ms.  Shiriey  Womack.  Sergeant  Major  Oliver  "Irish"  Corbett  was  the  Chiefs  Senior  Staff  NCO. 

The  Director  of  Information,  Resource  Management  and  Logistics  was  Chaplain  James  A. 
Edgren  who  had  secured  the  standard  design  for  Army  chapels  and  who  had  authored  AR  165-1,  the 
basic  regulation  for  the  Chaplain  Corps  Chaplain  Edgren's  staff"  included  Chaplains  Gary  R  Councell 
and  Donald  G  Hanchett  At  the  United  States  Army  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency,  Chaplain 
Herman  Keizer,  Jr  ,  served  as  Deputy  Director.  He  was  assisted  by  Chaplains  Winfield  D.  Buzby, 
Robert  J.  Richter,  John  A.  Wells,  Samuel  B.  Cooper,  Maria  J.  Snyder,  Granville  E.  Tyson,  Paul  M. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Bomba,  Ms.  Patricia  M.  Jennings,  and  Ms.  Bess  Ballard. 

The  command  chaplains  in  key  positions  included  Chaplain  Bernard  L.  Windmiller, 
Commandant  of  the  Chaplain  Center  and  School;  Chaplain  Charles  T.  Clanton,  U.S.  Forces 
Command;  Chaplain  Robert  L.  Campbell,  Health  Services  Command;  Chaplain  John  A.  De  Veaux, 
Jr.,  Information  Systems  Command;  Chaplain  Ward  Hagin,  Intelligence  and  Security  Command; 
Chaplain  Donald  W.  Gover,  Army  Materiel  Command,  Chaplain  Richard  N  Donovan,  Military 
District  of  Washington;  Chaplain  William  F.  Bateman,  USA.  Special  Operations  Command, 
Chaplain  Roy  Mathis,  Training  and  Doctrine  Command,  Chaplain  James  H.  Robnolt,  U.S.  Army 
South;  Chaplain  Timothy  C.  Tatum,  U.S.  Army  Pacific,  Chaplain  G.T.  Gunhus,  U.S.  Army  Europe, 
and  Chaplain  D  J  Donahue,  US  Forces  Korea 

On  the  Reserve  side  of  the  Chaplaincy,  Chaplain  David  W.  Hoh  was  the  Staff  Chaplain  at 
ARPERCEN;  Chaplain  Robert  E.  Lair,  Jr ,  was  the  Reserve  Affairs  Advisor  to  the  Chief;  Chaplain 
George  W  Schwantes  was  the  National  Guard  Bureau  Chaplain,  and  the  CONUSA  Chaplains  were 
Chaplain  Richard  L.  Adams  (First  Army),  Chaplain  Gerald  M.  Mangham  (Second  Army),  Chaplain 
Phillip  P  Cassibry  (Fourth  Army),  Chaplain  Michael  G.  Ortiz  (Fifth  Army),  and  Chaplain  Henry  L. 
Hunt  (Sixth  Army).^  The  Third  Army  Chaplain,  fi^om  the  U.S.  Army  Reserve,  was  Chaplain  Dan 

Within  the  Pentagon  at  other  commands  were  Chaplains  Jack  N.  Anderson  (ODCSPER), 
Thomas  R.  Smith  (The  Pentagon  Chaplain),  and  Meredith  R  Standley  (Executive  Director,  Armed 
Forces  Chaplains  Board)  The  senior  Army  chaplain  at  West  Point  was  Owen  J.  Mullen,  a  Roman 
Catholic  priest  from  the  Army  Reserve.  Chaplain  John  W.  Schumacher  served  on  the  faculty  of  the 
U.S.  Army  War  College.  Mrs.  Jody  Dunning  was  the  Chaplain  Corps'  Public  Affairs  Officer  at  the 
Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains. 

All  in  all,  as  General  Carl  Vuono,  the  Army  Chief  of  Staff,  promoted  Chaplain  Matthew  A. 
Zimmerman  to  Major  General  on  1  August  1990,  there  was  much  about  which  the  Chaplain  Corps 
could  be  pleased  and  proud.  In  his  first  address  to  the  Corps  on  1  August,  Chaplain  Zimmerman 

As  I  assume  the  role  as  your  Chief  of  Chaplains,  I'm  very  much  aware  of  both 
the  heavy  responsibility  that  is  mine,  and  the  many  decisions  which  lie  ahead 
for  me.  Before  Chaplain  Einertson  stepped  down  and  passed  the  mantle  to 
me,  I  was  quite  confident  that  I  knev/  the  answers,  or  at  least  the  directions 
the  Chaplaincy  needed  to  go.  Today  there's  a  different  complexion  on  it  all.* 

Chaplain  Zimmerman's  words  were  more  prophetic  than  perhaps  he  realized,  for  within  24  hours  of 
his  investiture  the  news  arrived  of  potentially  the  greatest  combat  operation  the  Army  had  faced  since 
Vietnam.  In  the  early  morning  hours  of  2  August,  some  100,000  Iraqi  troops  crossed  into  Kuwait.' 
It  would  not  be  long  before  American  soldiers  and  their  unit  ministry  teams  would  be  on  the  move 
and  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  and  his  staff  would  be  in  prayer  for  them  all. 

^See  Part  Two  for  more  information  on  the  role  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  in 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 



"Ch'er  the  past  months,  both  during  Operations  Desert  Shield  and  Desert  Storm,  the  ministry 
you  ha\>e  provided  has  been  absoUitely  awesome.  In  my  years  as  an  Army  Chaplain,  I  don 't  think 
I  have  ever  seen  the  Spirit  at  work  in  such  a  way. 

Chaplain  (Maj.  Gen.)  Matthew  A  Zimmerman 

Chief  of  Chaplains 
1  March  1991 

The  engines  of  war  had  scarcely  come  to  a  halt  in  the  Persian  Gulf  when  the  task  of  analyzing 
the  "Lessons  Learned"  began.  Chaplain  Donald  Shea,  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains,  was  the  driving 
force  behind  the  collection  of  materials  which  would  impact  on  Chaplain  Corps  mobilization  planning, 
religious  support  doctrine,  and  historic  appreciation  for  the  ministries  performed  not  only  in  the  desert 
but  in  supporting  commands  as  well.  Initially,  Chaplain  Gilbert  Pingel  from  PPDT  collected  and  read 
more  than  400  questionnaires  from  deployed  UMT  members.'  Chaplain  Calvin  Sydnor  compiled 
statements  from  VII  Corps  UMT  members  relating  to  every  phase  of  Operation  Desert  Shield/Desert 
Storm  Dr  William  Hourihan  at  the  Chaplain  School  conducted  oral  interviews  of  many  senior 
participants,  and  Chaplains  John  Rasmussen  and  Greg  Hill  went  to  Saudi  Arabia  to  gather  responses 
to  questions  from  active  and  Reserve  component  chaplains  alike.  Added  to  more  than  1 00  oral,  taped 
interviews  of  Desert  Shield/Desert  Storm  veterans  taken  during  the  writing  of  the  Chaplain  Corps 
history,  from  1993  to  1995,  the  Chaplaincy  had  done  a  creditable  job  in  documenting  its  religious 
support  efforts  during  the  Gulf  War. 

For  more  than  six  months,  March  to  September  of  1991,  hundreds  of  speeches  and  sermons 
delivered  by  chaplains  dwelled  on  the  military  and  religious  experiences  they  had  encountered  in  the 
Gulf  Chaplains  Zimmerman  and  Shea  found  the  statistics  of  great  interest  to  their  audiences  With 
529  unit  ministry  teams  in  Saudi  Arabia  in  February  of  1991,  the  ratio  of  chaplains  to  soldiers  was 
1 :530,  one  of  the  lowest  in  history.*  Of  the  495  Protestant  chaplains  deployed,  10  were  female,  a 
significant  but  not  a  large  number  in  comparison  to  the  40,000  women  of  all  services  who  deployed 
to  the  Gulf'  In  final  tally,  the  Reserve  components  furnished  49%  of  the  unit  ministry  teams  involved 
in  Operations  Desert  Shield/Desert  Storm  (included  backfill  missions  in  the  United  States  and 

There  were,  of  course,  "spin-offs"  from  the  lessons  of  the  Gulf  War.  In  spite  of  the  excellent 
performance  of  UMTs  in  the  desert.  Chaplain  Zimmerman  felt  that  there  were  some  areas  in  which 
the  Chaplaincy  could  be  improved  In  a  briefing  he  gave  for  unit  ministry  teams  in  Hawaii  and  Korea 
in  September  1991,  Chaplain  Zimmerman  noted:* 

1.  Data  on  religious  support  in  SWA  was  difficult  to  obtain  quickly  and  accurately. 

Sometimes  DACH,  FORSCOM,  and  ARCENT  had  different  numbers  to  report, 
principally  because  some  UMTs  passed  through  mobilization  stations  without 
reporting  to  the  installation  chaplains. 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


2.  Some  supervisory  chaplains  did  not  want  to  write  reports  because  "they  were  too 
busy  doing  ministry." 

3.  Some   supervisory  chaplains  must  be  more  aggressive  in  understanding  and 
implementing  mobilization  plans. 

4.  Logistics,  the  supply  of  essential  ecclesiastical  items  as  well  as  resupply  kits,  hymn 
players,  and  worship  materials,  must  be  improved. 

5.  Reunion  materials  and  a  viable  reunion  plan  must  be  part  of  the  pre-deployment 
preparation  and  planning. 

6.  Newly  commissioned  chaplains  must  be  school-trained;  they  must  not  be  mobilized 
and  deployed  until  they  are. 

In  order  to  address  some  of  the  issues.  Chaplain  Zimmerman  directed  a  review  of  the  DACH 
mobilization  policies  and  procedures  The  Chiefs  action  officers  reviewed  reports  from  Desert 
Shield,  the  UMT  Information  Handbook  on  Mobilization,  and  the  Army  study,  "Chaplain  UMT 
Religious  Coverage  during  Desert  Shield/Storm,"  and  made  recommendations  directly  to  him.' 

Among  the  measures  implemented  during  the  Gulf  War  to  address  problems  of  immediate 
concern  were:  1)  the  standardization  of  mobilization  and  contingency  planning  for  UMTs  throughout 
the  Army,  2)  the  addition  of  chaplain  Mobilization  TDA  (MOBTDA)  spaces  at  Casualty  Assistance 
Centers,  3)  the  design  and  requirements  for  chaplains  to  serve  on  Crisis  Ministry  Teams,  4)  the 
development  of  multi-faith  meals  for  soldiers  with  special  religious  dietary  needs,  and  5)  the 
development  of  a  new  chaplain  kit  for  Protestants  and  Catholics.  These  "combat  contributions"  were 
among  the  fastest  and  best  responses  in  Chaplain  Corps  history  to  the  needs  of  a  single  operational 

Using  The  B  Word 

"The  big  word  in  the  Army  is  BUDGET. 

Budget  is  driving  force  structure. 

Budget  is  driving  personnel  and  strength. 

Budget  end  strength  Jlgures  are  revised  constantly.  " 

Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 

Fort  Carson  Update 


Although  Operations  Just  Cause  (1989)  and  Desert  Shield/Desert  Storm  (1990-91)  had 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


provided  models  for  how  the  Army  would  fight  in  the  future,  they  were  from  a  budgetary  viewpoint 
actually  "intermissions"  in  a  larger  political  process.  The  end  of  the  Cold  War,  with  the  resulting 
mandate  by  Congress  to  reduce  the  size  of  American  military  forces  by  20  to  25%  in  order  to  shrink 
the  deficit  and  redirect  funding  to  other  areas  of  the  economy,  was  the  irrepressible  historical  catalyst 
of  the  1990s  for  the  Department  of  Defense.  In  1991  the  Defense  Authorization  bill  set  the  end 
strength  slope  for  the  Army  which  would  reduce  the  active  force  from  710,000  soldiers  and  18 
divisions  to  535,000  soldiers  and  12  divisions  in  FY  1995.  While  Operations  Desert  Shield/Desert 
Storm  delayed  the  attainment  of  the  FY  91  end  strength,  the  Army  was  back  "on  slope"  in  FY  92." 
The  parallel  "slope"  for  the  Chaplain  Corps  would  decline  from  1,551  chaplains  and  1,597  chaplain 
assistants  on  active  duty  in  1991  to  1,212  chaplains  and  1,128  chaplain  assistants  in  1996.'^  Even 
these  figures  were  subject  to  flirther  revision.  As  Chaplain  Hugh  Dukes  observed  at  the  Chiefs 
Office  in  1992:  "the  Office  of  the  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  for  Personnel  is  currently  working  on 
Notional  Force  24.  They  have  cranked  out  that  many  notional  forces  since  January  of  1990,  better 
than  one  a  month."'^ 

The  Chaplaincy's  plans  for  the  fliture,  therefore,  called  for  a  ministry  in  a  smaller,  more 
CONUS-based  and  financially  constrained  Army  Garrison  staffing  would  face  cutbacks  and 
increased  civilianization.  Unit  chaplains  would  have  to  assume  more  family  life  ministry 
responsibilities.  The  composition  of  the  Army  would  be  expected  to  change  as  well.  In  1991  the 
Army  Personnel  Command  recorded  148  different  religious  preference  codes  for  soldiers.  Chaplains 
on  active  duty  represented  1 1 1  distinctive  faith  groups.  '^  The  Army  was  63%  white  and  89%  male. 
The  Department  of  Defense  Task  Force  on  Human  Resource  Management  estimated  that  by  the  year 
2000,  85%  of  the  new  entrants  to  the  national  work  force  would  be  women,  minorities,  handicapped, 
and  immigrants."  Presumably  the  Chaplaincy  would  in  the  fijture  have  to  plan  for  a  more  diverse 
environment  for  ministry. 

Among  the  assets  available  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  to  help  meet  operational  requirements 
were  the  Reserve  component  unit  ministry  teams.  By  mid- 1991,  53%  of  the  Total  Army's  chaplain 
personnel  and  55%  of  the  chaplain  assistants  were  in  the  National  Guard  or  U.S.  Army  Reserve. 
Chaplain  James  M  Hutchens,  ARNG,  Special  Assistant  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  wrote  in  May  of 
1991  that  "a  renewed  emphasis  on  the  quality  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants,"  accessioned, 
trained,  and  retained,  would  produce  "the  most  professionally  competent,  technically  proficient,  and 
cohesively  trained  Unit  Ministry  Team  in  the  history  of  the  Chaplain  Corps.""" 

As  with  the  active  duty  component,  however,  the  Reserve  Components  had  to  be  conscious 
of  federal  budget  constraints  since  they  too  would  be  reducing  their  total  end  strength.  In  an  effort 
to  give  the  U.S.  Army  Reserve  more  control  over  the  training,  funding,  and  administration  of  their 
programs,  which  affected  700,000  soldiers.  Congressman  G.  V.  "Sonny"  Montgomery  of  Mississippi 
initiated  the  concept  of  a  new  Army  headquarters — the  U.S.  Army  Reserve  Command  (US  ARC). 
The  new  command,  located  initially  at  Fort  McPherson,  Georgia,  began  operation  in  June  of  1991 ." 

Chaplain  William  L  Hufham,  just  returning  from  the  Gulf  War,  was  selected  to  be  the  first 
USARC  chaplain  Among  his  other  duties.  Chaplain  Hufham  was  given  the  responsibility  for  setting 
up  his  office,  forming  his  staff,  and  writing  the  tasks  and  flinctions  mission  statement  for  the  USARC 
Chaplain's  Section    Chaplain  Hufham's  staff  consisted  of  his  Deputy  Command  Chaplain  Stephen 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


W.  Leonard,  the  first  USAR  chaplain  to  graduate  from  the  U.S.  Army  War  College;  his 
Administrative  Chaplain  Steve  Parker,  just  back  from  Korea,  and  Sergeant  Major  Rudy  Naylor.  Ms. 
Linda  Vaughn  was  the  secretary  for  the  US  ARC  Chaplain.'* 

The  major  tasks  and  functions  the  USARC  Chaplain  performed  included  overseeing  the 
funding,  personnel  administration  (including  accessioning,  promotion  boards  and  assignments),  and 
training  policy  and  design  for  USAR  unit  ministry  teams.  The  CONUSA  Chaplains  (1st,  2nd,  3rd, 
4th,  5th,  and  6th  U.S.  Armies)  were  responsible  for  the  training,  evaluation  and  mobilization  of 
chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  serving  in  troop  units." 

The  USARC  Commander  in  August,  Major  General  Roger  Sandler,  was  triple-hatted  as  the 
USARC  Commander,  the  Senior  Reserve  Advisor  to  the  FORSCOM  Commander,  and  the  Chief  of 
the  U.S.  Army  Reserve  in  Washington,  DC  Major  General  Max  Baratz  succeeded  General  Sandler 
in  1993  after  USARC  moved  to  East  Point,  Georgia.^" 

In  due  course  Chaplain  Leonard  succeeded  Chaplain  Hufham  as  the  USARC  Chaplain  when 
Chaplain  Hufham  was  selected  to  attend  the  U.S.  Army  War  College  in  1992.''  Chaplain  Steve 
Leonard's  responsibilities  for  ministry  in  1993  included  support  for  21  Army  Reserve  Commands, 
nine  training  divisions,  five  exercise  divisions  and  13  flinctional  commands.^^ 

Personnel,  Policy  and  Program  Reflnements 

Throughout  1991,  as  had  been  the  case  with  all  previous  Chiefs  of  Chaplains,  Chaplain 
Zimmerman  refined  and  updated  many  of  the  policies  and  programs  he  had  inherited.  In  addition, 
there  were  significant  personnel  changes  to  fill  vacancies  caused  by  retirements,  promotions,  and 
opportunities  for  training.  The  old  Command  Chaplains  Conference  was  re-named  the  Chief  of 
Chaplains  Unit  Ministry  Team  Conference  and  expanded  to  include  a  significant  number  of  Reserve 
component  participants.'''  In  May  of  1991  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  accepted  coordination 
responsibilities  for  the  Army's  Family  Member  Suicide  Prevention  Program. 

A  new  Noncommissioned  Officer  Leader  Associate  Degree  (NCO  LEAD)  Program  was 
inaugurated  for  chaplain  assistants  completing  advanced  individual  training.-^  In  June  Chaplain 
Zimmerman  reiterated  Chief  of  Chaplains  Policy  Number  25:  "that  every  chaplain  on  active  duty, 
assigned  to  a  TOE  or  TDA  unit  with  responsibility  for  ministry  to  soldiers  and  family  members  will 
conduct  a  religious  service  at  least  once  each  week  for  members  of  the  unit  or  activity  to  which  he 
(she)  is  assigned."^'  The  intent  of  this  policy,  founded  in  Title  10  of  the  U.S.  Code,  was  to  put  the 
highest  priority  on  ministry  to  soldiers  and  family  members  at  the  installations  to  which  they  were 

One  of  the  key  policy  developments  in  the  Chaplaincy  from  1991  through  1994  involved  the 
drafting  and  approval  of  a  written  policy  for  chaplain  personnel  actions — from  accessioning  through 
retirement.  As  early  as  1990,  Chaplain  John  Scott,  Director  of  Personnel  and  Ecclesiastical  Relations, 
proposed  a  formal  policy,  staffed  with  PERSCOM,  for  personnel  actions  Chaplain  Jerry  Black, 
formerly  the  assignments  officer  in  "PER,"  wrote  his  major  Army  War  College  paper  on  Chaplain 
Corps  personnel  policies.   In  1992  various  parts  of  a  draft  policy  were  refined  by  action  officers  at 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 

Chaplain   John   C.    Scott 

Chaplain    Timothy  C.    Tatum 


DACH  including  Chaplains  W.  D  Goldman,  Winfield  D  Buzby,  and  Janet  Y  Horton  In 
September  of  1992,  Chaplain  Goldman  staffed  two  chapters  of  a  proposed  policy  'Smart  Book"  with 
MACOM  assignment  officers  including  Chaplain  Jack  Anderson  fi"om  USAREUR,  Chaplain  John 
McRae  fi-om  Korea,  Chaplain  Greg  Hill  from  Hawaii,  Chaplain  Malcolm  Roberts  from  TRADOC, 
and  others."  By  June  of  1993  the  Personnel  Policy  Committee  included  13  members'*  In  August 
of  1993  Chaplain  George  Pejakovich,  who  had  succeeded  Chaplain  B.F.  Nass  as  Director  of  PER, 
directed  a  field  test  for  the  complete  nine  chapter  document,  DA  Circular  165-93-1,  Chief  of 
Chaplains  Personnel  Policy."'' 

In  the  area  of  personnel  assignments  there  were  some  important  changes  in  1991 .  Chaplain 
John  Scott,  formerly  the  Director  of  PER,  retired  in  June.  Chaplain  B.  F.  Nass  was  assigned  as  the 
new  Director  of  PER.  Chaplain  James  Edgren,  Director  of  Information,  Resource  Management  and 
Logistics,  retired  in  September,  succeeded  by  Chaplain  Timothy  C.  Tatum.  Chaplain  Henry  E.  Wake 
assumed  the  position  of  Executive  Officer,  exchanging  jobs  with  Chaplain  Wayne  E.  Kuehne  who 
became  (again)  the  Director  of  Plans,  Policy  Development  and  Training  Chaplain  James  Jones,  a 
Roman  Catholic  priest,  was  assigned  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  Office  as  the  Logistics  Officer.'" 

Chaplain  Donald  L.  Davison  replaced  Chaplain  Meredith  R  Standley  as  Executive  Director, 
Armed  Forces  Chaplain  Board,  Office  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense.  Chaplain  Thomas  R.  Smith 
assumed  duties  as  Deputy  Director,  US  Army  Chaplaincy  Services  Support  Agency,  replacing 
Chaplain  Herman  Keizer,  Jr ,  who  entered  the  Class  of  1991,  U.S.  Army  War  College. 

On  the  retiree  list  for  October  1,  1991,  were  Chaplains  William  F.  Bateman  fi-om  Eisenhower 
Army  Medical  Center;  Max  E.  Burgin  fi"om  Walter  Reed  AMC;  Ocie  I  Courtney,  Jr  ,  from  Fort 
Hood,  Robert  R.  Covington,  Jr  ,  formerly  the  Assistant  Academy  Chaplain  at  West  Point;  John  A. 
DeVeaux,  Jr ,  the  Chaplaincy's  first  African- American  corps  chaplain;  and  Gaylord  E.  Hatler, 
formerly  the  ARCENT  Command  Staff  Chaplain  during  Operation  Desert  Shield/Desert  Storm. 

Outside  of  the  continental  United  States,  Chaplain  Anthony  M.  Imberi  was  assigned  in  1991 
as  the  dual-hatted  USARSO/SOUTHCOM  Chaplain  in  Panama,  and  Chaplain  Elvemice  "Sonny" 
Davis  completed  a  tour  as  the  only  Combined  Field  Army  Staff  Chaplain  in  the  military  at  Uijongbu, 
Korea. ^'  In  Germany  the  USAREUR  Chaplain'sstaff  met  with  ecclesiastical  and  military  officials 
from  Poland,  Romania,  Czechoslovakia  and  Hungary  to  advise  them  concerning  their  efforts  to 
establish  military  chaplaincies  in  their  own  countries.^' 

In  Korea,  which  constituted  the  last  vestige  of  the  Communist  threat,  there  were  still 
rumblings  of  anti-American  sentiment.  In  North  Korea  there  were  complaints,  which  had  been 
repeated  intermittently  for  more  than  40  years,  of  U.N.  cease  fire  violations,  especially  at  the  DMZ. 
In  South  Korea  students  occasionally  would  riot,  especially  in  the  spring,  in  protest  over  some 
government  policy  which  supposedly  reflected  evil  American  business  or  diplomatic  interests. 

In  May  of  1991,  for  example,  some  75,000  students  went  on  a  rampage  through  Seoul,  only 
to  be  met  by  85,000  members  of  regular  and  special  units  of  South  Korean  riot  police.  Chaplain 
James  A.  Durham,  assigned  to  the  8th  Army  Chaplain's  Office,  was  caught  on  a  bus  in  the  midst  of 
one  such  riot."  Directed  to  a  hotel  already  filled  with  tear  gas.  Chaplain  Durham  spent  a  most 
uncomfortable  evening  as  the  street  fighting  raged  back  and  forth  outside  the  building.  Usually, 
however,  agreements  were  made  after  a  while  between  the  police  and  the  students  and  the  protests 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


would  die  down  until  the  next  student  vacation.  By  Korean  War  standards,  the  protests  were  mere 
safety  valve  expressions  of  a  democracy  still  in  late  natal  stages.  As  a  potential  opportunity  for 
terrorists,  however,  such  demonstrations  still  warranted  a  close  watch.  As  Chaplain  Cecil  Ryland, 
Protestant  pastor  and  staff  chaplain  of  the  34th  Support  Group,  observed:  "We  had  demonstrations 
almost  every  weekend  in  1992.  We  had  worn  out  our  welcome  after  the  Olympics  of  1988."'*''  The 
young  generation  of  Koreans  wanted  its  emerging  prosperity  to  be  free  of  all  foreign 
influences — including  that  of  the  United  States. 

By  the  end  of  1991  the  major  military  threats  to  the  security  of  the  United  States  had 
diminished.  The  United  States  and  the  Soviet  Union  had  signed  a  Strategic  Arms  Reduction  Treaty 
before  the  latter  country  fragmented  into  its  constituencies.  The  military  forces  of  Iraq  had  been 
driven  out  of  Kuwait  in  a  conflised  rout.  Yet  in  Third  World  countries  there  were  pressures  which 
were  leading  to  confrontation  and  conflict.  In  1991  Serbian  forces  invaded  Croatia,  and  in  Haiti 
hundreds  of  Aristide  supporters  fled  to  the  sea  in  boats.  At  U.S.  Forces  Command,  the  modem  era 
of  "operations  other  than  war"  took  form  with  Joint  Task  Force  Guantanamo  in  November  and 
December  of  1991.' 

From  California  to  Croatia: 

Rotating  Ministries  in  a  Switchback  Year 


Upoti  arrival  in  South  Florida  yon  con  Id  fee  I  a  cloud  of  shock  atid  depression.  I  had 
never  experienced  such  devastation.  Over  2, 000  soldiers  from  F'  COSCOM  were  deployed 
to  provide  fuel,  trucks,  maintenance,  medical  sen>ices,  laundry  and  baths  fro  the  X17II 
Airborne  Corps  soldiers  and  disaster  victims.  Many  lessons  on  flexibility  and  readiness  were 
learned  in  the  deployment  of  combat  forces  for  humanitarian  aid  ... 

Staff  Sergeant  Judy  Pukansky 

Chaplain  Assistant,  1"  COSCOM 

Joint  Task  Force  Andrew,  1992 

In  some  mountainous  areas  of  the  United  States  there  are  roads  which  go  directly  down  a 
mountain  side  in  a  series  of  "switchbacks."  The  path  will  go  in  one  direction  for  a  half  mile  and  then 
make  several  270°  turns  back  and  forth  to  zig-zag  to  the  bottom.  In  a  sense,  the  history  of  ministry 
in  the  Army  in  1992  involved  a  series  of  changes  in  direction,  though  not  so  often  in  theory  or 
doctrine  as  in  mission  and  geography.  From  May  of  1 992  through  July  of  1 994,  Chaplain  Corps  unit 
ministry  teams  were  deployed  to  California,  Florida,  Hawaii,  the  Midwest,  Croatia,  Antarctica, 
Somalia,  Macedonia,  Jordan,  Saudi  Arabia,  Kuwait,  and  Cuba,  among  other  locations.  Missions  for 
the  Army  in  these  "operations  other  than  war"  ranged  from  humanitarian  relief  to  peace  enforcement 

^See  Part  Two  for  more  information  on  the  role  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  in 
Joint  Task  Force  Guantanamo 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


to  preparation  for  combat.  In  some  cases  the  variety  of  missions  pushed  the  envelope  of  doctrine  and 
experience  with  specific  community  restoration/nation  building/law  enforcement  challenges 

In  the  midst  of  these  constant  deployment  requirements,  which  kept  U.S.  Forces  Command 
exceptionally  busy  with  often  overlapping  missions,  the  Chaplain  Corps  attempted  to  perform  its 
normal  ftmctional  duties  of  religious  support,  doctrinal  development,  training  and  evaluation  both  in 
CONUS  and  overseas.  The  description  of  these  efforts  of  "flexible  response"  to  the  needs  of  the 
Army  is  truly  a  picture  of  juggling  diminishing  resources  to  meet  an  increasing  number  of  overseas 
contingency  requirements^'  while  continuing  to  conduct  "business  as  usual"  at  home. 

Building  Foundations: 
The  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Chaplains 

In  the  spring  of  1992  the  Directorate  of  Information,  Resource  Management  and  Logistics 
completed  contracting  requirements  for  pending  chapel  center  construction  for  several  new  religious 
facilities.  From  1990  to  1991,  some  13  new  chapels,  religious  education  facilities,  and  family  life 
centers  had  been  built  or  contracted.  A  new  standard  design  for  small  unit  chapels  was  approved  as 
well  as  a  plan  for  replacing  World  War  II  wooden  chapels  with  the  mission  designation  "Project 

Another  "new"  development  in  building  for  the  future  was  the  assignment  of  Sergeant  Major 
Thomas  J.  Prost,  Jr.,  as  the  Senior  Enlisted  Advisor  to  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  on  May  1 ,  as  Sergeant 
Major  Oliver  T.  "Irish"  Corbett  retired.  Among  Sergeant  Major  Prost's  objectives  and  interests 
were  total  support  for  chaplain  assistants  leaving  active  duty,  compiling  a  history  of  chaplain 
assistants  in  the  Total  Army,  and  facilitating  the  opportunities  Active  and  Reserve  Component 
chaplain  assistants  to  train  and  work  together.^' 

Chaplain  Zimmerman  had  a  high  regard  for  the  work  chaplain  assistants  performed  and 
particularly  for  the  dedicated  service  Sergeant  Major  Oliver  "Irish"  Corbett  had  modeled  during  his 
career.  At  Sergeant  Major  Corbett's  retirement.  Chaplain  Zimmerman  spoke  of  Corbett's 

Sergeant  Major  Oliver  "Irish"  Corbett  is  regarded  as  a  totally  professional  soldier,  "a 
lifetime  member  of  the  Corps."  Always  his  concern  has  been  for  the  soldier.  The 
Chief  and  Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains  have  relied  on  him  for  ideas.  As  a  team  NCO 
he  has  worked  closely  with  the  Command  Sergeant  Major  at  USACHCS  to  present 
a  positive,  unified  approach  on  enlisted  issues.  Most  importantly.  Sergeant  Major 
Corbett  has  not  only  espoused  but  modeled  Unit  Ministry  Team  doctrine.  Ireland's 
loss  was  truly  America's  gain  when  an  18-year-old  from  County  Galway  decided  to 
"adopt"  America.  It  is  we,  the  U.S.  Army  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  who  have 
had  the  "Luck  of  the  Irish"  when  you  decided  to  adopt  us.^* 

Sergeant  Major  Corbett,  one  of  the  original  committee  members  who  had  developed  the  unit  ministry 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 

Sergeant  Major  Oliver    "Irish"   Corbett 

Sergeant  Major    Thomas    J.    Prost 


team  concept  at  the  Chaplain  School  in  1 984,  had  indeed  demonstrated  personally  how  teamwork 
could  work  throughout  the  Chaplain  Corps. 

Two  days  after  Sergeant  Major  Prost  assumed  his  duties.  Chaplain  Zimmerman  addressed  a 
conference  on  "Ethical  Dilemmas  in  Military  Health  Care"  in  San  Antonio,  Texas.  Recalling  that  U.S. 
Army  hospitals  had  included  chaplains  on  their  staffs  since  1862,  Chaplain  Zimmerman  pointed  out 
that  "Army  chaplains  were  instrumental  in  identifying  the  needs  that  resulted  in  the  establishment  of 
such  institutions  as  the  Army  Community  Service,  the  Drug  and  Alcohol  Abuse  Prevention  Program, 
and  the  Family  Advocacy  Program."^'  Army  chaplains  and  health  care  providers  had  worked  together 
in  MEDCENs,  MEDDACs  and  field  hospitals  as  a  team  to  recognize  the  unique  skills  and  talents 
each  member  contributes  to  the  healing  of  the  patient  and  to  the  welfare  of  the  other  team  members. 
"Army  chaplains  are  involved  in  health  care  and  clinical  ethics  in  two  ways,"  Chaplain  Zimmerman 
observed.  "First,  chaplains  have  had  an  important  role  in  initiating  and  participating  in  health  care 
ethics  education  opportunities  for  the  staffs  of  our  MEDCENs  and  MEDDACs.  These  have  been 
interdisciplinary  efforts  which  brought  physicians,  nurses,  chaplains,  attorneys,  administrators,  and 
allied  health  providers  together  to  identify,  discuss,  and  resolve  key  patient  care  ethical  issues.  The 
Ethical  Dilemmas  and  the  Health  Care  Provider  Team  on  the  Battlefield  Conference,  held  in  1990, 
and  this  course  are  examples  of  chaplain-initiated  ethics  training."'*" 

Army  chaplains  had  educated  themselves  also  in  the  principles  of  health  care  ethics  and  the 
resolution  of  ethical  dilemmas  at  the  bedside.  In  1992  Chaplain  Rick  D.  Matthis  became  the  first 
chaplain  to  complete  a  one-year,  full-funded  Masters  Degree  program  in  clinical  ethics  Chaplain 
Matthis  was  assigned  to  the  Army  Medical  Department  Center  and  School  as  the  heahh  care  and 
clinical  ethics  instructor  for  the  AMEDD  Chaplain  David  M  DeDonato,  who  had  been  a  pioneer 
in  the  development  of  educational  programs  in  medical  ethics  since  1988,  was  assigned  by  Chaplain 
Zimmerman  to  be  the  Chaplain  Clinical  Ethicist  at  Walter  Reed  Army  Medical  Center.*' 

Another  of  Chaplain  Zimmerman's  initiatives  in  the  field  of  innovative  ethics  instruction  was 
the  nomination  and  assignment  of  Chaplain  Thomas  H.  Norton  as  the  Director  of  Ethical 
Development  Programs  at  the  U.S.  Army  War  College.  A  graduate  of  Princeton  Theological 
Seminary  with  a  Doctorate  of  Ministry  degree  from  San  Francisco  Theological  Seminary,  Chaplain 
Norton  had  served  two  tours  in  Vietnam  as  both  a  battalion  and  a  brigade  chaplain.  In  1984-85  he 
was  the  25th  Infantry  Division  StaflF Chaplain  in  Hawaii  and  in  1988  the  I  Corps  and  Installation  Staff 
Chaplain  at  Fort  Lewis,  Washington  Chaplain  Norton  was  graduated  fi'om  the  Army  War  College 
in  1988  and  became  in  1992  the  sixth  chaplain  to  serve  on  the  faculty  of  the  Army  War  College  at 
Carlisle  Barracks.*" 

Operation  Garden  Plot: 
The  Los  Angeles  Riots 

On  April  30,  1992  the  670th  Military  Police  Company,  California  National  Guard,  deployed 
to  Los  Angeles  to  assist  local  law  enforcement  authorities  in  dealing  with  riots  which  produced  vivid 
images  of  a  potential  race  war  with  both  Rodney  King,  an  African- American,  and  Reginald  Denny, 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


a  Caucasian,  beaten  almost  to  death  by  police  officers  and  rioting  citizens  respectively.  By  May  3, 
some  60  people  were  reported  killed  in  the  riots.  More  than  2,200  were  injured,  9,400  people  had 
been  arrested,  5,000  buildings  had  been  damaged,  and  20,000  other  people  were  out  of  work.''^ 
Damages  were  estimated  in  excess  of  a  billion  dollars.  President  Bush  allocated  $700  million  in 
federal  funds  to  help  South  Central  Los  Angeles  riot  victims.^^ 

The  49th  Military  Police  Brigade  and  members  of  the  40th  Division,  California  National 
Guard,  backed  up  by  soldiers  from  Fort  Ord's  7th  Infantry  Division,  rendered  excellent  service  in 
controlling  looting  and  in  discouraging  further  violence  by  the  estimated  100,000  gang  members  in 
Los  Angeles."*'  "Strong  animosity  prevailed  between  the  gangs  and  the  Guard,"  said  Chaplain  Gary 
Coad,  a  senior  Guard  chaplain.*''  In  spite  of  the  high  emotions  evident,  the  Guard  and  active  duty 
chaplains  from  the  7th  Infantry  Division,  led  by  Chaplain  Dou^as  Wooten,  executed  their  duties  well. 
Chaplain  Matthew  Zimmerman  told  a  Reserve  Training  conference  audience  in  1992;  "The  California 
Army  National  Guard  UMTs  performed  laudable  duty  on  short  notice."*'  Given  the  instances  when 
soldiers  were  "shot  at,  harassed,  and  provoked,  they  showed  outstanding  discipline  and  control."** 

The  ashes  of  the  Los  Angeles  riots  had  barely  cooled  and  the  businesses  scarcely  reopened 
when  a  different  kind  of  disaster  occurred  on  the  east  coast  of  the  United  States.  Again,  Reserve  and 
active  component  Army  units  responded,  this  time  to  a  Presidential  and  Department  of  Defense 
imperative  when  Hurricane  Andrew  struck  southern  Florida.  *'  ^ 

More  Innovations 

One  of  our  shortcoming  in  the  Chaplain  Corps  is  that  we  fail  to  tell  our  story. ^^ 

Chaplain  (Brig.  Gen  )  Donald  W  Shea 

Deputy  Chief  of  Chaplains 

1  September  1992 

As  fiscal  year  1 992  drew  to  a  close,  several  new  initiatives  came  to  fruition  which  held  a  good 
deal  of  future  promise  for  the  Chaplain  Corps  In  August  the  Chief  of  Chaplains  established  a  UMT 
Reserve  Advisory  Council  (RAC)  to  identify  and  resolve  Reserve  issues  The  Deputy  Chief  of 
Chaplains  chaired  the  Council.  Among  the  topical  issues  discussed  were  force  structure, 
mobilization,  deployment  and  redeployment,  demobilization,  accessioning  the  force  and  unit  ministry 
team  training. 

A  new  TDA  for  the  US  Army  Recruiting  Command,  headquartered  at  Fort  Knox,  Kentucky, 
placed  chaplains  in  each  recruiting  region  to  help  Army  recruiters  and  their  families  deal  with  stresses 
involved  in  meeting  recruiting  quotas  Chaplain  Dwane  L  Ferguson  served  as  the  first  Command 
Staff  Chaplain.    As  support  for  Army  recruiters  stationed  in  remote  areas  in  the  United  States,  a 

See  Part  Two  for  more  information  on  the  role  of  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  in 
Joint  Task  Force  Andrew 

See  endnotes  at  end  of  chapter. 


Reserve  Chaplain  Support  Program  was  instituted  to  furnish  pastoral  and  counseling  ministries. 
Chaplains  Lamar  Hunt,  James  Rennell,  and  Larry  Racster  at  ARPERCEN  maintained  a  roster  of  500 
Individual  Ready  Reserve  (IRR)  chaplains  who  were  available  for  this  duty.  Reserve  retirement 
points  were  awarded  to  IRR  chaplains  who  performed  counseling,  baptisms,  marriages,  or  other 
ministerial  services  for  Army  recruiters. '' 

The  Chief  of  Chaplains  inaugurated  a  chaplain  training  program  to  help  train  chaplains  as 
coordinators  for  the  Army's  Soldier  Suicide  Prevention  Program  as  outlined  in  Army  Regulation 
600-63.  Some  163  chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  completed  the  first  iteration  of  training  at  the 
Menninger  Clinic  on  18  September  1992.  The  focus  of  the  soldier  suicide  prevention  training  was 
on  officers  and  NCOs.  The  nature  of  the  program  was  multi-disciplinary  to  include  participation  by 
psychiatrists,  psychologists,  social  workers,  emergency  room  staff,  ward  nurses  and  chaplains. 
Chaplains  and  chaplain  assistants  also  emphasized  programs  to  prevent  morale  problems  and  to  help 
soldiers  cope  with  stress  and  disappointment." 

In  another  type  of  assistance  effort.  Chaplain  William  Clark  and  his  staff  at  Fort  Sam  Houston, 
Texas,  established  a  mentor